Non-thermal techniques for microbial decontamination and cell disintegration in food- and bioengineering

3,687 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
9 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,687
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
63
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
9
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Non-thermal techniques for microbial decontamination and cell disintegration in food- and bioengineering

  1. 1. Non-thermal techniques for microbial decontamination and cell disintegration in food- and bioengineering Stefan Toepfl German Institute of Food Technologies
  2. 2. Facts and Figures Institute
  3. 3. Facts and Figures Institute FOUNDED IN. 1983 LEGAL FORM. Registered association (e.V.) EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR. Dr.-Ing. Volker Heinz MEMBERS. Approx. 113 companies EMPLOYEES. Approx. 120 BUDGET 2009. Approx. 8 million Euro OBJECTIVE. Improvement of efficiency and increase of competitiveness of c ompanies from the food industry MISSION MISSION INNOVATION – Knowledge for superior foods
  4. 4. Organization New structures DIL BUSINESS FIELDS. Providing services for the industry on behalf of direct clients. DIL RESEARCH PLATFORM. Determination of scientific findings, also independently from industrial clients. Development of innovative approaches with the ambition to implement them into attractive products and efficient processes for the industry.
  5. 5. Organization New structures DIL BUSINESS FIELDS Providing services for the industry on behalf of direct clients. DIL RESEARCH PLATFORM. Determination of scientific findings, also independently from industrial clients. Development of innovative approaches with the ambition to implement them into attractive products and efficient processes for the industry.
  6. 6. FOOD AND BIOPROCESSING
  7. 7. Sources for Innovation
  8. 8. Process - Product - Operations Sources for Innovation
  9. 9. Process impact Process intensity (T, t) Excess process intensity t T Safety Requirements Microbial Safety Environmental Effects Product Quality Nutritional Significance Thermal Processes Limitations Electric Resistance Heating Cooling Direct Steam Injection Microwave Heating Cooling Ultrasonic Treatment Cooling Combination Processes (MTS) Non- Thermal Processes Fermentation Biotransformation Membrane Processes Liquids High Hydrostatic Pressure Costs High Intensity Electric aseptic filling Field Pulses Limitations
  10. 12. Pulsed Electric Fields Processing
  11. 13. 1920 Pasteurization of milk „ Electropure Process“ Ohmic Heating and free radical formation 1949 Electroplasmolysis of plant material B.L. Flaumenbaum, Odessa 1960 Patent, H. Doevenspeck Phase separation, non-thermal effects on microorganisms 1967 Sale & Hamilton First systematic studies, Identification of main processing parameters. Historical Background Pulsed Electric Field Processing Electric Treatment of Food
  12. 14. Dielectric-breakthrough – electromechanical model (Zimmermann, 1986) E The external electrical field induces charge separation and a transmembrane potential at the biological membrane electrocompression Pulsed Electric Field Processing Mechanism of action
  13. 15. Electropermeabilization – molecular reorientation (Tsong, 1990; Castro, 1993; Vega-Mercado, 1996) Present models include impact on protein channels as well as presence of membrane fluctuations. Pulsed Electric Field Processing Mechanism of action
  14. 16. Pulsed Electric Field Processing Effects on biological tissue
  15. 17. 1. Pore induction (reversible) Induction of stress reaction Introduction of foreign DNA 2. Expansion und Stabilization (irreversible pore) Loss of semi-permeability Loss of barrier function Loss of vitality Pulsed Electric Field Processing Kinetics of electroporation
  16. 18. Experimental proof Critical field strength 10-14 kV/cm for microbial cells 1-10µm Efffect of electric field strenght on PI uptake of E. coli in Ringer solution after PEF-Treatment. W specific =70KJ/kg, T=45°C Propidium iodide staining Pulsed Electric Field Processing Kinetics of electroporation
