Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Tuning VIM performance for unikernels

586 views

Published on

Performance Evaluation and Tuning of Virtual Infrastructure Managers for (Micro) Virtual Network Functions

Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs) are emerging as the keystone of 5G network architectures: flexibility, agility, fast instantiation times, consolidation, Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) hardware support and significant cost savings are fundamental for meeting the requirements of the new generation of mobile networks. In this paper we deal with the management of the virtual computing resources for the execution of Micro VNFs. This functionality is performed by the Virtual Infrastructure Manager (VIM) in the NFV MANagement and Orchestration (MANO) reference architecture. We discuss the VIM instantiation process and propose a generic reference model, starting from the analysis of two Open Source VIMs, namely OpenStack Nova and Nomad. We implemented a tuned version of the VIMs with the specific goal of reducing the duration of the instantiation process. We realized a performance comparison of the two VIMs, both considering the plain and the tuned versions. The tuned VIMs and the performance evaluation tools that we have employed are provided openly and can be downloaded from our repository.

Published in: Engineering
  • Be the first to comment

Tuning VIM performance for unikernels

  1. 1. Performance Evaluation and Tuning of Virtual Infrastructure Managers for (Micro) Virtual Network Functions Pier Luigi Ventre(1), Claudio Pisa(2), Stefano Salsano(1,2), Giuseppe Siracusano(1,3), Florian Schmidt(3), Paolo Lungaroni(4), Nicola Blefari-Melazzi(1,2) (1)Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy; (2)CNIT, Italy (3)NEC Laboratory Europe, Germany; (4)Consortium GARR, Italy November 8th 2016 – IEEE NFV-SDN conference, Palo Alto, USA, 7-9 Nov. 2016 A super-fluid, cloud-native, converged edge system
  2. 2. Outline • The SUPERFLUIDITY project – goals and approach – Toward sub 10 ms service instantiation • A Unikernel primer – Memory footprint and boot time results • Orchestration of Unikernels – Virtual Infrastructure Managers (VIMs): analysis of performance – Tuning of VIM performance 2
  3. 3. SUPERFLUIDITY project - http://superfluidity.eu/ Goal: a superfluid NFV approach • Instantiate network functions and services on-the-fly • Run them anywhere in the network (core, aggregation, edge), across heterogeneous infrastructure environments (computing and networking), taking advantage of specific hardware features, such as high performance accelerators, when available Approach • Decomposition of network components and services into elementary and reusable primitives (“Reusable Functional Blocks – RFBs”) • Platform-independent abstractions, permitting reuse of network functions across heterogeneous hardware platforms 3
  4. 4. SUPERFLUIDITY project - http://superfluidity.eu/ Project consortium • The SUPERFLUIDITY Consortium includes 18 partners from 12 countries. The partners include 4 universities, 1 inter-university research consortium, 9 industrial partners and 4 SMEs Project timeline • July 2015 – March 2018 Disclaimer • The work presented here is a (small) subset of the work performed in the project 4
  5. 5. • Classical NFV environments (i.e. by ETSI NFV standards) – VNFs are composed/orchestrated to realize Network Services – VNFs can be decomposed in VNFC (VNF Components) «Big» VNF «Big» VNF «Big» VNF «Big» VNF VNF C VNF C VNF C VM VM VM Heterogeneous composition/execution environments 5
  6. 6. Heterogeneous composition/execution environments • Towards more «fine-grained» decomposition… • E.g. modular software routers (like Click) – Click elements are combined in configurations (Direct Acyclic Graphs) • E.g. XSFM-based (eXtended Finite State Machine) decomposition of traffic forwarding / flow processing tasks, and HW support for wire speed execution 6
  7. 7. Towards sub 10 ms service instantiation Why a superfluid NFV • Quick provisioning of services: JIT proxies, firewalls, on-the-fly monitoring • Quick migration of services • Hosting large number of services on the same server: e.g., vCPE • Optimized use of resources thanks to dynamic sharing • General investment and operating cost reductions 7
  8. 8. We need a superfluid virtualization : use of Unikernels Containers e.g. Docker • Lightweight • Poor isolation 8 Hypervisors (traditional VMs) e.g. XEN, KVM, wmware… • Strong isolation • Heavyweight Unikernels Specialized VMs (e.g. MiniOS, ClickOS…) • Strong isolation • Very Lightweight • Very good security properties They break the “myth” of VMs being heavy weight…
  9. 9. Outline • The SUPERFLUIDITY project – goals and approach – Toward sub 10 ms service instantiation • A Unikernel primer – Memory footprint and boot time results • Orchestration of Unikernels – Virtual Infrastructure Managers (VIMs): analysis of performance – Tuning of VIM performance 9
