Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Experiences for Later Achievement - Margaret Burchinal

4,477 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,477
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
23
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
29
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Experiences for Later Achievement - Margaret Burchinal

  1. 1. Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Experiences for Later Achievement: What Does the Research Tell Us? Margaret Burchinal University of California-Irvine
  2. 2. Role of Early Experience in Math and Science Academic Achievement <ul><li>Growing evidence that early experience are very important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain development and early stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High correlation in achievement from entry to school to graduation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early intervention research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>James Heckman concluded most effective to intervene early </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early parenting and child development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption studies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. High Correlation Over Time <ul><li>High correlations between language and achievement skills at entry to school and high school graduation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NICHD Study birth to 15 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.5 math and 15 year scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Math: r = .56 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading: r=.53 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall achievement: r=.68 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Led to focus on early childhood </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early Intervention Research <ul><li>Early intervention studies – low-income children. 10+ studies funded by NICHD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abecedarian Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full time child care (4months to kindergarten entry) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term effects: higher IQ, more likely to have a nonmenial job or attend college </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More behavior problems at entry to school, but not more as young adults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost benefit analysis: $2.50 / $1 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Abecedarian Project Math Scores
  6. 6. Abecedarian Project Reading Scores
  7. 7. Early Child Care Research <ul><ul><li>Infant Health and Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental Study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 sites – 985 low-birth weight babies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>18 years outcomes- heavier babies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher math and vocabulary achievement and fewer problem behaivors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perry Preschool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental Study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fulltime care beginning at 3 years of age with parenting component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term: fewer adults in judicial system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-benefit analysis $12.50 / $1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lazar & Darlington – follow-up of 8 older experimental studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to finish high school, Less likely to receive special education , Less likely to be retained </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These findings from experimental studies used to justify Head Start in US as an enrichment program for low-income children </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Effect Sizes – Early Intervention Programs Intensity Early Cognitive Dev IQ Language Achievement Abecedarian Project High .50 .73-1.23 .45 Perry Preschool Project high 1.03 .16 Infant Health & Development Project High .83 Early Training Project High .70 Ypsilanti Carnegie Infant Education moderate .27 Early Head Start moderate .12 .13 Nurse-Parent Partnership moderate .13 Head Start Impact Study High .12, .16 .20-.24
  9. 9. Child Care Research <ul><li>Large child care studies funded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern over long-term effects of early child care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopes that enrichment experiences benefit all children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development </li></ul><ul><li>Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes Study </li></ul>
  10. 10. NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development <ul><li>1989 NICHD funded 10 sites to conduct a large scale study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial goal: Study nonmaternal care and attachment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other goals: Relate child care experiences to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parenting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive and language development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social and emotional development </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development- Sample <ul><li>1,364 eligible births occurring during 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling designed to assure adequate representation of major socio-demographic niches </li></ul><ul><li>Ten data collection sites </li></ul><ul><li>24 hospitals </li></ul>Location of participating families
  12. 12. Proportion of Securely Attached Children
  13. 13. Child Care and 54m Outcomes- Standardized Mean Differences Adjusting for site, gender, ethnicity, family income, maternal education and depression
  14. 14. Longer-term associations <ul><li>!5 years-follow up: smaller, but reliable, associations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language/academic composite (d=.10) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem behaviors (d=-.08) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More risk taking (d = .08) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsivity (d=.12) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Parenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language/academic composite (d = .34) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary School Parenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Externalizing (d = -.11) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsivity (d = -.18) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Short and Long-Term Effect Sizes
  16. 16. Predicting Cognitive-Academic Achievement from Child Care Quality Using Quadratic Regression
  17. 17. Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes <ul><li>1992-1997: examined center care in 4 states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Carolina, Colorado, California, Connecticut </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examined cost and quality of infant/toddler and preschool care </li></ul><ul><li>Child outcomes assessed for 4 years-olds and children followed through second grade </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes Study Sample <ul><li>100 child care programs randomly selected per location </li></ul><ul><li>Sites selected to reflect differences in regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Two classes per program </li></ul><ul><li>4-10 children per class </li></ul>Location of participating families
  19. 19. CQO Findings <ul><li>Infant/toddler center care tended to be poor quality while preschool quality was mediocre quality </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of care was related to child outcomes during the preschool and through second grade, especially for lower-income children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low-income children received higher quality care when in publically funded programs </li></ul>
  20. 20. Child Care and 4-year Outcomes- Standardized Mean Differences Adjusting for site, gender, ethnicity, family income, maternal education and depression
  21. 21. Child Care and 2 nd Grade Outcomes- Standardized Mean Differences Adjusting for site, gender, ethnicity, family income, maternal education and depression
  22. 22. Early Parenting <ul><li>Strong associations between quality of early home environment and school readiness skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions about nature v nurture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption studies: effects of nurture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French adoption study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children 4-5 years of age (60 < IQ < 80) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removed from family by court order and adopted into low, middle, and upper class families </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. IQ Scores Before and After Adoption
  24. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>Early childhood appears to “sensitive period” for academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Strong home environment contributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents talk frequently and read to childre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home has stimulating activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Child care experiences contribute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality programs can compensate to some degree for less stimulating home environments </li></ul></ul>

×