Romeo and Juliet & Macbeth Study booklet 2013


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Romeo and Juliet & Macbeth Study booklet 2013

  1. 1. & Controlled Assessment Booklet 2013-14 Name:...................................................................................................................
  2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction and Controlled Assessment Question Romeo and Juliet Characters – Who’s Who? The Prologue Summary and Key Passages Act 1 Scene 5 (Romeo and Juliet meet at the Capulet’s Ball) Act 2 Scene 2 (The Balcony Scene) Scene summaries from: Act 2 Scene 6 (The Wedding) Act 3 Scene 5 (The Morning After) Act 5 Scene 3 (The End) The Plot - Fill in the Gaps Love and Marriage in the 1500s Romeo and Juliet and Love – Issues and Questions Key Quotes on Love in Romeo and Juliet P-E-E Grid on Love Emotion Graph What is a tragedy? Sort it Out - The Balcony Scene Macbeth Key Passages Act 1 Scene 5 (Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Meet) Act 1 Scene 7 (Before the Death of Duncan) Act 2 Scene 2 (After the Killing) Act 3 Scene 2 (Before the Banquet) Act Act 5 Scene 1(Lady Macbeth starts to lose her mind) Act 5 Scene 5 (Death of Lady Macbeth) Macbeth and Lady Macbeth’s Relationship Comparing the two plays How is the Controlled Assessment Marked? How well can you do this? Short Essay Plan Pre-Plan Planning Sheet Marking Criteria
  3. 3. Introduction This unit is called SHAKESPEARE AND THE LITERARY HERITAGE. You will spend around 8 weeks preparing for your controlled assessment task. It is worth 25% of your English Literature final grade. You will have up to 4 lessons to write the final piece. You should aim to write four or five A4 pages or around 1500 words. Remember how much it is worth! You will annotate the key scenes in class when studying it but you will be given clean (not annotated!) copies of the key passages when writing the actual controlled assessment piece. Students can have access to a Dictionary and/or Thesaurus during production time You will read the play in class, watch the film, study the play’s background as well as attempt a practice essay. Controlled Assessment Question: Compare how Shakespeare presents the relationship between Romeo and Juliet and the relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth? All Assessment Objectives are addressed (including contexts): AO2=10%; other 3=5%. You will be assessed on how you: AO1: respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations (5%) AO2: explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes and settings (10%) AO3: make comparisons and explain links between texts, evaluating writers’ different ways of expressing meaning and achieving effects (5%) AO4: relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts; explain how texts have been influential and significant to self and other readers in different contexts and at different times. (5%)
  4. 4.  Can you create the correct chain to link all of the characters together? Clue: The chain starts with LADY CAPULET and ends with THE PRINCE OF VERONA. Write out the chain in your book. Then, you could create a family tree for each family. B A LADY CAPULET is married to THE PRINCE OF VERONA, who also says the last lines in the play. FRIAR LAWRENCE C TYBALT, and he has a D fight at the start of Juliet’s cousin is called the play with a Montague called E F BENVOLIO CAPULET, and their daughter The fight is stopped is called by H G PARIS ROMEO The Capulet family hate the Romeo and Juliet are married by I J JULIET Juliet’s parents want her to Montague family, and the son of marry Montague and Lady Montague is
  5. 5. Act 1, The Prologue This is spoken by one of the actors who comes on to the stage before the beginning of the play. Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. From forth the fatal loins of these two foes A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life; Whose misadventured piteous overthrows Do with their death bury their parents' strife. The fearful passage of their death-mark'd love, And the continuance of their parents' rage, Which, but their children's end, nought could remove, Is now the two hours' traffic of our stage; The which if you with patient ears attend, What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend. Glossary 1. dignity: rank. 3. mutiny: rebellion against law and order. Make notes on the language of the prologue. Why do you think the actor gives away the ending? Try to write a modern version of the prologue in the style of a book blurb or a movie trailer voice over. 4. civil blood: the blood of civil war (between civilians). civil hands: citizens' hands. The repeated use of the word "civil" creates an irony: the citizens of Verona should be civil—respectful and civilized—, but they are the opposite. 6. star-cross'd: thwarted by the stars, frustrated or doomed. 7. misadventured: caused by bad luck. 9. passage: progress, from beginning to end. 12. traffic: business. 14. miss: miss the mark. mend: repair.
