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Lezione 8 Il Web Semantico

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Slide dell'ottava lezione del corso di Tecnologie applicate alla Comunicazione d'Impresa.

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Lezione 8 Il Web Semantico

  1. 1. Introduzione al Web Semantico<br />
  2. 2. La sostanza del problema<br />2<br />
  3. 3. …e il marketing disse…<br />3<br />Web 3.0???<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />
  5. 5. Ma (per ora) preferiamo parlare di:<br />5<br />Web <br />Semantico<br />
  6. 6. Una (piccola) premessa<br />6<br />Cos’è la<br />Semantica?<br />
  7. 7. Semantica<br />7<br />La semantica è quella parte della linguistica che studia il significato delle parole (semantica lessicale), degli insiemi delle parole, delle frasi (semantica frasale) e dei testi.<br />In generale, la semantica è ciò che mette in relazione le espressioni linguistiche col loro contenuto extralinguistico<br />La semantica risiede nei processi di interpretazione<br /><ul><li>delle parole e delle frasi
  8. 8. di formule logiche
  9. 9. di segnali, indizi, gesti…</li></li></ul><li>Prima di andare avanti…<br />8<br />Perché?<br />
  10. 10. Un percorso evolutivo<br />9<br />Web “tradizionale”<br />Machine<br />Readable<br />Web <br />“semantico”<br />Machine<br />Understadable<br />
  11. 11. Quale pesca?<br />10<br />Mi piace la pesca<br />
  12. 12. The Semantic Web Roadmap<br />11<br />“The Web was designed as an information space, with the goal that it should be useful not only for human-human communication, but also that machines would be able to participate and help. One of the major obstacles to this has been the fact that most information on the Web is designed for human consumption, and even if it was derived from a database with well defined meanings (in at least some terms) for its columns, that the structure of the data is not evident to a robot browsing the web. Leaving aside the artificial intelligence problem of training machines to behave like people, the Semantic Web approach instead develops languages for expressing information in a machine processable form”<br />The Semantic Web Roadmap – Tim Berners Lee, 1998<br />
  13. 13. 12<br />Come?<br />Come?<br />
  14. 14. Una architettura “semplice” (1/3)<br />13<br /><ul><li>URI e Unicode. L'identificazione univoca di oggetti, proprietà, stati, predicati è sostanziale per poter costruire codici di comunicazione non ambigui, quindi per descrivere la semantica delle risorse disponibili, escludendo possibili ambiguità nella denominazione degli oggetti e delle relazioni che popoleranno il Semantic Web.
  15. 15. XML + NS + XML Schema. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) e XML Schema facilitano la creazione, l’uso e l’interoperabilità sintattica dei vocaboli dei metadati.
  16. 16. RDF e RDF Schema. La famiglia dei linguaggi RDF fa da supporto per l’interoperabilità a livello semantico. Gli sviluppi dell’RDF costituiscono il linguaggio base del Web, consentendo agli agenti di effettuare le inferenze logiche di cui necessitano per svolgere i loro compiti.</li></ul>Fonte: http://web-login.blogspot.com/2006/11/larchitettura-del-web-semantico.html<br />
  17. 17. Una architettura “semplice” (2/3)<br />14<br /><ul><li>Vocabolario delle Ontologie. Le ontologie sono sistemi di metadati (riferiti a specifici vocabolari). Il livello Ontology rappresenta il centro di creazione dei metadati di cui il Semantic Web ha bisogno. E’ qui che le descrizioni, sia semplici sia complesse, insieme ai loro schemi di classificazione, sono create e registrate. Avendo a disposizione tali informazioni gli agenti possono “intelligentemente” interpretare i dati, eseguire inferenze, e svolgere le loro operazioni.</li></ul>Fonte: http://web-login.blogspot.com/2006/11/larchitettura-del-web-semantico.html<br />
