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Slide No. 1MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
DiGRA/FDG Conference 2016
Dr. Stefan Werning (Utrecht University)
PANEL: From practice-b...
Slide No. 2MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Analytical Game Design /
The Utrecht Game Lab
http://www.ugamelab.nl
http://bit.ly/2arST...
Slide No. 3MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
‚Analytical‘ games
EGs currently do not follow the
dispositif (Foucault) of education
bu...
Slide No. 4MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Analytical Game Design
• More and more acceptance of
“critical making” (Ratto, 2011)
– S...
Slide No. 5MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
STEP 1:
From experimental play to
Analytical Game Design
Werning, Stefan: “From Analytic...
Slide No. 6MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
STEP 2:
Game experiments
as essays
Stephanie de Smale: “Game Essays
in the Digital Human...
Slide No. 7MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
STEP 3:
Domain-specificity of
game experiments
Kamp, Michiel: “Parameters of
Musical Int...
Slide No. 8MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
STEP 4:
Experimenting as a mode
of amateur creation
Hurel, Pierre-Yves: “Amateur Game
De...
Slide No. 9MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
TRANSITION
Slide No. 10MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
DiGRA/FDG Conference 2016:
From practice-based game research
to game design as cultural...
Slide No. 11MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
The Cases
• 1) Remaking Passage
• 2) Variations on Asteroids
• 3) Remixing My Cotton-
P...
Slide No. 12MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Analytical Play
Slide No. 13MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Analytical Playing Practices:
Tool-Assisted Speed-Running
• Smooth transition from
play...
Slide No. 14MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Analytical Playing Practices:
In-Game Photography • Analyzes the categories of
realism ...
Slide No. 15MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Other Analytical
Playing Practices
• Videography
• Let’s Play-ing
• Theorycrafting
Slide No. 16MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Experimental research
approaches in other domains
Slide No. 17MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Conceptual point of origin:
The ‚Kuleshov experiments‘
• Partially compiled from fragme...
Slide No. 18MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Conceptual point of origin:
The ‚Kuleshov experiments‘
• The experiments create knowled...
Slide No. 19MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Practice-as-Research in
Architecture and Design
• Parametric Design
– Describing comple...
Slide No. 20MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Practice-as-Research
in Historiography
• 3D visualizations in museums
• Historical reen...
Slide No. 21MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Practice-as-Research
in literature
• Play as a means of coercing the
mind to seek uncon...
Slide No. 22MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Practice-as-research in
performance studies and
music(ology)
• Performance studies
– Ne...
Slide No. 23MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Other Examples: Film
• Supercuts: Kogonada
– Analysis through multiple contingent
juxta...
Slide No. 24MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Defining
Analytical Game Design
Slide No. 25MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Analytical Game Design:
Theory-Driven Design
• Procedural bias (Bogost/Wardrip-
Fruin) ...
Slide No. 26MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Analytical Game Design:
Theory-Driven Design II
• Dimensions of persuasion in games
(de...
Slide No. 27MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Analytical Game Design:
Bricolage and Remixing • Bricolage
– ‘Making do’ with existing ...
Slide No. 28MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Analytical Game Design: Heuristics
• Minimalization
– Miniroids
• Maximalization
– Maxi...
Slide No. 29MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Analytical Game Design:
Documenting the Process
• The design process itself creates
mea...
Slide No. 30MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Analytical Game Design:
Productive irritations • EXAMPLE: Educational
Asteroids
– Model...
Slide No. 31MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Analytical Game Design as
Cultural Technique
Slide No. 32MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
(Analytical) Game Design
as a Cultural Technique
• Consequence of ‘productive
irritatio...
Slide No. 33MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
TRANSITION
Game Essays
as Critical
Media and
Research
Praxis
Stephanie de Smale
Utrecht University
T: @stephaniedsmale | DiGRA/FDG Co...
