GENRE, TEXT,GRAMMARLanguage and Written Expression 4
GENRE-basedapproaches to WRITINGare based on a FUNCTIONALMODEL ofLANGUAGE>>>emphasis on socialconstructedness of language
Text & Discourse TEXT is discourse in verbalcommunication. TEXT IN USE = DISCOURSE TEXT is a meaning poducing event. DISCOURSE is formed by sequences ofutterances. Ambiguity found in an isolated utterancedisappears within DISCOURSE.
How did this model evolve? CONTEXT OF SITUATION & CONTEXT OFCULTURE>>Malinowski (1923, 1935) Development of Malinowski’smodel>>Firth (1957) LANGUAGE SYSTEM>>M. Halliday (1985,1994 Prev. Model>>Derewianca (2001)
CONTEXT of SITUATION (& LanguageSystem)Field (>>IDEATIONAL FUNCTION) refers to the subject matter or topic. "What is happening?" "What is the activity?“Tenor (>>INTERERSONAL FUNCTION) refers to the roles of the participants in aninteraction. "Who are participating and what is their relativestatus or power?“Mode (>>TEXTUAL FUNCTION) refers to the channel of communication. "What is the language doing?"
LANGUAGE is NATURAL& CULTURAL INDIVIDUAL& SOCIAL
Genre Analysis – Bhatia’s ‘four-space’Genre Analysis – Bhatia’s ‘four-space’modelmodelLanguage as textLanguage as textLanguage as genreLanguage as genreLanguage as professionalLanguage as professionalpracticepracticeLanguage as social practiceLanguage as social practice(Bhatia, 2004)(Bhatia, 2004)
Speech vs WRITING To communicate Sound Temporal Immediate Sequencial Little editing (timefillers) To communicate Visual Exists in TIME Deferred Hierarchical Can be editted Enhancesabstraction>>language development
Why genre, text & grammar approach? “[T]o provide students with theability to use the codes of writing(the genres and grammar) effectivelyand efficiently. Without these codeswriting can be a frustating andunproductive process.” (Knapp &Watkins, 2005:17)
5 fundamental genresDescribingExplainingInstructingArguingNarrating
Bibliogr. SourcesBahtia, V. (2004):Bahtia, V. (2004): Worlds of Written Discourse: A Genre-BasedWorlds of Written Discourse: A Genre-BasedViewView . U.K. :. U.K. : Continuum International Publishing Group.Continuum International Publishing Group.Halliday, M. (1985): Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: EArnold.Knapp, P. & Watkins, M. (2005): Genre, Grammar,Text.Technologies forTeaching and Assessing Writing. Australia: UNSW Press.