Between Biological & Digital Memory David Wishart Depts. Biological Sciences & Computing Science National Institute for Na...
Outline <ul><li>Biological Memory & Biological Senses </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Versus Digital </li></ul><ul><li>How Di...
The Human Brain The world’s fastest and most portable computer
The Human Brain <ul><li>There are 10 10  neurons in our brains </li></ul><ul><li>There are roughly 10 15  synapses operati...
Human Memory <ul><li>Declarative memory - the storage and recall of information available to the conscious mind, which can...
Persistence of Memory (Biological) <ul><li>Immediate memory   1-60 sec </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term memory   10 min-2 week...
How Memories Are Formed Emotional  Reinforcement
Mapping Sensory Memories
Evolution of Biological Sensors Decreasing Strength of the Memory 2 billion  530 million  150 million 750 million  450 mil...
Mapping The Sensory Experience Homunculus
Extending Our Senses 1 m  1 x 10 3  m  1x10 18  m  1x10 24  m Free  $500  $5000  $500,000,000
Extending Our Memory Capacity 20,000 BP  5000 BP  500 BP  100 BP  Today
Powering Memory  (Biological vs. Digital) 10 Watts for the Human Brain 12 Watts for a Laptop
Different Types of Biological Memory Reflex  Immunity  Hippocampus  Genetic 1 sec  10 years  100 years  1,000,000,000 years
Different Types of Digital Memory RAM  Floppy Disk  CD/DVD  Flash Memory 1 sec  3 years  10 years  100 years?
Digital vs.   Biological
How Digital Memory Works
Evolution of Digital Memory
Outline <ul><li>Biological Memory & Biological Senses </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Versus Digital </li></ul><ul><li>How Di...
Capacity of Human Memory? <ul><li>Von Neumann (1950) – 10 20  bits or about 1 Exabyte (1 byte = 8 bits) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Putting it into Perspective <ul><li>1 Human = 100 Megabytes </li></ul><ul><li>Data on the Web = 1x10 15  bytes </li></ul><...
The Data Explosion <ul><li>1 newspaper in 1605 </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 newspapers today </li></ul><ul><li>3 scientific jo...
Global Memory Capacity <ul><li>30 billion CDs sold since 1990 (2x10 18  bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>5 billion DVDs sold since...
Can We Store All Personal (Text) Experience? <ul><li>The average person spends 1,578 hours watching TV, 12 hours a year at...
Can We Store All Personal (Visual) Experience? <ul><li>1 hour of video on a DVD = 2.5 Gbytes </li></ul><ul><li>Average # h...
Can We Store All Human Experience & Knowledge? <ul><li>Global quantity of films (10,000+ titles/year) ~50 terabytes/year <...
Integrating Digital with Biological
Wearable Computing The CharmIT is a modular lightweight open-architecture wearable computer that's  compact but fully feat...
Reaching Out  10m  100m  1000m  100km  10,000km bluetooth WiFi WalkieTalkie Cell phone Satellite
Shrinking Down
Shrinking Way Down Single Molecule Field Effect Transistor
Shrinking Way Down
Nanobot Challenge <ul><li>Build a bacterium that seeks a light source target, then touches the target and on touching send...
Protein Memory Chips h  Low Energy   High Energy N N S S
Summary <ul><li>Biological Memory & Biological Senses </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Versus Digital </li></ul><ul><li>How Di...
Art Imitates Life Engineers Imitate Life
Some Final Thoughts… <ul><li>&quot;The best memory is that which forgets nothing, but injuries. Write kindness in marble a...
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Between Biological and Digital Memory Prof David Wishart

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slight mash up of presentation I like. the original preseantation is freely available on the web here:- http://redpoll.pharmacy.ualberta.ca/lab_talks/talks.html

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Between Biological and Digital Memory Prof David Wishart