Outline
1. Adorno and the Essay
2. Essays in Humanities research
3. The dual function of game
essays
1. Adorno and
the Essay
Play and the Essay
Luck and play are essential to the essay. It does not begin with Adam and Eve but
with what it wants to...
The Form of the Essay
The essay remains what it always was, the critical form par excellence;
specifically, it constructs ...
Towards defining the game essay
“an interactive audio-visual
work that embodies and
questions games and play”
Slide No. 40MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
TRANSITION
‘THE FIRST EXPERIMENTAL
WORK WITH SOUND MUSIC
MUST BE DIRECTED ALONG
THE LINE OF ITS DISTINCT
NONSYNCHRONIZATION WITH
THE ...
Analysing film music:
• Musical functions (cf. Copland, 1949)
• Music-image relations (cf. Cook 1998)
• Sound-image struct...
Analysing film music:
• Musical functions (cf. Copland, 1949)
• Music-image relations (cf. Cook 1998)
• Sound-image struct...
Analysing film music:
• Musical functions (cf. Copland, 1949)
• Music-image relations (cf. Cook 1998)
• Sound-image struct...
Analysing film music:
• Musical functions (cf. Copland, 1949)
• Music-image relations (cf. Cook 1998)
• Sound-image struct...
Analysing film music:
• Musical functions (cf. Copland, 1949)
• Music-image relations (cf. Cook 1998)
• Sound-image struct...
Analysing film music:
• Musical functions (cf. Copland, 1949)
• Music-image relations (cf. Cook 1998)
• Sound-image struct...
• ‘Ludic’ and ‘cinematic’ game music (van Elferen 2011),
based on ‘rules’ and ‘fiction’ binary (Juul 2005)
• Functions? Mu...
• Noninteractive, adaptive and
interactive music (Collins 2008)
• Ergodic/nonergodic musical gameplay
• Interacting with m...
• Cinematic: ‘marrying’ pre-
existing music (cf. Julia
experiments)
• Ludic: Rhythm gameplay
• ‘Manual’ input maps (cf.
Gu...
Slide No. 52MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
TRANSITION
Playing RPG Maker ?
Amateur Game Design And
Video Gaming
Pierre-Yves Hurel – pyhurel@ulg.ac.be – Liège Gamelab – Lemme – O...
Game creation tools
 Thesis : DJAOUTI Damien, 2011, « Serious Game Design :
considérations théoriques et techniques sur l...
Construct 2
 Downloaded 3 billions
times (multiple versions)
 230.000+ users registered
on the official forum
 5.600 ga...
State of the art
On game-making tools : mainly about learning
code
(Burke, Kafei, Gee, Tran, …)
On related practices : m...
Methodology and scope
 Ongoing ethnographic approach
 12 in-depth interviews so far
 8 face to face (+/- 80 minutes)
 ...
« Imaginary video games »
 “With my best friend, when I was a kid, we would often make fake
video games with Legos for ea...
« Imaginary video games »
 “When I was a child, I would play Zelda on Nes [Famicom] and I
would […] draw my own Zelda on ...
Tools, games, or toys ?
 RPG Maker : “something as a toy.”
 “We don’t develop on RPG Maker, you play RPG Maker.”
 “Mess...
Tools, games, or toys ?
 “This ‘game’ becomes more adult when it has a lot of constraints […]. For
example, I have to ada...
Conclusion
 Users are not only users :
 Makers
 Players
 Explorers
 Experimenters
 Community members
 …
Bibliography
 Anthropy, A. “ZZT”, Los Angeles: Boss Fight Book, 2014.
 Burke, Q and Kafai, Y.B. “Decade of Game Making f...
Slide No. 64MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Slide No. 65MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Critical modification
Slide No. 66MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Modifying board games in
commercial contexts
• Risk (1957)
– Encapsulates Cold War rati...
Slide No. 67MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Critical modification of
board games • Modifying Settlers of Catan to
address its alleg...
Slide No. 68MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
Collective modification as a
quasi-simulational process
• Caruso Et Al., “Games on RPGs...
