Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Web We Want

1,211 views

Published on

The evolution of the Web should move forward in an upward spiral that cylces between guiding values, engineering and science. Guiding values should comprise social values as well as system principles that further stabilization and growth of the Web. Principles I will talk about will include social inclusion, connectedness and fairness. Example efforts improve Web access for disabled, critically access Web structures and Web growth, and try to transfer knowledge about previously found patterns of Web growth to analogous cases.

Published in: Science
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The Web We Want

  1. 1. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 1Institute for Web Science and Technologies · University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany Web and Internet Science Group · ECS · University of Southampton, UK & The Web We Want Steffen Staab @ststaab http://west.uni-koblenz.de http://wais.soton.ac.uk
  2. 2. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 5Institute for Web Science and Technologies · University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany Web and Internet Science Group · ECS · University of Southampton, UK & The Web We Want Steffen Staab @ststaab http://west.uni-koblenz.de http://wais.soton.ac.uk
  3. 3. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 6 Web Science is the study of the World Wide Web and its impact on both society and technology, positioning the Web as an object of scientific study unto itself. https://tw.rpi.edu/web/WhatIsWebScience Web Science
  4. 4. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 7 Running in cycles James Hendler, Nigel Shadbolt, Wendy Hall, Tim Berners-Lee, and Daniel Weitzner. Communications of the ACM 2008
  5. 5. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 8 Where do the issues come from?
  6. 6. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 9 • „Including all people“ to use the Web • „Healthy“ Web • „Useful“ Semantic Web The Web We Want: Some Values Engineer these values! Measure these values!
  7. 7. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 10 Social inclusion: Include all people to use the Web With Raphael Menges, Daniel Müller, Chandan Kumar, Korok Sengupta & all the MAMEM team http://www.mamem.eu
  8. 8. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 11 digital indicators with social inclusion areas MAMEM Measurement approach concerning social inclusion Figure by Agnes Mariakaki & Sissy Chlomisiou, MDA Hellas
  9. 9. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 12 Web Accessibility
  10. 10. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 13 MAMEM https://youtu.be/42yGmr3NE0k
  11. 11. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 14 Gaze The Web https://youtu.be/x1ESgaoQR9Y
  12. 12. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 15 GazeTheWeb What it is • Flexible browser framework (based on Chromium) • Open source: https://github.com/MAMEM/GazeTheWeb How it works • Observe DOM tree nodes of interest • Overlays with gaze-controlled interfaces • Combination of emulation and direct DOM node interaction over JavaScript • Optional, extensible multi-modal input • Physical buttons • Touch input • Brain-Computer interfaces • Voice input
  13. 13. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 16 • Text input field • Displaying gaze-controlled overlay over fields • Link elements • Highlight during click emulation and used for minor coordinate errors • Fixed elements • Detected for prohibiting automatic scrolling when gaze is upon those elements • Overflowing elements • Employ automatic scrolling approach for revealing hidden content DOM Node Driven Interface
  14. 14. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 17 Challenges for GazeThe Web • JavaScript Mutation Observer does not observe single CSS values • High density of text input fields • Semantic information of DOM nodes not provided • Extensive use of JavaScript and CSS It‘s all about semantics of UI elements.
  15. 15. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 18 Challenges for GazeThe Web • JavaScript Mutation Observer does not observe single CSS values • High density of text input fields • Semantic information of DOM nodes not provided • Extensive use of JavaScript and CSS, especially in modern Web applications7 7Bad practice: z-stacking of text inputs on Google search field Most used search engine is not accessible because of programming tricks
  16. 16. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 19 Healthy Web: Transferring Experiences With Jun Sun & Jerome Kunegis and the previous teams of ROBUST and REVEAL
  17. 17. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 20 • Benefit from Experience with Social Networks • Early response to – trolls – attacks – spam • Social networks are easy to ruin! What do we want: Healthy social networks