  1. 1. Between Biological & Digital Memory David Wishart Depts. Biological Sciences & Computing Science National Institute for Nanotechnology University of Alberta
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Biological Memory & Biological Senses </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Versus Digital </li></ul><ul><li>How Digital Memory works </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Capacity and Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Biological with Digital </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Human Brain The world’s fastest and most portable computer
  4. 4. The Human Brain <ul><li>There are 10 10 neurons in our brains </li></ul><ul><li>There are roughly 10 15 synapses operating at about 10 impulses/second (Biggest CPUs have 10 8 transistors) </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 10 16 synapse operations per second (Fastest computer [Blue Gene] perform at 10 14 FLOPS) </li></ul><ul><li>Total energy consumption of the brain is about 25 watts (Blue Gene requires 1.5 Megawatts) </li></ul>http://www.merkle.com/brainLimits.html
  5. 5. Human Memory <ul><li>Declarative memory - the storage and recall of information available to the conscious mind, which can therefore be expressed (declared) using language – There are 3 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic memory (facts and knowledge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic memory (memory for specific events and experiences) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Persistence of Memory (Biological) <ul><li>Immediate memory 1-60 sec </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term memory 10 min-2 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term memory 2 weeks-20 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Max. memory (1 person) 100 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Max. memory (written) 5000 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Max. memory (humanity) 20,000 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Max. memory (biology) 1 billion yrs </li></ul>
  7. 7. How Memories Are Formed Emotional Reinforcement
  8. 8. Mapping Sensory Memories
  9. 9. Evolution of Biological Sensors Decreasing Strength of the Memory 2 billion 530 million 150 million 750 million 450 million
  10. 10. Mapping The Sensory Experience Homunculus
  11. 11. Extending Our Senses 1 m 1 x 10 3 m 1x10 18 m 1x10 24 m Free $500 $5000 $500,000,000
  12. 12. Extending Our Memory Capacity 20,000 BP 5000 BP 500 BP 100 BP Today
  13. 13. Powering Memory (Biological vs. Digital) 10 Watts for the Human Brain 12 Watts for a Laptop
  14. 14. Different Types of Biological Memory Reflex Immunity Hippocampus Genetic 1 sec 10 years 100 years 1,000,000,000 years
  15. 15. Different Types of Digital Memory RAM Floppy Disk CD/DVD Flash Memory 1 sec 3 years 10 years 100 years?
  16. 16. Digital vs. Biological
  17. 17. How Digital Memory Works
  18. 18. Evolution of Digital Memory
  19. 19. Outline <ul><li>Biological Memory & Biological Senses </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Versus Digital </li></ul><ul><li>How Digital Memory works </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Capacity and Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Biological with Digital </li></ul>
  20. 20. Capacity of Human Memory? <ul><li>Von Neumann (1950) – 10 20 bits or about 1 Exabyte (1 byte = 8 bits) </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomists (1970’s) – 10 13 -10 15 synapses allowing 10 16 syn-ops/sec </li></ul><ul><li>Landauer (1986*) – 100 Megabytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined that we retain 2 bits/sec of visual, verbal, tactile, musical memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human lifetime ~ 2.5 billion seconds </li></ul></ul>Thomas K. Landauer &quot;How Much Do People Remember? Some Estimates of the Quantity of Learned Information in Long-term Memory&quot; Cognitive Science 10, 477-493, 1986
  21. 21. Putting it into Perspective <ul><li>1 Human = 100 Megabytes </li></ul><ul><li>Data on the Web = 1x10 15 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress = 3x10 15 bytes </li></ul><ul><li># of Words ever written = 10 15 (or about 10 16 bytes) </li></ul><ul><li># of Words ever spoken = 10 18 (or about 10 19 bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>Memory of all humans ever lived = 1x10 19 bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Data on all Digital Media = 3x10 19 bytes </li></ul>http://www.lesk.com/mlesk/ksg97/ksg.html
  22. 22. The Data Explosion <ul><li>1 newspaper in 1605 </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 newspapers today </li></ul><ul><li>3 scientific journals in 1750 </li></ul><ul><li>120,000 scientific journals today </li></ul><ul><li>1 book title published in 1450 </li></ul><ul><li>900,000 book titles/year today </li></ul><ul><li>1 page on the Web in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>8,058,044,651 web pages on Google </li></ul>
  23. 23. Global Memory Capacity <ul><li>30 billion CDs sold since 1990 (2x10 18 bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>5 billion DVDs sold since 2000 (2x10 19 bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>900 million computers ever sold (2x10 18 bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>20 million MP3 players sold since 2002 (2x10 17 bytes) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Can We Store All Personal (Text) Experience? <ul><li>The average person spends 1,578 hours watching TV, 12 hours a year at movies, at 120 words per minute that's 11 million words (~50 Mbytes) </li></ul><ul><li>The average person spends 354 hours a year of reading periodicals and books at 300 words per minute reading speed would be another 32 Mbytes of text </li></ul><ul><li>In seventy years of life you would be exposed to around 6 Gbytes of ASCII text </li></ul>
  25. 25. Can We Store All Personal (Visual) Experience? <ul><li>1 hour of video on a DVD = 2.5 Gbytes </li></ul><ul><li>Average # hours lived = 600,000 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Total number of bytes is approximately 1500 Terabytes (~1.5 x 10 15 bytes) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Can We Store All Human Experience & Knowledge? <ul><li>Global quantity of films (10,000+ titles/year) ~50 terabytes/year </li></ul><ul><li>Global quantity of written words (900,000 book titles, 10,000 newspapers/year) ~160 terabytes/year </li></ul><ul><li>Global quantity of photographs (~100 billion/year) ~10 18 bytes/year </li></ul><ul><li>2 billion minutes/year of phone/voice transmission ~2 x 10 19 bytes/year </li></ul>http://www.lesk.com/mlesk/ksg97/ksg.html
  27. 27. Integrating Digital with Biological
  28. 28. Wearable Computing The CharmIT is a modular lightweight open-architecture wearable computer that's compact but fully featured, equipped with most everything you'd expect in a modern PC, from Charmed.com (SIGGRAF Fashion Show 2004)
  29. 29. Reaching Out 10m 100m 1000m 100km 10,000km bluetooth WiFi WalkieTalkie Cell phone Satellite
  30. 30. Shrinking Down
  31. 31. Shrinking Way Down Single Molecule Field Effect Transistor
  32. 32. Shrinking Way Down
  33. 33. Nanobot Challenge <ul><li>Build a bacterium that seeks a light source target, then touches the target and on touching sends out a flashing signal </li></ul>
  34. 34. Protein Memory Chips h  Low Energy High Energy N N S S
  35. 35. Summary <ul><li>Biological Memory & Biological Senses </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Versus Digital </li></ul><ul><li>How Digital Memory works </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Capacity and Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Biological with Digital </li></ul>
  36. 36. Art Imitates Life Engineers Imitate Life
  37. 37. Some Final Thoughts… <ul><li>&quot;The best memory is that which forgets nothing, but injuries. Write kindness in marble and write injuries in the dust.“ – Persian Proverb </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Everyone has a photographic memory. Some don't have film.“ – Anonymous </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;God gave us memory so that we might have roses in December.“ – James Matthew Barrie </li></ul>

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