DigraFDG2016 - From practice-based game research to game design as cultural technique
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Slides for all presentations of the eponymous panel organized at the DiGRA/FDG conference 2016 in Dundee.

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DigraFDG2016 - From practice-based game research to game design as cultural technique

  1. 1. Slide No. 1MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 DiGRA/FDG Conference 2016 Dr. Stefan Werning (Utrecht University) PANEL: From practice-based game research to game design as cultural technique
  2. 2. Slide No. 2MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Analytical Game Design / The Utrecht Game Lab http://www.ugamelab.nl http://bit.ly/2arST2L
  3. 3. Slide No. 3MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 ‚Analytical‘ games EGs currently do not follow the dispositif (Foucault) of education but of … • … art (Simony) • … activism (Cow Clicker) • … products (A Slow Year). • Games-on-Games (Caruso et al., 2013) • Critical modification (Loring-Albright, 2015)
  4. 4. Slide No. 4MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Analytical Game Design • More and more acceptance of “critical making” (Ratto, 2011) – Sightlines conference – “One way to understand games better is to experiment with their design” (Waern and Back 2015, 341) – Games on games” (Caruso et al. 2013) as a form of “playable game criticism” • Notion of ‘experiment’ and experimental practices – Iteration – Remixing and bricolage – Playfulness • Directly combining scholarly reflection and (digital) prototyping – Usually formally separated – Using COTS tools and materials • Game Maker: Studio, RPG Maker, Unity 3D, Twine • Asset marketplaces Ratto, Matt. "Critical making: Conceptual and material studies in technology and social life." The Information Society 27.4 (2011): 252-260.
  5. 5. Slide No. 5MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 STEP 1: From experimental play to Analytical Game Design Werning, Stefan: “From Analytical Play to Analytical Game Design” • Focuses on the playfulness of the process by connecting it to analytical playing practices – Speed-running, in-game photography, cosplaying, let’s playing • Defines Analytical Game Design with reference to practice-based research in other domains – Music, literature, performance, architecture • Game design as cultural technique – Conceptualizing and expressing issues through game design
  6. 6. Slide No. 6MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 STEP 2: Game experiments as essays Stephanie de Smale: “Game Essays in the Digital Humanities” • Framing digital game prototypes with Adorno as game ‘essays’ • Discusses applications of game essays within a digital humanities framework
  7. 7. Slide No. 7MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 STEP 3: Domain-specificity of game experiments Kamp, Michiel: “Parameters of Musical Interaction in Games” • Transferring the idea of the game essay to a different discipline • Experimenting with parameters of soundtracks responding to game states and player interaction • Experimentation allows for going beyond analytical techniques borrowed from film music studies
  8. 8. Slide No. 8MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 STEP 4: Experimenting as a mode of amateur creation Hurel, Pierre-Yves: “Amateur Game Design as Reflexive Practice” • From the essay as object to game-making as reflective practice • Ethnographic perspective on amateur game design – Affordances of tools like RPG Maker for experimental practices
  9. 9. Slide No. 9MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 TRANSITION
  10. 10. Slide No. 10MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 DiGRA/FDG Conference 2016: From practice-based game research to game design as cultural technique Dr. Stefan Werning (Utrecht University) From Analytical Play to Analytical Game Design
  11. 11. Slide No. 11MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 The Cases • 1) Remaking Passage • 2) Variations on Asteroids • 3) Remixing My Cotton- Picking Life • Have all online for download
  12. 12. Slide No. 12MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Analytical Play
  13. 13. Slide No. 13MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Analytical Playing Practices: Tool-Assisted Speed-Running • Smooth transition from playing to ‚reverse- engineering‘ • Creative analytical process – Experimental set-up – Rigid documentation of results • Playful approach – Testing hypotheses – Rhetorical situation (Bogost)  Not about designing games but ‚designing‘ play situations
  14. 14. Slide No. 14MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Analytical Playing Practices: In-Game Photography • Analyzes the categories of realism in game worlds by emulating a photographic gaze • Creates an intuitive understanding of perspective in games vs. film/photography – E.g. many familiar perspectives only implementable through detached camera Poremba, Cindy. 2007. “Point and Shoot. Remediating Photography in Gamespace.” Games and Culture 2 (1): 49–58.