  18. 18. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 21 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxmS77q4XiM
  19. 19. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 22 • Role: two nodes belong to the same role if they have similar structural behavior • Using structural features of nodes for classification Roles in Social Networks
  20. 20. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 23 • Idea: to learn knowledge from a domain (source domain) and apply it to another domain (target domain) • Challenge: feature distributions differ between the source and target domains Transfer Learning
  21. 21. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 24 Degree Distribution vs. Transformed Degree Distribution
  22. 22. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 25 Transfer Learning Procedure • Step 1 - Feature Extraction • Step 2 - Feature Transformation • Step 3 - Feature Aggregation • Step 4 - Classification
  23. 23. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 26 Application Source dataset: • Boards.ie (Irish forum) user interaction • n=138134, m=6877447 • Roles found: Role Name Number of Users Percentage Intra-network ROC-AUC Administrator 6 0.004% 0.664 Banned 9420 6.819% 0.651 Moderator 367 0.266% 0.958 Registered User 128217 92.821% N/A Subscriber 124 0.090% 0.911 Total 138134 100%
  24. 24. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 27 Application Target dataset: • Software AG ARIS Community user interaction • 9566 threads and 20538 comments by 4216 people
  25. 25. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 28 • (Indirectly) evaluate predicted user roles with user trustworthiness Result
  26. 26. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 29 Useful Semantic Web With Cristina Sarasua, Matthias Thimm
  27. 27. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 30 1. Use URIs as names for things 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) 4. Include links to other URIs, so that they can discover more things. [Berners-Lee, 2006] “The Semantic Web isn't just about putting data on the Web. It is about making links, so that a person or machine can explore the Web of Data.” Values for a Useful Semantic Web
  28. 28. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 31 Current Link Analyses Symmetry: “ the symmetry of entity links varies between different pairs of datasets.” [Hu et al., 2015 on Life sciences data sets] Transitivity: “ the transitivity of entity links is often topic- dependent.” [Hu et al., 2015 on Life sciences data sets] Link Properties In- and Out-degree: “Bibsonomy has links to external 91 data sets.” Overall link predicate usage: “owl:sameAs as the most widely used linking predicate.” [Schmachtenberg et al., 2014] Link count: “The Eurostat data set has owl:sameAs 149 links to DBpedia.” [CKAN][Ermilov et al., 2013][Hogan et al.,2012] Descriptive Statistics
  29. 29. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 32 Current Link Quality Assessment Methods Network measures and link properties count as proxy: “centrality, clustering coefficient, , sameAs chains are shown to be partially effective at detecting semantically correct / incorrect links.” [Guéret et al., 2012] Crowdsourcing: “hybrid methods can improve semantic accuracy.” [Demartini et al., 2012, Sarasua et al.,2012, Acosta et al., 2013] Entity Connectivity: “50 % of the entities in the source data set contain links to external entities.” [Albertoni et al., 2013] CompletenessSemantic Accuracy Deadlinks: “we found 302,855,189 unverified links, and 12,430,800 dead links.” [Neto et al., 2016] Availability
  30. 30. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 33 Current Link Quality Assessment Methods Network measures and link properties count as proxy: “centrality, clustering coefficient, sameAs chains are shown to be partially effective at detecting semantically correct / incorrect links.” [Guéret et al., 2012] Crowdsourcing: “hybrid methods can improve semantic accuracy.” [Demartini et al., 2012] [Sarasua et al.,2012] [Acosta et al., 2013] Semantic Accuracy Entity Connectivity: “50 % of the entities in the source data set contain links to external entities.” [Albertoni et al., 2013] Completeness Deadlinks: “we found 302,855,189 unverified links, and 12,430,800 dead links.” [Neto et al., 2016] Availability To what extent do existing links add “more things” to the source entities and make the Semantic Web useful?
  31. 31. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 34 Why? Help • to understand the impact of existing links • to spot weak points • with guidance for improving existing links Encourage iterative maintenance Data Publisher (predisposed to improve her links)
  32. 32. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 35 Our Task Given a data set D containing the interlinking I • compare D and DI and • analyse the value that I gives to the source data In terms of the principles for data interlinking in the Web of Data. Bibsonomy ACM owl:sameAs owl:sameAs owl:sameAs