  6. 6. SCENE SUMMARIES Prologue: The Chorus tells us the plot of the play, and what kind of play it is. Act 1, Scene 1: Sampson and Gregory, servants of the house of Capulet, go out looking for trouble. . . . Sampson and Gregory almost pick a fight with Abraham and Balthasar, servants of the house of Montague. . . . Seeing a Capulet kinsman, Sampson and Gregory start to fight with Abraham and Balthasar. Benvolio tries to stop the fight, but Tybalt enters and attacks Benvolio. The citizens of Verona attack both the Capulets and Montagues. Capulet and Montague try to join the fight, but are restrained by their wives. . . . Prince Escalus stops the riot, threatens everyone with death, and takes Capulet with him, leaving Benvolio alone with Montague and Lady Montague. Lady Montague asks where Romeo is, and Benvolio answers that he was up before dawn, wandering in the woods. The Montagues say that Romeo is afflicted with strange sorrows, and Benvolio offers to find out what's wrong with him. . . . Seeing Romeo coming, Montague and Lady Montague leave Benvolio alone to speak with their son. Benvolio soon discovers that Romeo's problem is that he loves a woman who doesn't return his love. Benvolio tries to get Romeo to say who it is he loves, but Romeo won't. Benvolio also tries to get Romeo to solve his problem by looking for another woman, but Romeo seems determined to love and suffer. Act 1, Scene 2: Paris asks Capulet for Juliet's hand in marriage. Capulet thinks she's too young, but tells Paris to woo her, and invites him to a feast that night. Capulet sends the servant out to invite other guests to the feast. . . . Benvolio is still trying to talk Romeo into considering other ladies when they are interrupted by the Capulet servant, who asks Romeo to read something for him. It is a list of guests at Capulet's feast that night. Thus Romeo discovers that Rosaline, his beloved, will be at the feast. Benvolio challenges Romeo to go to the feast and compare Rosaline with other beauties. Romeo says he will go, but only to rejoice that Rosaline is most beautiful of all. Act 1, Scene 3: Lady Capulet wants to have a serious conversation with Juliet, but the Nurse interrupts with a long reminiscence about Juliet's weaning and what Juliet said about falling on her back. Lady Capulet tells Juliet that Paris wants to marry her, and urges her to look him over and see that he is the husband for her. Servants come to call everyone to the feast. Act 1, Scene 4: Mercutio tries to persuade Romeo to dance at Capulet's feast, but Romeo insists that he is too sadly love-lorn to do anything but hold a torch. Then Romeo says that it's not wise to go to the feast at all, because of a dream he had. . . . Mercutio mocks Romeo's belief in his dream, but Romeo is sure that some terrible fate awaits him. Nevertheless, he goes into the feast with his friends. ACT 1 SCENE 5: READ THE KEY SCENE
  7. 7. Act 2, Prologue: The Chorus tells us that Romeo and Juliet are suffering because they can't meet, but that passion gives them power to find a way to see each other: Act 2, Scene 1: On his way home from Capulet's feast, Romeo turns back and jumps the wall of Capulet's garden. Benvolio calls for Romeo and Mercutio bawdily conjures Romeo, but he will not appear, and his friends depart. ACT 2 SCENE 2: READ THE KEY SCENE Act 2, Scene 3: At dawn Friar Laurence gathers herbs and comments on how -- in both plants and people -- everything has some good, and every good can be abused and turned to evil. . . . Romeo appears and tells Friar Laurence that he has fallen in love with Juliet and wants him to marry them. The Friar criticizes Romeo for jumping so quickly from love of Rosaline to love of Juliet, but agrees to perform the ceremony because he thinks that the marriage may end the hatred between the Capulets and Montagues. Act 2, Scene 4: Mercutio wonders where Romeo is. Benvolio