  15. 15. Slide No. 15MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Other Analytical Playing Practices • Videography • Let’s Play-ing • Theorycrafting
  16. 16. Slide No. 16MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Experimental research approaches in other domains
  17. 17. Slide No. 17MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Conceptual point of origin: The ‚Kuleshov experiments‘ • Partially compiled from fragments of pre-existing films • Part of an ‚experimental culture‘ – Other experiments such as ‚creative geography‘ or ‚creative anatomy‘ • Fostered quantifiability – E.G. Kuleshov demanded quantifying the actors‘ movement in time and space, referring to the work studies of Frederick Taylor – Formal notation of movement in front of a camera  Tools for ‚rapid prototyping‘ Prince, Stephen, and Wayne E. Hensley. "The Kuleshov effect: Recreating the classic experiment." Cinema Journal (1992): 59-75.
  18. 18. Slide No. 18MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Conceptual point of origin: The ‚Kuleshov experiments‘ • The experiments create knowledge not primarily as ‘texts’ but by affording … … variation/iteration, … bricolage, and … ‘remixing’. • GOAL: ‘Translate’ the Kuleshov experiments to (digital) games.
  19. 19. Slide No. 19MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Practice-as-Research in Architecture and Design • Parametric Design – Describing complex system behavior through the relationship between elements – Mapping the possibility space of architecture and urban design • Creating games as a reflective design strategy (Brand, 2006) • Inherently playful – Intuitive (tangible) rather than rational (legible) approach to design Brandt, Eva. 2006. “Designing Exploratory Design Games.” In Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Participatory Design: Expanding Boundaries in Design - PDC ’06, 1:57. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/1147261.1147271.
  20. 20. Slide No. 20MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Practice-as-Research in Historiography • 3D visualizations in museums • Historical reenactments – Re-playing battle scenes or social / domestic situations – Experiental, embodied form of insights • Also applies to (the history of) games: The Royal Game of Ur – Partially found/reconstructed – Little contextual knowledge L. Finkel, “On the Rules of the Royal Game of Ur,” in Board Games in Perspective, ed. I. L. Finkel, London, 2007, pp. 16-32.
  21. 21. Slide No. 21MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Practice-as-Research in literature • Play as a means of coercing the mind to seek unconventional connections • Arbitrary constraints as a defining property of games (Suits) – Self-imposed constraints unlocking playful, uncertain creative behavior – Cf. Costikyan on managing uncertainty in games • Oulipo • Surrealist gamesL. Finkel, “On the Rules of the Royal Game of Ur,” in Board Games in Perspective, ed. I. L. Finkel, London, 2007, pp. 16-32.
  22. 22. Slide No. 22MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Practice-as-research in performance studies and music(ology) • Performance studies – Nelson, Robin. 2013. Practice as Research in the Arts. Principles, Protocols, Pedagogies, Resistances. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. • Music – Synaesthesia (Alexander Skrjabin) – Theme and variations
  23. 23. Slide No. 23MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Other Examples: Film • Supercuts: Kogonada – Analysis through multiple contingent juxtapositions of footage – Aestheticization of the ‘message’ • Video essays: Catherine Grant – Theodor W. Adorno, “The Essay as Form”: • Apparent spontaneity of presentation • Emphasis on rhetorical sophistication • Exaltation of the incomplete • Rejection of a purely deductive logic • Antipathy toward systematic dogmatism • Treatment of non-scientific, often unconventional subject matter • Central importance of play • Image of a meandering, exploratory journey Pourciau, Sarah. "Ambiguity Intervenes: The Strategy of Equivocation in Adorno's" Der Essay als Form"." MLN 122.3 (2007): 623-646.