  17. 19. Kontrolle 30 kV/cm, 50 kJ/kg 100 kJ/kg Staining of Erwinia carotovorum with Propidium Iodide (PI) after PEF treatment Analytical tool for evaluation of electropermeabilization Pulsed Electric Field Processing Kinetics of electroporation unstained PI - stained PI-Staining (Permeabilisation)
  18. 20. Microscopy – visual observation Ruthensium red staining – intralamella Loss of cytoplasm Apple tissue Potato tissue 1,5 kV/cm, 25 pulses control PEF microscope Pulsed Electric Field Processing Kinetics of electroporation
  19. 21. Increase in juice yield from Royal gala apples by PEF application and enzymatic maceration. Juice yield after PEF or enzymatic treatment for three different apple varieties PEF-treatment: 2 kV/cm, 30 pulses, 4,32 kJ/kg. Pulsed Electric Field Processing Effects on apple tissue
  20. 22. Impact of PEF-treatment (2 kV/cm) on Jona Gold (JG) and Golden Delicious (GD) juice yield using a decanter centrifuge. Juice yield including an eventual transition of solids to juice Pulsed Electric Field Processing Effects on apple tissue
  21. 23. 10 t/h installation in German fruit juice company Premium cloudy juice production, using continuous belt press yield increase + 4 to 6 % in comparison to untreated Subsequent enzymatic maceration yield increase + 0 to 2 % Shift to higher production of premium quality first press Energy input: 4 to 6 kJ/kg Pulsed Electric Field Processing Effects on apple tissue
  22. 24. Olive oil recovery spain Replacement of malaxation process with same yield Pulsed Electric Field Processing Effects on olive tissue
  23. 25. Cotton seed oil recovery, India ELCRACK-treatment: 2 kV/cm, 20 kJ/kg PEF Processing Effects on cotton seed
  24. 26. Extraction of functional compounds from microalgae Koehler, Toepfl et. al. 2006 Pulsed Electric Field Processing Effects on microalgae Component Chl. dm BM Chl . dm PEF BM Yield increase % Chlorella Spir . dm BM Spir. dm PEF BM Yield increase %Spirulina Protein g/100g 5,48 6,98 + 27 33,68 38,12 +13 Chlorophyll g/100g 0,011 0,1 + 809 0,17 0,26 + 52,9 Carotenoids g/100g 0,008 0,05 + 525 0,044 0,11 + 150 Protease Unit/100g 204,7 707,2 + 245,5 864,2 812,5 - 6
  25. 27. Cell membrane permeabilization Loss of cytoplasma Loss of vitality Treatment conditions Electric field 30 kV/cm Peak current 500 A Pulse repetition ~ 100 Hz Pulsed Electric Field Processing Electrifying microbes
  26. 28. Inactivation of E. coli, L.innocua, S. cerevisae and B. megaterium in ringer solution with an electrical conductivity of 1.25 mS cm -1 after PEF treatment with graphite anode and a field strength of 16 kV cm -1 Inactivation of different microorganisms Pulsed Electric Field Processing Variations in resistance
  27. 29. Pulsed Electric Field Processing Impact on lactoferrin in milk
  28. 30. Pulsed Electric Field Processing Impact on lgA in milk
  29. 31. Presevation of heat sensitive liquids, such as fruit juices, preparations, beer, cocktail premixes, salsas or sauces Pulsed Electric Field Processing Line setup
  30. 32. Spray drying Reduction of microbial loads in powder, such as infant formula, whey proteins or blood plasma Pulsed Electric Field Processing Line setup
  31. 33. Shelf life increase of fresh, non-pasteurized smoothies and other heat sensitive media Pulsed Electric Field Processing Product example
  32. 34. Inactivation of yeasts and molds in cocktail premixes Pulsed Electric Field Processing Product example
  33. 35. Turnkey 5 and 30 kW systems Capacity up to 15 t/h Peak voltage 25 kV Pulse width 4 to 30 µs Pulse repetition 0 to 1.000 Hz 2009 Multiple treatment chambers Pulsed Electric Field Processing Equipment design
  34. 36. PEF Processing Equipment design
  35. 37. Pulsed Electric Fields Equipment Design 30 kW Equipment, cotton seed treatment, 15 t/h DN 50 mm
  36. 38. Colinear Pulsed Electric Fields Treatment chambers Co-axial Concentric rift
  37. 39. Colinear/Torpedo Pulsed Electric Fields Treatment chambers
  38. 40. Cost effective, short-time cell disintegration technique, improvement of mass transfer processes Highly effective microbial inactivation, low maximum temperature and residence time Pulsed Electric Fields Conclusions