says that Tybalt has sent a challenge to Romeo, and Mercutio scornfully describes Tybalt as an conceited killer. . . . Mercutio kids Romeo about love, and Romeo joins in the bawdy repartee. . . . Mercutio bawdily mocks the Nurse, who tells Romeo that she wants a word in private with him. . . . The Nurse complains about Mercutio, receives from Romeo the information about time and place of the wedding, then chatters on about how sweet Juliet is. Act 2, Scene 5: Juliet impatiently awaits the return of the Nurse with news from Romeo. . . . The Nurse teases Juliet by finding all kinds of ways to not deliver the joyful news, but finally tells her that she is to go Friar Laurence's cell to be married to Romeo. ACT 2 SCENE 6: READ THE KEY SCENE Act 3, Scene 1: On the streets of Verona Benvolio tries to persuade Mercutio that it's best to stay out of the way of the Capulets and a quarrel, but Mercutio jokingly claims that Benvolio is as much of a quarreler as anyone. . . . Tybalt, looking for Romeo, is challenged to a fight by Mercutio, but then Romeo appears. . . . Tybalt challenges Romeo to fight. Romeo refuses, but Mercutio steps forward and fights Tybalt. As Romeo is trying to stop the fight, Tybalt gives Mercutio a wound, then runs away. Mercutio dies. Romeo is ashamed of himself for letting Mercutio do the fighting, and when Tybalt returns, Romeo kills him. Benvolio has a hard time getting the dazed Romeo to leave the scene. . . . Benvolio tells the Prince what happened. Lady Capulet wants Romeo's life, but the Prince levies fines and exiles Romeo. Act 3, Scene 2: Juliet longs for the coming of night and Romeo. . . . The Nurse appears; she has seen Tybalt's corpse and heard that Romeo has been banished. The Nurse is so overwrought that her words first make Juliet think that Romeo is dead. When the Nurse finally makes it clear that Tybalt is dead and Romeo is banished, Juliet first turns against
  8. 8. Romeo for killing her cousin, then defends him for killing the man who would have killed him. Then Juliet remembers that the Nurse said Romeo has been "banished," which drives her to despair. The Nurse promises Juliet that she'll make arrangements for Romeo to come that night for a farewell visit. Act 3, Scene 3: Learning from the Friar that he is to be banished, Romeo declares that the Friar is torturing him to death, then throws himself on the floor, moaning and weeping. . . . The Nurse brings news that Juliet is in just as bad shape as Romeo. Romeo, wild with guilt at the pain he has caused Juliet, tries to stab himself. Friar Laurence lectures Romeo and tells him what to do -- go to Juliet, then to Mantua until the Prince can be persuaded to pardon him. The Nurse gives Romeo the ring that Juliet asked her to take to him. These things put Romeo into a better frame of mind and he leaves Friar Laurence's cell to go to Juliet. Act 3, Scene 4: On a sudden impulse, Capulet promises Paris that Juliet will marry him the day after tomorrow. ACT 3 SCENE 5: READ THE KEY SCENE Act 4, Scene 1: As Paris is making arrangements with Friar Laurence to perform the wedding ceremony between himself and Juliet, she appears. Paris tries to tease some sign of affection out of Juliet and reminds her that they are to be married on Thursday. . . . Juliet says that she will kill herself rather than marry Paris, and the Friar comes up with the plan for her to take the drug which will make her appear dead for 42 hours, so that the wedding will be called off and Romeo can come and take her to Mantua. Act 4, Scene 2: Capulet is making arrangements for the wedding feast when Juliet appears, begs her father's pardon, and tells him that she will marry Paris. This makes Capulet so happy that he moves the wedding up to the very next day, Wednesday. Act 4, Scene 3: Juliet persuades her mother and the Nurse to leave her alone. She agonizes over everything that could go