  24. 24. Slide No. 24MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Defining Analytical Game Design
  25. 25. Slide No. 25MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Analytical Game Design: Theory-Driven Design • Procedural bias (Bogost/Wardrip- Fruin) in My Cotton Picking Life – Discrepancy between picking volume and quota – Picking cotton through button clicking • Two buttons, one for each hand/arm • Cooldown of the buttons • Button label (Alright, I had enough.) • Desktop version is more physically straining (move mouse between buttons) – Aesthetics • Cartoon style  projection space for the player as part of the game • Male protagonist • POV: main action is 'framed' – Feedback • During play only visual feedback (hardly any change visible) • After play, relative feedback in % • No absolute indication of the 'product' (in g) – Warning upon being idle • Fixed 3-4-second interval • Suggests off-screen space (panoptic) – Mobile-phone screen ratio • Systematically modifying these parameters – E.g. showing the ‘quit’ button only after a delay or extending the cooldown with each pick/over time Bogost, Ian. "The rhetoric of video games." The ecology of games: Connecting youth, games, and learning (2008): 117- 140.
  26. 26. Slide No. 26MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Analytical Game Design: Theory-Driven Design II • Dimensions of persuasion in games (de la Hera, 2013) • 1) Signs – Visual + – Auditive = – Haptic = – Linguistic + • 2) Systems – Narrative = – Cinematic - – Procedural ++ • 3) Contexts – Social -- – Affective + – Sensorial = – Tactical + • Identifying unused areas and map the procedural elements onto these areasde la Hera Conde-Pumpido, Teresa. "A Conceptual Model for the Study of Persuasive Games." Proceedings of DiGRA. 2013.
  27. 27. Slide No. 27MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Analytical Game Design: Bricolage and Remixing • Bricolage – ‘Making do’ with existing material • 'Remixing as a form of bricolage – Only applicable to game experiments since ‘sampling’ is usually not possible! • Critical Modification: ‘Remixing’ Settlers of Catan • Breaksout • Related concept: Variations on a theme Loring-Albright, Greg. 2015. “The First Nations of Catan: Practices in Critical Modification.” Analogue Game Studies 2 (7). http://analoggamestudies.org/2015/11/the-first-nations- of-catan-practices-in-critical-modification/.
  28. 28. Slide No. 28MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Analytical Game Design: Heuristics • Minimalization – Miniroids • Maximalization – Maxiroids • Inversion – Inverted Asteroids
  29. 29. Slide No. 29MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Analytical Game Design: Documenting the Process • The design process itself creates meaningful questions – Demonstrates the “fragility” (Barr) of gameplay systems • Primary Change – Chests ‘prolong‘ life (or rather: rejuvenate the player) – Alternatively, chests make the player faster • Emergent behavior – The player can (and will want to) explore the ‚limits‘ of the environment (which in the original programming don‘t exist) – Changes the player‘s perception of the environment (more natural than metaphorical) – The increasing speed turns the game into an increasingly frantic ‚race‘ to the next chest • Sensibility towards potentially relevant design contingencies – Need for quantification: e.g. frequencies of chests containing treasure – Omitting the fish eye effect – Environment really ‘infinite’ or not – Resolution (100x16) becomes ‘tangible’ • Documenting the development process, e.g. through developer diaries (Pedgley 2007) Pedgley, Owain. "Capturing and analysing own design activity." Design Studies 28.5 (2007): 463- 483.
