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Two-Fold Service Matchmaking –
Applying Ontology Mapping for Semantic Web
Service Discovery

/// ASWC’09, Shanghai, China,...
Outline




  Semantic Web Services (SWS) mediation

  Two-fold matchmaking approach for SWS

  Prototypical implementatio...
Introduction
Semantic Web Services (SWS)


 Formalisations of Web services in
 terms of capabilities (Cap),
 interfaces (I...
SWS matchmaking
Issues


 SWS discovery: matchmaking of
 capabilities of SWS e.g. :                                    sws...
SWS matchmaking
Issues

                                                            As1 ≡ ¬ I1 ∩ I 2
 SWS discovery: match...
SWS matchmaking
Issues
                                                 <geospatialLocation rdf:ID="M-K"/>


             ...
SWS matchmaking
Semantic-level mediation


 SWS discovery: matchmaking of
 capabilities of SWS e.g. :                     ...
SWS matchmaking
Two-fold process

Proposal:
             SWS matchmaking as two-fold process
             (i) Semantic med...
SWS matchmaking
Two-fold process

Proposal:
             SWS matchmaking as two-fold process
             (i) Semantic med...
Semantic-level mediation
Approach: instance similarity computation in shared MS

 Refining SWS ontologies through multiple...
Semantic-level mediation
Approach: instance similarity computation in shared MS

 Similarity-computation between SWS insta...
Similarity-based service matchmaking
Implementation based on WSMO/IRS-III

 Implementation: Web Service Modelling Ontology...
Similarity-based service matchmaking
Implementation based on WSMO/IRS-III

 Implementation: Web Service Modelling Ontology...
Semantic mediation through MS
Prototypical application

 Uses representational approach (MS, similarity-based WSMO Mediato...
Semantic mediation through MS
Prototypical application

                                                          SWS6:
  ...
Semantic mediation through MS
Prototypical application

                                                          SWS6:
  ...
Semantic mediation through MS
Prototypical application

                                                            SWS6:
...
Semantic mediation through MS
Prototypical application

                                                              SWS6...
Demo

                                                          SWS6:
                                                    ...
Conclusions
Summary & discussion

Summary:

       Two-fold approach: considering semantic-level mediation as implicit ele...
Thank you!




                  E-mail: s.dietze@open.ac.uk
             Web: http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/dietze