  39. 41. High Pressure Processing
  40. 42. Generation of 6.000 bar
  41. 43. PRINCIPLE: PRESSURE INTENSIFIER
  42. 44. PRINCIPLE: Pressure Vessel
  43. 45. Pressure [MPa] 1E- 3 1E-2 0.1 1 10 100 1000 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 TEMPERATURE [°C] VAPOR ICE LIQUID Earth´s surface Lithosphere Curve Atmosphere Curve Hydrosphere Curve The Outer Reaches of Life Strain121 growths at >121°C ! Extremophiles 121°C Spores HPT
  44. 46. High Pressure Processing Quantification of relevant interactions unwanted action unwanted action
  45. 47. High Pressure Processing Quantification of relevant interactionsC
  46. 48. Inactivation Swelling Disintegration microbes starch tissue lipids Transition proteins Unfolding HP Effect
  47. 49. FRESHERIZED FOODS (AVOMEX): a successfull story <ul><li>1966 : Opening of a first restaurant “Tex-Mex” in Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>1996 : Start-up of the first HPP equipment of 50 L for guacamole. </li></ul><ul><li>2007 : 14 HPP machines with a total capacity of 3200 L. </li></ul><ul><li>Range of products : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guacamole and fresh avocado products based : about 70 % of the US market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sauces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citrus juices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fajitas kits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ready-to-eat meat meals. </li></ul></ul>High Pressure Processing Commercial products
  48. 50. MAPLE LEAF (Canada) Wave 6000/300 for RTE meals High Pressure Processing Commercial products
  49. 51. High Pressure Processing Product examples High Pressure Processing
  50. 52. Oligomeric Structure Monomere Structure Intermediate, melted state Unfolding Aggregation 0,1 MPa 100 – 200 MPa > 700 MPa 300 – 500 MPa High Pressure Processing Effect on protein structure
  51. 53. Turkey breast ( M. pectoralis superficialis ) after 1 min at 0.1-500 MPa and 25°C. Chicken breast ( M. pectoralis superficialis ) after 1 min at 0.1-600 MPa and 25°C. Pork meat ( M. longissimus dorsi ) after 1 min at 0.1-600 MPa and 25°C. High Pressure Processing 25°C Ref. 100 200 300 400 500 MPa Ref. 100 200 300 400 500 600 MPa 25°C Ref. 100 200 300 400 500 600 MPa 25°C
  52. 54. HPP MDM turkey sausages Cutting Filling Smoking HPP High Pressure Processing Structure formation Ingredients Weight Raw materials:   Turkey MDM meat 6.000 kg Ice 2.000 kg Extenders:   Wheat fibre 160 g Additives:   Nitrite curing salt 120 g Phosphate 18 g Ascorbic acid 30 g Seasonings 50 g Monosodium glutamate (E-621) 30 g
  53. 55. HPP Product Pickling/Curing Tumbling Smoking High pressure treatment High Pressure Processing Structure formation Cold production of pork chop (Kassler)
  54. 56. HPP Product <ul><li>Cold processing – no heat </li></ul><ul><li>Saving energy </li></ul><ul><li>Saving time </li></ul><ul><li>No cook loss, no cooking damage </li></ul>High Pressure Processing Structure formation Cold production of pork chop (Kassler)
  55. 57. Buckow et al., 2007 Loss in birefrigence High Pressure Processing Starch swelling
  56. 58. High Pressure Processing Starch swelling
  57. 59. Gelatinization of corn starch at 40°C Gelatinization of corn starch at 60°C Buckow et al., 2007 High Pressure Processing Starch swelling native 600 MPa, 10 min, 40°C 0.1 MPa, 5 min, 70°C
  58. 60. High Pressure Processing Spore inactivation
  59. 61. High Pressure Processing Virus inactivation
  60. 62. p-T isokineticity diagram for 5 log inactivation of Avian influenza virus H7N7 in cell culture medium (MEM) after 15-240 s. p-T isokineticity diagram for 5 log inactivation of Avian influenza virus H7N7 in chicken meat sausage after 15-240 s. Avian Influenza Virus Subtype: H7N7 High Pressure Processing Virus inactivation
  61. 63. 55l technical scale system 600 MPa ambient High Pressure Processing DIL pilot hall
  62. 65. High Pressure Processing HPP in Biotechnology
  63. 66. High Pressure Processing Piezophilic enzymes
  64. 68. Carreer at DIL? www.dil-ev.de [email_address] Internships, Exchange Bachelor-, Master-, Diploma-Thesis PhD-Thesis Employment

×