  30. 30. Slide No. 30MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Analytical Game Design: Productive irritations • EXAMPLE: Educational Asteroids – Modelled after The Typing of the Dead – intentionally leaves many areas sketchy • Encouraging critical engagement through ‘unfinished’ design – Existing (experimental) games often foster an ‘immersive’ rather than a critical disposition • Unfinishedness in the Kuleshov experiments – No back story, establishing shot or ‘resolution’ • Alienation/defamiliarization (Berthold Brecht) – ‘Disfiguring’ part of a design to open it up for critical engagement
  31. 31. Slide No. 31MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Analytical Game Design as Cultural Technique
  32. 32. Slide No. 32MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 (Analytical) Game Design as a Cultural Technique • Consequence of ‘productive irritations’ – Encourages players to fill in the blanks’ – Opposes the regular, often commodified playing disposition –  similar to analytical playing practices • Cultural techniques (Winthrop- Young) • Learning to perceive the world in terms of game affordances • Game Literacy – Both reading and writing Werning, Stefan. 2016. “Analytical Game Design. Game- Making as a Cultural Technique in a Gamified Society.” In The Playful Citizen: Knowledge, Creativity, Power, edited by René Glas, Sybille Lammes, Michiel de Lange, Joost Raessens, and Imar de Vries, tbd. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  33. 33. Slide No. 33MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 TRANSITION
  34. 34. Game Essays as Critical Media and Research Praxis Stephanie de Smale Utrecht University T: @stephaniedsmale | DiGRA/FDG Conference | August 2 ‘16
  35. 35. Outline 1. Adorno and the Essay 2. Essays in Humanities research 3. The dual function of game essays
  36. 36. 1. Adorno and the Essay
  37. 37. Play and the Essay Luck and play are essential to the essay. It does not begin with Adam and Eve but with what it wants to discuss; it says what is at issue and stops where it feels itself complete -not where nothing is left to say. Therefore it is classed among the oddities. (Adorno 1984, 152)
  38. 38. The Form of the Essay The essay remains what it always was, the critical form par excellence; specifically, it constructs the immanent criticism of cultural artifacts, and it confronts that which such artifacts are with their concept; it is the critique of ideology. (Adorno 1984, 166)
  39. 39. Towards defining the game essay “an interactive audio-visual work that embodies and questions games and play”
  40. 40. Slide No. 40MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 TRANSITION
  41. 41. ‘THE FIRST EXPERIMENTAL WORK WITH SOUND MUSIC MUST BE DIRECTED ALONG THE LINE OF ITS DISTINCT NONSYNCHRONIZATION WITH THE VISUAL IMAGES.’ (Eisenstein, Alexandrov and Pudovkin 1949 [1928], p. 84) ‘The most striking and immediate impression [of correspondence with the audio] will be gained, of course, from a congruence of the movement of the music with the movement of the visual contour — with the graphic composition of the frame.’ (Eisenstein 1957 [1942], p. 173)
  42. 42. Analysing film music: • Musical functions (cf. Copland, 1949) • Music-image relations (cf. Cook 1998) • Sound-image structure (cf.Chion 1994)
  43. 43. Analysing film music: • Musical functions (cf. Copland, 1949) • Music-image relations (cf. Cook 1998) • Sound-image structure (cf.Chion 1994) 1. Creating a more convincing atmosphere of time and place. 2. Underlining psychological refinements--the unspoken thoughts of a character or the unseen implications of situation. 3. Serving as a kind of neutral background filler. 4. Building a sense of continuity. 5. Underpinning the theatrical build-up of a scene, and rounding it off with a sense of finality.
  44. 44. Analysing film music: • Musical functions (cf. Copland, 1949) • Music-image relations (cf. Cook 1998) • Sound-image structure (cf.Chion 1994) 1. Creating a more convincing atmosphere of time and place. 2. Underlining psychological refinements--the unspoken thoughts of a character or the unseen implications of situation. 3. Serving as a kind of neutral background filler. 4. Building a sense of continuity. 5. Underpinning the theatrical build-up of a scene, and rounding it off with a sense of finality.
  45. 45. Analysing film music: • Musical functions (cf. Copland, 1949) • Music-image relations (cf. Cook 1998) • Sound-image structure (cf.Chion 1994) 1. Creating a more convincing atmosphere of time and place. 2. Underlining psychological refinements--the unspoken thoughts of a character or the unseen implications of situation. 3. Serving as a kind of neutral background filler. 4. Building a sense of continuity. 5. Underpinning the theatrical build-up of a scene, and rounding it off with a sense of finality.