  18. 18. Una architettura “semplice” (3/3)<br />15<br /><ul><li>Logica, dimostrazione, fiducia: gli strati in via di sviluppo. Gli elementi a disposizione consentono di rappresentare in modo adeguato la conoscenza; ma come questa conoscenza sarà utilizzata è attualmente solo ipotizzabile e riconducibile a linee guida generiche che trattano di linguaggi logici, formule per la dimostrazione e reti della fiducia: visioni di un nuovo Web ordinato ed efficiente, che è sempre meno aspirazione e sempre più un'affidabile alternativa. Lo strato della logica sarà costituito da un linguaggio basato su euristiche, cioè procedimenti che permettono di prevedere un risultato che solo successivamente verrà controllato, convalidato e dimostrato. E' invece attraverso l'utilizzo del procedimento deduttivo di inferenza che sarà possibile, partendo da una o più premesse, ricavare una conclusione. Le semplici informazioni ottenute saranno validate, nello strato della dimostrazione, tramite motori di validazione generici costituiti da sequenze di formule derivate da assiomi. In ultimo lo strato della fiducia restituirà solo quelle informazioni che secondo il richiedente proverranno da utenti di indubbia attendibilità.</li></ul>Fonte: http://web-login.blogspot.com/2006/11/larchitettura-del-web-semantico.html<br />
  19. 19. In particolare: XML<br />16<br /><ul><li>È un linguaggio di markup,in alcuni aspetti simile all’HTML,pensato per superare i limiti dell’HTML.
  20. 20. Elabora documenti strutturati e rappresenta dati testuali molto complessi.
  21. 21. Non è un linguaggio di programmazione ma serve per definire linguaggi applicativi, atti a descrivere la struttura di documenti.
  22. 22. Utilizza dei tag o elementi che non sono predefiniti.
  23. 23. XML fornisce un meccanismo tramite cui il programmatore può costruire un linguaggio adatto alle proprie esigenze</li></ul>Fonte: http://www.slideshare.net/tave10/presentazione-xml<br />
  24. 24. In particolare: XML<br />17<br />Fonte: http://www.slideshare.net/tave10/presentazione-xml<br />
  25. 25. In particolare: XML<br />18<br />Fonte: http://www.slideshare.net/tave10/presentazione-xml<br />
  26. 26. In particolare: XML<br />19<br />Da cosa è composto?<br />File XML<br />DTD<br />CSS / XSL<br />
  27. 27. In particolare: RDF<br />RDF<br />ResourceDescription Framework<br />Soggetto – Predicato – Oggetto<br />Risorsa – Relazione – Valore<br />20<br />
  28. 28. In particolare: RDF<br />21<br />Io mi chiamo Stefano<br />IO<br />SOGGETTO  http://blog.stefanoepifani.it<br />MI CHIAMO<br />PREDICATO  “ho come nome”<br />STEFANO<br />OGGETTO  una parola, una frase …una relazione?<br />
  29. 29. In particolare: Ontologie<br />22<br />In informatica, un&apos;ontologia è una rappresentazione formale, condivisa ed esplicita di una concettualizzazione di un dominio di interesse. <br />“Teoria assiomatica del primo ordine esprimibile in una logica descrittiva”<br />Nella logica matematica una teoria del primo ordine è un particolare sistema formale, cioè una teoria formale in cui è possibile esprimere enunciati e dedurre le loro conseguenze logiche in modo del tutto formale e meccanico<br />un assioma è una proposizione o un principio che viene assunto come vero perché ritenuto evidente o perché fornisce il punto di partenza di un quadro teorico di riferimento<br />Le logiche sono una famiglia di formalismi utilizzati per rappresentare la conoscenza in un dominio di applicazione detto mondo. In primo luogo sono definiti i concetti rilevanti per quel dominio e, di seguito, utilizzando questi concetti si specificano le proprietà degli oggetti e degli individui appartenenti al dominio.<br />
  30. 30. Quale approccio?<br />23<br />Top Down<br />Vs.<br />Bottom Up<br />
  31. 31. 24<br />Le tendenze evolutive<br />Web<br />Semantico<br />Web 2.0<br />
  32. 32. 25<br />Web Semantico e Web 2.0: due orizzonti contrapposti?<br />Web Semantico (o Web 3.0?)<br />Tassonomie<br />Ontologie<br />Il Sapere è nei Documenti<br />Web 2.0<br />Folksonomie<br />Connessioni dinamiche<br />Il Sapere è nelle Persone<br /><ul><li> Protocolli
  33. 33. Standard</li></li></ul><li>Teoria o pratica? …uno sguardo al futuro<br />26<br />
  34. 34. Per concludere…<br />27<br />10 motivi per i quali il Web Semantico <br />è come l’amore…<br />10. It means different things to different people.<br />9. Those in it can bore everyone else to death talking about it.<br />8. Cynics insist there&apos;s no such thing.<br />7. It&apos;s straightforward in theory, messy in practice.<br />6. A few misinterpreted words can really screw things up.<br />5. You can invest a lot and not get any return.<br />4. Some people claim it, but don&apos;t really have it.<br />3. Some people have it, but don&apos;t want to disclose it.<br />2. The more people involved, the more complicated it gets.<br />1. When it works, beautiful relationships are established.<br />Fonte: http://www.chiefmartec.com/2009/02/top-10-reasons-the-semantic-web-is-a-lot-like-love.html<br />

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