  10. 10. A Unikernel Primer • Specialized VM: single application + minimalistic OS • Single address space, co-operative scheduler so low overheads • Unikernel virtualization platforms extend existing hypervisors (e.g. XEN) driver1 driver2 app1 (e.g., Linux, FreeBSD) KERNELSPACEUSERSPACE app2 appNdriverN Vdriver1 vdriver2 app SINGLEADDRESS SPACE 10 General purpose OS Unikernel a minimalistic OS (e.g., MiniOS, Osv)
  11. 11. Example Unikernel Memory Footprint (ClickOS) • Hello world guest VM – 296KB • Ponger (ping responder) guest VM : ~700KB – 350KB come from lwip and newlibc – this is with minor optimizations to MiniOS (e.g., reducing the threads’ stack size) 11
  12. 12. Unikernels boot time • Without xen store: 1.43 ms Guest configuration: MiniOS, 1 VCPU, 8MB RAM, 1 VIF • Without libxl: 6.67 msecs • 87.77 msecs 12 State of the art results Recent results (from SUPERFLUIDITY), by redesigning the toolstack
  13. 13. Outline • The SUPERFLUIDITY project – goals and approach – Toward sub 10 ms service instantiation • A Unikernel primer – Memory footprint and boot time results • Orchestration of Unikernels – Virtual Infrastructure Managers (VIMs): analysis of performance – Tuning of VIM performance 13
  14. 14. ETSI MANagement and Orchestration (MANO) Model 14
  15. 15. VM instantiation and boot time 15 Orchestrator request
  16. 16. VM instantiation and boot time 16 Orchestrator request VIM operations Virtualization Platform Guest OS (VM) Boot time 1-2 s 5-10 s ~1 s
  17. 17. VM instantiation and boot time 17 Orchestrator request VIM operations Virtualization Platform Guest OS (VM) Boot time 1-2 s ~1 ms ~1 ms • Unikernels can provide low latency instantiation times for “Micro-VNF” • What about VIMs (Virtual Infrastructure Managers) ?
  18. 18. Performance analysis and Tuning of VIMs for Micro VNFs • General model of the VNF instantiation process • Modifications to VIMs to instantiate Micro-VNFs based on ClickOS Unikernel • Methodology to evaluate the performances • Performance Evaluation 18
  19. 19. Virtual Infrastructure Managers (VIMs) We considered the performance of two VIMs : • OpenStack Nova – OpenStack is composed by subprojects – Nova: orchestration and management of computing resources ---> VIM – 1 Nova node (scheduling) + several compute nodes (which interact with the hypervisor) – Not tied to a specific virtualization technology • Nomad by HashiCorp – Minimalistic cluster manager and job scheduler – Nomad server (scheduling) + Nomad clients (interact with the hypervisor) – Not tied to a specific virtualization technology 19
  20. 20. Reference Model of the VNF instantiation process 20
  21. 21. Mapping of the reference model to the considered VIMs 21
  22. 22. VIM instantiation model for Openstack Nova 22
  23. 23. VIM instantiation model for nomad 23
  24. 24. VIM modifications to instantiate (ClickOS) Micro VNFs 24 A regular VM can boot its OS from an image or a disk snapshot that can be read from an associated block device (disk). The host hypervisor instructs the VM to run the boot loader, which reads the kernel image from the block device. ClickOS based MicroVNFs, are shipped as a tiny kernel without a block device. These VMs need to boot from a so-called diskless image. The host hypervisor reads the kernel image from a file or a repository and directly injects it in the VM memory. Virtual Infrastructure Manager Virtualization Platform (Hypervisor) This interface needs to be modified to support the boot of “diskless images”
  25. 25. VIM modifications to instantiate (ClickOS) Micro VNFs • OpenStack – Xen supported out of the box, using the Libvirt toolstack – We considered the boot of diskless images targeting only one component (Nova Compute) and a specific toolstack, Libvirt. – Libvirt talks with Xen using libxl the default Xen toolstack API. – We modify the XML description of the guest domain provided by the driver, changing the XML description on the fly before the creation of the VM • Nomad – Xen not supported out of the box – We developed a new Nomad driver for Xen, called XenDriver . – The new driver communicates with the XL Xen toolstack and it is also able to instantiate a ClickOS VM. 25
  26. 26. VIM performance evaluation approach • We evaluate the VM scheduling and instantiation phase, combining message trace analysis and timestamps in the code • Message traces (coarse information, beginning and end of the different phases) – VIM Message Analyzer capable of analyzing Nova and Nomad message exchanges • Detailed breakdown with timestamps in the code (Nomad Client, Nova Compute) • Workload generators: – OpenStack : Rally benchmarking tool – Nomad : developed the “Nomad Pusher”, a utility written in the GO language which programmatically submits jobs to the Nomad Server. 26
  27. 27. Results – ClickOS instantiation times 27 OpenStack Nova Nomad seconds seconds