  46. 46. Analysing film music: • Musical functions (cf. Copland, 1949) • Music-image relations (cf. Cook 1998) • Sound-image structure (cf.Chion 1994) • Mickey-mousing • ‘Anempathetic music’ (Chion) • Conformation, complementation, contest (Cook)
  47. 47. Analysing film music: • Musical functions (cf. Copland, 1949) • Music-image relations (cf. Cook 1998) • Sound-image structure (cf.Chion 1994) Synchronization points
  48. 48. • ‘Ludic’ and ‘cinematic’ game music (van Elferen 2011), based on ‘rules’ and ‘fiction’ binary (Juul 2005) • Functions? Music-image relations? Audiovisual flow?
  49. 49. • Noninteractive, adaptive and interactive music (Collins 2008) • Ergodic/nonergodic musical gameplay • Interacting with musical parameters: Rhythm Timbre Melody Dynamics/intensity Harmony etc. • Experimenting with musical gameplay?
  50. 50. • Cinematic: ‘marrying’ pre- existing music (cf. Julia experiments) • Ludic: Rhythm gameplay • ‘Manual’ input maps (cf. Guitar Hero?) to create synch synch points • Experimenting with game mechanics (‘soft’ vs. ‘hard’ rules for matching beats)
  51. 51. Slide No. 52MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 TRANSITION
  52. 52. Playing RPG Maker ? Amateur Game Design And Video Gaming Pierre-Yves Hurel – pyhurel@ulg.ac.be – Liège Gamelab – Lemme – OMNSH - LabJMV
  53. 53. Game creation tools  Thesis : DJAOUTI Damien, 2011, « Serious Game Design : considérations théoriques et techniques sur la création de jeux vidéo à vocation utilitaire », thèse de doctorat en Informatique, Université de Toulouse III  Contributive website : creatools.gameclassification.com : 485 tools  Non-specialized tools and specialized tools
  54. 54. Construct 2  Downloaded 3 billions times (multiple versions)  230.000+ users registered on the official forum  5.600 games published on the official « arcade » section  650+ users on an un official French speaking forum
  55. 55. State of the art On game-making tools : mainly about learning code (Burke, Kafei, Gee, Tran, …) On related practices : mods. (Sotamaa, Unger, Postigo, …)
  56. 56. Methodology and scope  Ongoing ethnographic approach  12 in-depth interviews so far  8 face to face (+/- 80 minutes)  4 via emails  I started with founders of communities  Supposedly experienced and reflective  Main themes discussed in interviews:  How did you start making games ?  Why did you continue ?  Why do you use this specific software ?  => General questions to let « pop up » what matters for the respondents
  57. 57. « Imaginary video games »  “With my best friend, when I was a kid, we would often make fake video games with Legos for each other. So we took our Legos and we made Zeldas or Metroids […]. To retrieve objects that made us stronger we had to go to other areas. […] It was a sort of fantasy of making a video game” (a respondent)  “When I was a child [...] I would put pieces of paper together [to make] Mario’s levels. I had a little character [...] in a cardboard screen, with cardboard joysticks and then I would scroll it on screen, trying to simulate a video game [...]. As it was not electronic we could not play it, […] was very frustrating!” (a respondent)
  58. 58. « Imaginary video games »  “When I was a child, I would play Zelda on Nes [Famicom] and I would […] draw my own Zelda on paper. […] It was a sort of labyrinth […] and I showed my brother with a pencil where he was going. I would tell my brother ‘ok here you can do that or use that weapon and so on.” => From an experimental paper’s game to an actual video game.  Pretending to make games : a fantasy, a simulation… a game ?
