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  1. 1. Disaster Management @ Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant
  2. 2. ???????????????? ⚝When was the Kudankulam idea began and when it was proposed? ⚝What is VVER? ⚝How many Nuclear Plants are there in INDIA? ⚝How many percentage of current is provided by Nuclear power plant? ⚝What is the chemical which is used in kudankulam? ⚝Who are the two politicians who signed the project? ⚝What is the Budget of kudankulam? ⚝Do you support Abdul kalam’s decision to start the plant? ⚝Is anyone foreign funds provided for the fight ?
  3. 3. Nuclear In INDIA ⚝We have 19 Plants including kudankulam, some important are ⚝Rajasthan Atomic power project (1*100, 1*200 and 4*220) ⚝Narora atomic power plant (2*235) ⚝Bhabha atomic research centre ⚝Kakrapur atomic power plant (2*220)
  4. 4. kudankulam ⚝Two units of 1000MW ⚝88 meters tall ⚝8.85 meters below ground level
  5. 5. ⚝A special feature undertaken in India for the first time is a completely steel lined dome for the inner containment wall and dome for the reactor building .
  6. 6. VVER water-cooled, water-moderated energy reactor ⚝Height of 19 m and diameter of 4.5m ⚝Is a series of pressurized water reactor designs originally developed in the Soviet Union ⚝six primary coolant loops each with a horizontal steam generator ⚝emergency core cooling ⚝Reactor fuel rods are fully immersed in water kept at 15 MPa of pressure so that it does not boil at normal (220 to over 300 C) operating temperatures.
  7. 7. Passive Heat Removal System ⚝Thickness 600mm ⚝Starting from 36.60m to 52.27m ⚝Other new safety systems include aircraft crash protection and system to contain the molten reactor core in the event of a severe accident.
  8. 8. Emergencies ⚝An accident taking place in any nuclear facility of the NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE including the nuclear reactor ⚝A criticality accident in a nuclear fuel cycle leading to BURSTS OF NEUTRONS and GAMMA RADIATION ⚝An accident during the TRANSPORTATION of radioactive material. ⚝The malevolent use of radioactive material as RDD by TERRORISTS ⚝A large-scale nuclear disaster resulting from a NUCLEAR WEAPON ATTACK
  9. 9. PREVENTION OF NUCLEAR/RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCIES: ⚝structured in five levels ⚝Three basic safety functions ⚝controlling the power, ⚝cooling the fuel ⚝confining the radioactive material
  10. 10. ENGINEERED SAFETY FEATURES ⚝Vapour Suppression System to limit the peak pressure of containment ⚝Liquid Poison Injection System for long- term sub- criticality of reactors. ⚝Reactor Building Coolers to bring down the primary containment pressure ⚝Secondary Containment Recirculation System to reduce activity release, using multi-pass filtering by recirculation.
  11. 11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS ⚝Specifying the jobs of all the functionaries who have assigned roles during the emergency ⚝Alerting the plant personnel by sounding the emergency siren ⚝Identified assembly locations for plant personnel and casual visitors for their accounting, and ⚝assessment of persons trapped in the radiological areas. ⚝Formation of rescue teams and activation of a treatment area. ⚝Radiation survey around the plant and outside the plant and site boundaries. ⚝Assessment of wind speed, wind direction and the affected sector around the nuclear facility. ⚝Equipment and materials for handling a nuclear emergency are kept ready.
  12. 12. EXERCISES AND MOCK DRILLS ⚝Training plays an important role in the proper implementation of various emergency response activities. Some plans for communication, Shelters, transport facilities, food, water, medical preparedness
  13. 13. EFFECTS OF A NUCLEAR EXPLOSION ⚝ The effects of a nuclear explosion depend upon the yield and type weapon, height of burst, location ⚝ of burst, time of burst and wind conditions at various heights. ⚝ Blast Effect A sudden burst of a large amount of energy causes very high temperature and pressure in the surrounding air, resulting in extremely hot and compressed gases. This is accompanied by a hurricane type, very strong wind, causing further damage, including picking up people or vehicles and hurling them into any other object. ⚝ Thermal Effect The extreme high temperature of the air. It results in a firestorm due to the availability of more and more combustible materials. ⚝ Nuclear Radiations ⚝ Radioactive Fallout Finally, the residual radioactive substance which might be either in the form of gases or may get attached to the dust particles, sucked up from the earth by the rising fire ball will come down slowly and will contaminate a very large area-up to several tens or hundreds of kilometers— depending upon yield, height of burst and weather conditions.