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Dietze Aswc 2009 Final

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Dietze Aswc 2009 Final

  1. 1. Two-Fold Service Matchmaking – Applying Ontology Mapping for Semantic Web Service Discovery /// ASWC’09, Shanghai, China, December 08, 2009 Stefan Dietze1, Neil Benn1, John Domingue1, Alex Conconi2, Fabio Cattatoni2 1Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, UK 2TXT eSolutions, Italy
  2. 2. Outline Semantic Web Services (SWS) mediation Two-fold matchmaking approach for SWS Prototypical implementation & application Conclusions 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  3. 3. Introduction Semantic Web Services (SWS) Formalisations of Web services in terms of capabilities (Cap), interfaces (If) and non-functional properties (Nfp) Capabilities: assumptions (Ass) and effects (Eff) sws:WebService sws:WebService sws:WebService Use ontologies O (i.e. tuple of SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 concepts C, instances I, properties P, relations R and axioms A) Reference models e.g. OWL-S, WSMO, SAWSDL WebService WebService WebService WS.1 WS.2 WS.3 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  4. 4. SWS matchmaking Issues SWS discovery: matchmaking of capabilities of SWS e.g. : sws:Request R.1 As 2 ⊂ As1 ∪ Ef 2 ⊂ Ef1 ? ? sws:WebService sws:WebService sws:WebService SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 WebService WebService WebService WS.1 WS.2 WS.3 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  5. 5. SWS matchmaking Issues As1 ≡ ¬ I1 ∩ I 2 SWS discovery: matchmaking of has-assumption capabilities of SWS e.g. : sws:Request R.1 As 2 ⊂ As1 ∪ Ef 2 ⊂ Ef1 I.e., matching logical expressions sws:WebService sws:WebService sws:WebService SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 has-assumption As 2 ≡ I 3 ∩ ¬ I 4 WebService WebService WebService WS.1 WS.2 WS.3 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  6. 6. SWS matchmaking Issues <geospatialLocation rdf:ID="M-K"/> As1 ≡ ¬ I1 ∩ I 2 SWS discovery: matchmaking of has-assumption capabilities of SWS e.g. : sws:Request R.1 As 2 ⊂ As1 ∪ Ef 2 ⊂ Ef1 ? I.e., matching logical expressions… …which are heterogeneous. sws:WebService sws:WebService sws:WebService SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 has-assumption As 2 ≡ I 3 ∩ ¬ I 4 <Location rdf:ID="Milton_Keynes"/> WebService WebService WebService WS.1 WS.2 WS.3 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  7. 7. SWS matchmaking Semantic-level mediation SWS discovery: matchmaking of capabilities of SWS e.g. : sws:Request R.1 As 2 ⊂ As1 ∪ Ef 2 ⊂ Ef1 Semantic-Level Mediation I.e., matching logical expressions… …which are heterogeneous. sws:WebService sws:WebService sws:WebService SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 Requires: mediation between concepts/instances across Mediation between heterogeneous heterogeneous SWS. semantic representations WebService WebService WebService WS.1 WS.2 WS.3 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  8. 8. SWS matchmaking Two-fold process Proposal: SWS matchmaking as two-fold process (i) Semantic mediation via ontology (instance) mapping (ii) Logical reasoning for matchmaking of capability/interface descriptions 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  9. 9. SWS matchmaking Two-fold process Proposal: SWS matchmaking as two-fold process (i) Semantic mediation via ontology (instance) mapping (ii) Logical reasoning for matchmaking of capability/interface descriptions Issues: Traditional SWS matchmaking focusses on (ii) Integration of (i): Via manual mappings? - costly Via exploitation of linguistic or structural similarities? - prone to errors Representations allowing for implicit similarity-computation ? 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  10. 10. Semantic-level mediation Approach: instance similarity computation in shared MS Refining SWS ontologies through multiple “Mediation Spaces” (MS), i.e. multidimensional, { vector spaces MS n = ( p1d1, p2d2 ,..., pndn ) di ∈ MS, pi ∈ ℜ } Through MS ontology (extends SWS descriptions) Concept C in SWS ontology O => Mediation Space MS / Instance I of C => member M (vector) in MS SWS Ontology O1 Concept C1x instance-of instance-of refined-as-ns Instance I1i Instance I1j d1 refined-as-member refined-as-member d2 d3 Mediation Space MS1x 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  11. 11. Semantic-level mediation Approach: instance similarity computation in shared MS Similarity-computation between SWS instances => spatial distances in MS n ui − u v −v 2 e.g. Euclidean distance: dist (u, v) = ∑ p (( i =1 i su )−( i sv )) Common agreement at schema (i.e. MS) level Agent 1 Agent 2 SWS Ontology O1 SWS Ontology O2 Concept c1x Concept c2x instance-of instance-of refined-as-ms refined-as-ms Instance i1i Instance i2i refined-as-member d1 refined-as-member d2 d3 Mediation Space MSx 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  12. 