  59. 59. Tools, games, or toys ?  RPG Maker : “something as a toy.”  “We don’t develop on RPG Maker, you play RPG Maker.”  “Messing around”, “test”, “experiment”.  “When you’re starting out, you don’t approach making a ZZT game by saying, ‘Here is the vision of the thing that I want to make; how can I build that with ZZT?’ It’s much more natural to ask, ‘Here are the pieces that ZZT gives me; how can I fit them together in an interesting way?’” (Jeremy Penner)
  60. 60. Tools, games, or toys ?  “This ‘game’ becomes more adult when it has a lot of constraints […]. For example, I have to adapt the game I make to fit into the program, but it is part of the creator’s pleasure to play with these constraints” (a respondent)  Two kinds of playful attitudes ? Project versus Improvisation ?
  61. 61. Conclusion  Users are not only users :  Makers  Players  Explorers  Experimenters  Community members  …
  62. 62. Bibliography  Anthropy, A. “ZZT”, Los Angeles: Boss Fight Book, 2014.  Burke, Q and Kafai, Y.B. “Decade of Game Making for Learning: From Tools to Communities” in Handbook of Digital Games, edited by Angelides, M.C. and Agius, H. 689 709. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.  Boutet, M. “Jouer aux jeux vidéo avec style. Pour une ethnographie des sociabilités vidéoludiques”, Réseaux, 173-174 (2012), 207.  Djaouti, D. “Les usines à jeu”, thesis chapter in “Serious Game Design: considérations théoriques et techniques sur la création de jeux vidéo à vocation utilitaire”, Université de Toulouse, 2011, pp. 166-199.  Gee, E.R. and Tran, K.M. “Video Game Making and Modding”, in Handbook of Research on the Societal Impact of Digital Media, ed. by Barbara Guzzetti and Mellinee Lesley (Information Science Reference, 2016), pp. 238–67.  Postigo, H. “Of mods and modders: Chasing down the value of fan-based digital game modifications”, Games and Culture, n°2, 2007, pp. 300-313.  Sotamaa, O. “When the Game Is Not Enough: Motivations and Practices Among Computer Game Modding Culture”, Games and Culture, 5 (2010), 239–55.  Unger, A. “Modding as Part of Game Culture”, in Computer Games and New Media Cultures, ed. by Johannes Fromme and Alexander Unger (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012), pp. 509–23.
  63. 63. Slide No. 64MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16
  64. 64. Slide No. 65MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Critical modification
  65. 65. Slide No. 66MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Modifying board games in commercial contexts • Risk (1957) – Encapsulates Cold War rationality and the logic of world domination • Risk Black Ops (2008)  Risk – Revised Edition (2008) – Resource system based on cities and capitals – Differentiated, even partially dynamic and open mission goals – Incentivizes a more defensive, strategic playing style • Risk Legacy (2011) – Sequences of interrelated game sessions – Permanent modifications to the game itself • EX: Also re-envision traditional games as related to conflicts – Monopoly – Ticket to Ride (functions of American railroads for American warfare)
  66. 66. Slide No. 67MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Critical modification of board games • Modifying Settlers of Catan to address its alleged cultural bias • EX: Re-designing the Checkered Game of Life … – persuasive game, portable game • … allows for identifying how the game reflects its respective socio- cultural context. – Limited interaction among players: individualistic vs. social perception of life Loring-Albright, Greg. 2015. “The First Nations of Catan: Practices in Critical Modification.” Analogue Game Studies 2 (7). http://analoggamestudies.org/2015/11/the-first- nations-of-catan-practices-in-critical-modification/.
  67. 67. Slide No. 68MCMV14005/3 – 05/08/16 Collective modification as a quasi-simulational process • Caruso Et Al., “Games on RPGs” – Games like The Linear RPG etc. expand the Canonical Narrative Schema developed in French Semiotics and Narratology • Manipulation, Action and Sanction • EX: Genre elements of RPG games – Relationship between player and environment: Recettear (EasyGameStation) – Quantification: Parameters (Nekogames) – Spatial exploration: The Linear RPG (Sophie Houlden) – Character classes: A healer only lives twice (Playism) • Metaphor: Genetic algorithms – (Attention) economy as simulation environment – Social and economic success as ‘fitness function’

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