  14. 14. Health Effects ⚝ Externally or internally within the body may lead to radiation injuries ⚝ Hereditary effects ⚝ Immediate somatic effects could be radiation sickness ⚝ Death of the individual ⚝ Damages in radiosensitive organs. ⚝ Cataract, sterility, skin erythema, skin burns, etc. ⚝ Exposure during pregnancy can result into prenatal death, neonatal death, mental retardation, ⚝ childhood cancer, etc. ⚝ Psycho-social effects radiation exposure result in anxiety, brain syndrome, stress disorder ⚝ burst of fear, panic, or aggression.
  15. 15. DISADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ⚝Even if the uranium is dried and even if we close the plant we need to keep the well trained engineers and technologies to keep the population safe for 10,000 years. All risks like earthquakes, tsunamis and terrorism still apply to these wastes . ⚝It is technically impossible to build a plant with 100% security. A small probability of failure will always last. ⚝These areas are prone to high risk in case of terrorist attack. ⚝If accident occurs many scientist say that it is unsafe to enter the area for another 20 years.
  17. 17. 1.The Plant reactors are being set up without sharing the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Site Evaluation Study and Safety Analysis Report with the people, or the people‘s representatives or the press. No public hearing has been conducted for the first two reactors either. There is absolutely no democratic decision-making in or public approval for this project. 2. The area between 2 to 5 km radius around the plant site, should be called the sterilization zone.. This means that people in this area could be displaced.
  18. 18. 3. It is quite impossible to evacuate 1 million people within 30 km radius quickly and efficiently. 4.The coolant water and low-grade waste from the Plant are going to be dumped into the sea which will have a severe impact on fish production and catch. This will undermine the fishing industry, push the Fisher folks into deeper poverty and misery and affect the food security of the entire southern Tamil Nadu and southern Kerala.
  19. 19. 5.Even when the Plant projects function normally without any incidents and accidents, they would be emitting IODINE 131, 132, 133, CESIUM 134, 136, 137 Isotopes, Strontium, Tritium, Tellurium and other such radioactive particles into our air, land, crops, cattle, sea, seafood and ground water. Already the southern coastal belt is sinking with very high incidence of cancer, mental retardation, down syndrome, defective births due to private and government sea-sand mining for rare minerals including thorium. The KKNPP will add many more woes to our already suffering people.
  20. 20. 6.The quality of construction and the pipe work and the overall integrity of the KKNPP structures have been called into question by the very workers and contractors who work there in kudankulam. 7. The Minister Mr. Jairam Ramesh announced that the government has decided not to give permission to Plant 3-6 as they were violating the Coastal Regulation Zone stipulations.
  21. 21. 8. Many political leaders and bureaucrats try to reassure us that there would be no natural disasters in the kudankulam area. How can anyone ever know? 9. Prime Minster himself has spoken about danger in terrorist attacks to India‘s nuclear power plants. 10. The important issue of liability for the Russian plants has not been settled yet.
  22. 22. 11. In 1988 the authorities said that the cost estimated was Rs. 6,000 crores. In November 1998, it was Rs.15,500. In 2001,it was Rs.13171 crores. No one knows the 2011 figures of any of these expenses. No one cares to tell the Indian public either. 12. The March 11, 2011 disaster in Fukushima has made it all too clear to the whole world that nuclear power plants are prone to natural disasters. 13.Is it all for us, the people of India? Or for the corporate profits of the Russian, American and French companies? Or for the Indian military? Are the lives and futures of the Indian citizens inferior to all these?
  23. 23. WHAT IS NEEDED? ⚝Trial run of evacuation and medical services within 30km should be made before the start of the plant ⚝When there was Nuclear disaster at Chernobyl, Russia. Many large helicopters pour 40 tonnes of Metal powder 800 tonnes of Lime stone 2400 tonnes of Copper 1000 tonnes of Concrete and sand
  24. 24. ⚝The government should clearly explain about the process of dumping the wastes from the nuclear power plants. Any wastes can be reused including the feces and the urine but not the nuclear wastes. Which will be live for 10,000 years. The scientist has not found a clear idea to dump the wastes.
  25. 25. ⚝Only 3% of the electricity is produced by Nuclear Power ⚝USA and Russia has announced to give the people around the nuclear power plant insurance for Billions of dollars. The government should think about providing insurance for the people if all the above needs are fulfilled.
  26. 26. Money or LIFE? We should not think about losing 13,000 crores in this koodankukam plant because this money is not the government’s but people’s . If you think we are wasting Rs.13,000 crores then what about where government lost Rs.29,200 crores and what about where government lost Rs.5,60,000 crores. This involves the life s of Southern Tamil people.
  27. 27. ??????????????????????????