Odp’s are….Operating Department Practice training and education has progressed quite rapidly and from a City and Guilds qualification to NVQ level 3, Diploma of HE and of 27 Higher Education Institutions 22 are to move over to provide the degree, some are either running the degree Programme or in the process of validating . This will involve uplifting from Diplomate to graduate status on completion. HPC identify in their Stds of Proficiencies skills required for ODP’s and this is mirrored in other healthcare professions.The SOP’s require ODPs to engage with and recognise the need for evidence based practice and examining practice with a critical mind. The ability to critically evaluate different research methodologies is fundamental so that care is delivered based on the best available evidence to inform practice from an enquiring and knowledgeable Practitioner.Curriculum document highlights the need for critical Pracs….Equity and excellence white Paper DoH – recent white paper
The philosophy behind the new graduate curriculum is for the ODP to be able to inherently develop the study of research methods and associated skills.
Critical Thinking – Critical thinking skills fostered through research study are essential
Several reasons are identified as causes of difficulty and disengagement: Difficulty – Students often find the subject difficult and disengage with the learning process. A study by Lofmark and Thorell-Ekstrand concluded that students find it to be both the most difficult and least important component of their degree. Exceeding Ability – Sakalys proposed in the 80s that if curriculum expectations exceed the students cognitive capacity or if material is beyond the developmental level of the student – intellectual shutdown and withdrawal may occur. Stress – Difficulty and disengagement result in stress to the student, which can have a range of consequences eg. Potential Attrition
Several reasons are identified as causes of difficulty and disengagement: Indirect Application – The literature highlights that research is often viewed by students as being ‘academically abstract’ - a lonesome module, with little and/or questionable application towards other modules of study and/or their degree subject. As a result, they question its place and usefulness in their degree.Subject Devaluation – Students often devalue the subject and prefer to study subjects that they deem to have more practical relevance eg. A&P in medical courses. Many students view the module as a ‘means to an end’ and discard knowledge acquired, upon passing the module.Surface learning – When the teaching of a subject is presented in a very theoretical manner students fail to see the relevance to practice and thus adopt this “surface approach” to learning. Students will engage sufficiently to pass the assessments but will have no intention of applying it to their practice.(Adoption of surface learning approach to pass the module but with no further application (Johnson et al 2010)
Pedagogy – Didactic and passive methods of teaching often result in subject disengagement and shut-down.Transition - With the diverse range of students now enrolled in University; broad age range, diverse educational background, some students find the lecture and seminar format of teaching difficult to adapt to having come form school or FE establishments.
Research is often viewed as a foreign language In Cardiff the students undertaking the Dip HE in ODP typically fail to connect with the research modules of the Programme which echoes what is said in the literature.The modules are evaluated less positively than others/poor, the majority of which are practical in nature and consequentially has a higher failure rate than other modules which are more practical and clinically related.Since 2005 we have worked to co-ordinate and run the research modules offered within the Department. Research engagement can be problematic and as such is often reflected in the success/failure of achievement of learning outcomes of the module. The challenge that we have – How can we encourage and promote a deep approach to learning of research (module) so that students are able to understand the concepts and impart the knowledge and skills learnt to evaluate and question practice to deliver best care.In our opinion research and its associated concepts need breaking down…. Research needs to be made fun, glamorised so that students can romanticise about how research and its greatness – this may be more than it actually is to the majority but needs to be adequate in order to pass the module!
From our experience at Cardiff, the key to success is to ‘think outside the box’. Research methods requires both translation and innovation. Content must be deconstructed and its application made explicit to students, thereby ‘translating’ the subject. Moreover, in order to maximise learning opportunities, a range of creative strategies should be utilised – with the aim of innovating subject matter.
Make the links explicit from different colleagues in practice about research they have undertaken and how it is achievable., the results and rewards of the research.Giving ownership of learning and the module to the student through VLE (uploading lectures, module quizzes, wiki’s), self-directed/independent learning to increase knowledge and then student driven workshops. Want students to utilise theoretical skills learnt by conducting research/SE etc relevant to clinical area to ensure application and utilisation of research knowledge and skills. (could be Lr/v also)Using UG students to conduct research (driven by SOHCS/CU) which is embedded in clinical practice as this can provide support and tangible results for the student and the mentor/supervisor.