  33. 33. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 36 Our Task Bibsonomy ACM owl:sameAs owl:sameAs owl:sameAs Given a data set D containing the interlinking I • compare D and DI and • analyse the value that I gives to the source data In terms of the principles for data interlinking in the Web of Data.
  34. 34. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 37 Our Task Bibsonomy ACM owl:sameAs owl:sameAs owl:sameAs Given a data set D containing the interlinking I • compare D and D I and • analyse the value that I gives to the source data In terms of the principles for data interlinking in the Web of Data.
  35. 35. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 38 Our Task 38 Bibsonomy ACM owl:sameAs owl:sameAs owl:sameAs 38 Given a data set D containing the interlinking I • compare D and D I and • analyse the value that I gives to the source data In terms of the principles for data interlinking in the Web of Data.
  36. 36. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 39 Principles d1:nn “Natasha Noy” foaf:name d1: stan dbo:affiliation d1: p2012 dbo:swrc:publication Data set 1
  37. 37. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 40 Principles Extend entity description (P1) d1:nn “Natasha Noy” foaf:name d1: stan dbo:affiliation d1: p2012 dbo:swrc:publication d2:nn “Natasha Noy” foaf:name Data set 1 Data set 2 owl:sameAs
  38. 38. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 41 Principles Extend entity description (P1) d1:nn “Natasha Noy” foaf:name d1: stan dbo:affiliation d1: p2012 dbo:swrc:publication d2:nn “Natalya Noy” foaf:name d2: goog dbo:affiliation d2: p2015 dbo:swrc:publication Data set 1 Data set 2 owl:sameAs Better!
  39. 39. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 42 Principles Extend entity description (P1) d1:nn “Natasha Noy” foaf:name d1: stan dbo:affiliation d1: p2012 dbo:swrc:publication Data set 1 owl:sameAs d2:nn “Natalya Noy” foaf:name d2: goog dbo:affiliation d2: p2015 dbo:swrc:publication Data set 2 vivo: Femal e rdf:type Even Better!
  40. 40. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 43 Principles Extend entity connectivity (P2) d1:nn “Natasha Noy” foaf:name d1: stan dbo:affiliation d1: p2012 dbo:swrc:publication d2:nn “Natasha Noy” foaf:name d2: stan dbo:affiliation Data set 1 Data set 2 owl:sameAs
  41. 41. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 44 Principles Extend entity connectivity (P2) d1:nn “Natasha Noy” foaf:name d1: goog dbo:affiliation d1: p2012 dbo:swrc:publication d2:nn “Natalya Noy” foaf:name d2: goog dbo:affiliation Data set 1 Data set 2 owl:sameAs d3:nn “Natalya Noy” foaf:name d3: goog dbo:affiliation Data set 3 owl:sameAs Better!
  42. 42. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 45 Principles Increase number of vocabularies used (P3) d1:nn “Natasha Noy” foaf:name d1: stan dbo:affiliation d1: p2012 dbo:swrc:publication Data set 1 owl:sameAs d2:nn “Natasha Noy” foaf:name d2: prote ge foaf:pastProject d2: biopo rtal foaf:project Data set 2 foaf: Person rdf:type
  43. 43. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 46 Principles Increase number of vocabularies used (P3) d1:nn “Natasha Noy” foaf:name d1: stan dbo:affiliation d1: p2012 dbo:swrc:publication Data set 1 owl:sameAs d2:nn “Natasha Noy” foaf:name d2: post2 sioc:creator foaf: Perso n rdf:type Data set 2 proto n:Hum an rdf:type Better!
  44. 44. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 47 Conclusion
  45. 45. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 48 The Web We Want: Guided by Values values
  46. 46. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 49 Two sides of one coin: • Measuring achievement of values inspires engineering • Engineering requires measurement of extent of achievement of values The Web We Want: Measured/Engineering https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=31105116
  47. 47. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 50 • Include people – Key: semantic UI elements! – Not enough HTML5 high-level description – Beyond HTML5 • Healthy Web – Transferring experiences • Useful Semantic Web – Not all links are equal – Some links are more powerful than others The Web We Want: Examples
  48. 48. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 51 • Include people – Key: semantic UI elements! – Not enough HTML5 high-level description – Beyond HTML5 • Healthy Web – Transferring experiences • Useful Semantic Web – Not all links are equal – Some links are more powerful than others The Web We Want: The Values that Guide Us? What are values that you want to pursue/see pursued? values
  49. 49. Steffen Staab The Web We Want @ WebSci ‘17 52Institute for Web Science and Technologies · University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany Web and Internet Science Group · ECS · University of Southampton, UK & Thanks to my team members and all the other collaborators: Raphael Menges, Daniel Müller, Chandan Kumar, Korok Sengupta, Jun Sun, Jerome Kunegis Cristina Sarasua, Matthias Thimm Project teams: MAMEM, ROBUST, REVEAL

×