12. Similarity-based service matchmaking Implementation based on WSMO/IRS-III Implementation: Web Service Modelling Ontology (WSMO) & SWS environment IRS-III wsmo:Goal G.1 (1) (2) wsmo:Mediator wsmo:MedWS Med.1 SWS.1.1 Comp. Sim. (3) (4) wsmo:WebService wsmo:WebService wsmo:WebService SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 (5) 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  13. 13. Similarity-based service matchmaking Implementation based on WSMO/IRS-III Implementation: Web Service Modelling Ontology (WSMO) & SWS environment IRS-III WSMO Mediator: computation of similarities between given request (WSMO Goal, G1) and −1 set of x associated SWS (SWS1..SWSx):  n   ∑ ( dist k )  Sim(Gi , SWS j ) = Dist (Gi , SWS j ) =  k =1 ( )  −1  n      Limitation: suitability of service computed based on instance similarities (=> current work: integration into “real” two-fold matchmaking) wsmo:Goal G.1 (1) (2) wsmo:Mediator wsmo:MedWS Med.1 SWS.1.1 Comp. Sim. (3) (4) wsmo:WebService wsmo:WebService wsmo:WebService SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 (5) 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  14. 14. Semantic mediation through MS Prototypical application Uses representational approach (MS, similarity-based WSMO Mediator) Retrieval of distributed video resources (provided within EU FP7 IP NoTube - http://notube.tv) Keyword-based searches across Web services exposing video repositories BBC Backstage (news feed) [ http://backstage.bbc.co.uk/ ] BBC Programmes RDF [ http://api.talis.com/stores/bbc-backstage ] Open Video [ http://www.open-video.org/ ] OU channel on YouTube [ http://www.youtube.com/ou ] YouTube (mobile feed) [ http://www.youtube.com/ou ] Similarity-based service discovery for given request 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  15. 15. Semantic mediation through MS Prototypical application SWS6: get-video-request M6 ={v1, v2, v3} M6 ={v1, v2} 1 2 MS1 Purpose Space MS2 Environment Space O1:Purp O1:Env O2:Purp O2:Env O3:Purp O3:Env O4:Purp O4:Env O5:Purp O5:Env SWS1: SWS2: SWS3: SWS4: SWS5: OU-youtube bbc-programmes open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube WS1: WS2: WS3: WS4: WS5: OU-youtube bbc-programmes open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  16. 16. Semantic mediation through MS Prototypical application SWS6: get-video-request M6 ={v1, v2, v3} M6 ={v1, v2} 1 2 MS1 Purpose Space MS2 Environment Space O1:Purp O1:Env O2:Purp O2:Env O3:Purp O3:Env O4:Purp O4:Env O5:Purp O5:Env SWS1: SWS2: SWS3: SWS4: SWS5: OU-youtube bbc-programmes open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube WS1: WS2: WS3: WS4: WS5: OU-youtube bbc-programmes open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  17. 17. Semantic mediation through MS Prototypical application SWS6: get-video-request M6 ={v1, v2, v3} M6 ={v1, v2} 1 2 {(p1*information, p2*education, p3*leisure)} = CS1 {(p4*resolution, p5*bandwidth)} = CS2 MS1 Purpose Space MS2 Environment Space O1:Purp O1:Env O2:Purp O2:Env O3:Purp O3:Env O4:Purp O4:Env O5:Purp O5:Env SWS1: SWS2: SWS3: SWS4: SWS5: OU-youtube bbc-programmes open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube WS1: WS2: WS3: WS4: WS5: OU-youtube bbc-programmes open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  18. 18. Semantic mediation through MS Prototypical application SWS6: get-video-request M6 ={v1, v2, v3} M6 ={v1, v2} 1 2 MS1 Purpose Space MS2 Environment Space Requests (WSMO Goals) via AJAX-based UI O1:Purp O1:Env O2:Purp O2:Env O3:Purp O3:Env O4:Purp O4:Env O5:Purp O5:Env Consist of: SWS : SWS2: SWS3: SWS4: SWS5: 1 OU-youtube entertain-youtube open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube Input parameters: set of keywords Assumption: defined through dynamically created instances WS : 1 2WS : 3 WS : 4 WS : WS5: OU-youtube on measurements describing purpose and environment) (based entertain-youtube open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube Similarity-based SWS discovery based on WSMO mediator 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  19. 19. Demo SWS6: get-video-request M6 ={v1, v2, v3} M6 ={v1, v2} 1 2 MS1 Purpose Space MS2 Environment Space O1:Purp O1:Env O2:Purp O2:Env O3:Purp O3:Env O4:Purp O4:Env O5:Purp O5:Env SWS1: SWS2: SWS3: SWS4: SWS5: OU-youtube entertain-youtube open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube WS1: WS2: WS3: WS4: WS5: OU-youtube entertain-youtube open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  20. 20. Conclusions Summary & discussion Summary: Two-fold approach: considering semantic-level mediation as implicit element of SWS matchmaking Mediation approach based on (instance) similarity-computation Issues: Matchmaking purely based on instance similarities (=> current work: integration into “real” two-fold matchmaking) Similarity-calculation requires overlapping MS and measurable quality dimensions Additional representational effort => future work: evaluation 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  21. 21. Thank you! E-mail: s.dietze@open.ac.uk Web: http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/dietze 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference

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