Research engagement - Thinking outside the box
Research Engagement:“Thinking Outside the Box”Ben Stanfield-Davies & Paula J StrongCardiff University<br />
Background <br />Profile and qualification<br />HPC (2008) SOP’s – <br />“value of research to critical evaluation of practice,” “engage with EBP.”<br />Need for critical Practitioners (CODP, 2011)<br />Equity and excellence: Liberating the NHS (2010)…<br />
The Graduate Curriculum<br />“The ODP graduate will be able to evaluate evidence, arguments and assumptions, reaching sound judgements, and effectively communicating within their sphere of practice” <br />(CODP, 2011)<br />
Research Methods in Undergraduate Curricula<br />“Critical thinking skills are essential for any educated individuals” (Popil, 2011)<br />Research literacy is an essential pre-requisite for knowledge-led practice (Tetley & Glover, 1999)<br />
Difficulty & Disengagement <br />Difficulty<br /><ul><li>Students are often overwhelmed and find the learning process of research stressful and the creation of research text difficult (Mattila & Eriksson, 2007)
“Use of knowledge from research to be both the most difficult and the least important in clinical education” (Lofmark & Thorell-Ekstrand, 2000)
Expected skills can exceed student ability resulting in ‘Intellectual Shutdown’ and Withdrawal (Sakalys, 1984)
Theoretical content and lack of understanding are sources of stress (Ax & Kincade, 2001)
Student disengagement (Benson & Blackman, 2003)</li></li></ul><li>Difficulty & Disengagement <br />Indirect Application<br /><ul><li>Perceptual link between research methods and its application is often poor (Benson & Blackman, 2003)
Students question its usefulness (Ax & Kincade, 2001)</li></ul>Subject Devaluation<br /><ul><li>Students devalue research and prefer to study topics that they deem to be ‘more important’ (Bengtsson & Ohlsson, 2010; Bjorkstrom, 2003)
Many students focus on ‘passing the compulsory research module’ and then forget what they have learned (Johnson et al, 2010; Ax & Kincade, 2001)</li></li></ul><li>Difficulty & Disengagement <br />Pedagogy<br />Students are often disillusioned with research teaching due to the way it is taught (Ax & Kincade, 2001)<br />Transition from other educational establishments to University with different teaching styles problematic (Johnson et al, 2010)<br />
The Local Context<br />Research = Foreign Language<br />Problems mirror the literature<br />Student evaluations…<br />Higher failure rate than its clinical counterparts<br />Attempts to encourage research engagement within our student population <br />“The Challenge” – Create and develop an environment that promotes deep learning<br />
Translation & Innovation<br />Need to think ‘Outside the Box’<br />‘Translate’ & ‘Innovate’ the Subject<br />Creative T&L Strategies<br />Abstract methods<br />PBL<br />Blended learning<br />Student-centred workshops<br />
Progression & Development<br />Creating ‘synergy’ between research and clinical practice (Vessey and DeMarco, 2008)<br />Changing the teacher-student dynamic<br />‘Hands on’ experience <br />
Summary<br />Research is an essential requirement within undergraduate curricula.<br />Difficulty and disengagement remains a universal dilemma.<br />The authors in accordance with the literature suggest the use of innovative strategies that stimulate students, promote engagement and foster deep learning.<br />
“The Function of Education is to Teach One to think Intensively and to think Critically”<br />(Martin Luther King Jr, 1947)<br />
References<br /><ul><li>Ax, S. & Kincade, E. (2001). Nursing Students’ Perceptions of Research: Usefulness, Implementation and Training. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol 35 (2), Pgs 161-170.
Bengtsson, M. & Ohlsson, B. (2010). The Nursing and Medical Students Motivation to Attain Knowledge. Nurse Education Today. Vol 30, Pgs 150-156.
Benson, A. & Blackman, D. (2011). Can Research Methods ever be Interesting? Active Learning in Higher Education. Vol 4 (1), Pgs 39-55.
Bjorkstrom, ME. Et al. (2003). Swedish Nursing Students’ Attitudes to and Awareness of Research and Development within Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol 41 (4), Pgs 393-402.
CODP (2011). Bachelor of Science (Hons) in operating department practice (England, Northern Ireland and Wales), Bachelor of Science in operating department practice (Scotland): curriculum document. London: CODP.
Department of Health. (2010). Equity and Excellence: Liberating the NHS. London: DH.
Health Professions Council (2008) Standards of Proficiency: Operating Department Practitioners. London: Health Professions Council.</li></li></ul><li>References<br /><ul><li>Johnson. N. Et al. (2010). Research and evidence based practice: Using a Blended Approach to Teaching and Learning in Undergraduate Nurse Education. Nurse Education in Practice. Vol 10, Pgs 43-47.
Lofmark, A. & Thorell-Ekstrand, I. (2000). Evaluation by Nurses and Students of a New Assessment form for Clinical Nursing Education. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. Vol 14, Pgs 89-96.
King Jr, M. (1947). Volume I: Called to Serve, January 1929 – June 1951; The Purpose of Education. Atlanta: Martin Luther King Estate.
Mattila, LR. & Eriksson, E. (2007). Nursing Students learning to Utilise Nursing Research in Clinical Practice. Nurse Education Today. Vol 27, Pgs 568-576.
Popil, I. (2011). Promotion of Critical Thinking by using Case Studies as a Teaching Method. Nurse Education Today. Vol 31, Pgs 204-207.
Sakalys, JA. (1984). Effects of an Undergraduate Research Course on Cognitive Development. Nursing Research. Vol 33, Pgs 290-295.
Tetley, J. & Glover, J. (1999). Use of Experiential Methods to teach Research in a Pre-registration Nursing Curriculum. Nurse Education Today. Vol 19, Pgs 633-638.
Vessey, JA. & DeMarco, RF. (2008). The Undergraduate Research Fellows Program: A Unique Model to Promote Engagement in Research. Journal of Professional Nursing. Vol 24 (6), Pgs 358-363.</li>