  28. 28. There is no comparison implied… • NB: the purpose of the work is NOT to compare OpenStack vs. Nomad. The goal is to understand how both behave and find ways to reduce instantiation times. • A direct comparison makes few sense. OpenStack is a much more complete framework in terms of offered functionality and different types of supported hypervisors. Moreover, the comparison is unfair also because for the Nomad case we have developed a driver only targeted to support the Xen/Click OS case. 28
  29. 29. VIM Tuning • OpenStack – Diskless VM -> we can skip most of the actions performed during the image creation; – UniKernels are special purpose VMs: • SSH is really needed ? • Full-IP stack ? – We were able to reduce the spawning time of about 70% – Looking at the overall instantiation time, the relative reduction is about 45%; • Nomad – No much space for the optimization; • We implemented only the necessary functionality; – We introduced further improvements assuming a local store for the Micro VNFs, reducing the Driver operation of about 30 ms; 29
  30. 30. seconds seconds Results – OpenStack details and tuning 30 OpenStack Nova overall OpenStack Nova spawn phase
  31. 31. Results – Nomad details and tuning 31 Nomad overall Nomad spawn phase seconds seconds
  32. 32. VIM performances - Ongoing & Future Work • Consider the impact of system load on the performance – Measure the average instantiation times considering batches of incoming requests with given rate (requests/s) and arrival patterns. – Analyze the impact of the number of already allocated VMs and of the number of target nodes to be deployed. • Keep improving the performance of the considered VIMs – e.g. trying to replace the lazy notification mechanism of Nomad with a reactive approach • Extend the analysis to another VIM – OpenVIM from the OSM project 32
  33. 33. Unikernel virtualization in the SUPERFLUIDITY vision • We have considered the optimization of Unikernel virtualization and the needed enhancements to Virtual Infrastructure Managers to support Unikernels. • In the SUPERFLUIDITY vision, Unikernels are interesting as they support the decomposition of network services in “smaller” components that can be deployed on the fly (NB: Unikernels are complementary to other approaches!) • The NFV Infrastructure should be extended in order to support Unikernel virtualization in addition to traditional VMs. This way it will be possible to design services that exploit the most efficient solutions depending on several factors. 33
  34. 34. Conclusions • Unikernel virtualization can provide VM instantiation and boot time in the order of ms – ongoing: consolidation of results, generic and automatic optimization process for hypervisor toolstack and for guests • Work is still needed at the level of Virtual Infrastructure Managers – e.g. OpenStack (~ 1 s), Nomad (~ 300 ms) • VIMs are currently designed for generality, the challenge is to specialize them in a flexible way, keeping the compatibility with the mainstream versions 34
  35. 35. References & paper download • SUPERFLUIDITY project Home Page http://superfluidity.eu/ • G. Bianchi, et al. “Superfluidity: a flexible functional architecture for 5G networks”, Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies 27, no. 9, Sep 2016 • P. L. Ventre, C. Pisa, S. Salsano, G. Siracusano, F. Schmidt, P. Lungaroni, N. Blefari-Melazzi, “Performance Evaluation and Tuning of Virtual Infrastructure Managers for (Micro) Virtual Network Functions”, IEEE NFV-SDN Conference, Palo Alto, USA, 7-9 November 2016 http://netgroup.uniroma2.it/Stefano_Salsano/papers/salsano-ieee-nfv-sdn-2016-vim-performance-for-unikernels.pdf 35
  36. 36. References – Speed up of Virtualization Platforms / Guests • J. Martins, M. Ahmed, C. Raiciu, V. Olteanu, M. Honda, R. Bifulco, F. Huici, “ClickOS and the art of network function virtualization”, NSDI 2014, 11th USENIX Conference on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, 2014. • F. Manco, J. Martins, K. Yasukata, J. Mendes, S. Kuenzer, F. Huici, “The Case for the Superfluid Cloud”, 7th USENIX Workshop on Hot Topics in Cloud Computing (HotCloud 15), 2015 • Recent unpublished results are included in this presentation: S. Salsano, F. Huici, “Superfluid NFV: VMs and Virtual Infrastructure Managers speed-up for instantaneous service instantiation”, invited talk at EWSDN 2016 workshop, 10 October 2016, The Hague, Netherlands http://www.slideshare.net/stefanosalsano/superfluid-nfv-vms-and-virtual-infrastructure-managers-speedup-for-instantaneous-service-instantiation 36
  37. 37. Thank you. Questions? Contacts Stefano Salsano University of Rome Tor Vergata / CNIT stefano.salsano@uniroma2.it The tools we developed are available on github https://github.com/netgroup/vim-tuning-and-eval-tools Please find this presentation on slideshare https://www.slideshare.net/stefanosalsano/tuning-vim-performance-for-unikernels 37
  38. 38. The SUPERFLUIDITY project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No.671566 (Research and Innovation Action). The information given is the author’s view and does not necessarily represent the view of the European Commission (EC). No liability is accepted for any use that may be made of the information contained. 38

×