wrong, is terrified by visions of the grave, and drinks to Romeo. Act 4, Scene 4: The Capulets and their servants are busily preparing for the wedding. Paris' musicians are heard, and Capulet sends the Nurse to awaken Juliet. Act 4, Scene 5: The Nurse tries to awaken Juliet, but finds that she is (apparently) dead. Lady Capulet and Capulet come running, then lament their daughter's death. . . . The rest of the wedding party arrives, only to find that Juliet is dead and hear the clamour of lamentation. Capulet, Lady Capulet, Paris, and the Nurse go nearly wild with grief, but Friar Laurence takes command of the situation by reminding everyone that Juliet is now in a better place, and telling them proceed with her funeral. . . . As the musicians are starting to leave, Peter
  9. 9. rushes in and demands that they play a sad song to cheer him up. They refuse, Peter insults them with a riddle, and they all leave to wait for lunch. Act 5, Scene 1: Romeo expects good news from Verona, but receives the news that Juliet is dead. He buys poison of an apothecary and says that he intends to return to Verona and join Juliet in death. Act 5, Scene 2: Friar John explains to Friar Laurence why he was unable to deliver Friar Laurence's letter to Romeo. Friar Laurence sends Friar John to get a crowbar and makes plans to be there when Juliet awakes, write again to Romeo in Mantua, and hide Juliet in his cell until Romeo arrives. ACT 5 SCENE 5: READ THE FINAL KEY SCENE
  10. 10. ROMEO O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope's ear; Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear! So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows, As yonder lady o'er her fellows shows. The measure done, I'll watch her place of stand, And, touching hers, make blessed my rude hand. Did my heart love till now? forswear it, sight! For I ne'er saw true beauty till this night. ..... ROMEO [To JULIET] If I profane with my unworthiest hand This holy shrine, the gentle fine is this: My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss. JULIET Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, Which mannerly devotion shows in this; For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss. ROMEO Have not saints lips, and holy palmers too? JULIET Ay, pilgrim, lips that they must use in prayer. ROMEO O, then, dear saint, let lips do what hands do; They pray, grant thou, lest faith turn to despair. JULIET Saints do not move, though grant for prayers' sake. ROMEO Then move not, while my prayer's effect I take. Thus from my lips, by yours, my sin is purged. JULIET Then have my lips the sin that they have took. ROMEO Sin from thy lips? O trespass sweetly urged! Give me my sin again. JULIET You kiss by the book. Nurse Madam, your mother craves a word with you. ROMEO What is her mother? Nurse Marry, bachelor, Her mother is the lady of the house, And a good lady, and a wise and virtuous I nursed her daughter, that you talked withal; I tell you, he that can lay hold of her Shall have the chinks. ROMEO
  11. 11. Is she a Capulet? O dear account! my life is my foe's debt. BENVOLIO Away, be gone; the sport is at the best. ROMEO Ay, so I fear; the more is my unrest. CAPULET Nay, gentlemen, prepare not to be gone; We have a trifling foolish banquet towards. Is it even so? why, then, I thank you all I thank you, honest gentlemen; good night. More torches here! Come on then, let's to bed. Ah, sirrah, by my fay, it waxes late: I'll to my rest. Exeunt all but JULIET and Nurse JULIET Come hither, nurse. What is yond gentleman? Nurse The son and heir of old Tiberio. JULIET What's he that now is going out of door? Nurse Marry, that, I think, be young Petrucio. JULIET What's he that follows there, that would not dance? Nurse I know not. JULIET Go ask his name: if he be married My grave is like to be my wedding bed. Nurse His name is Romeo, and a Montague; The only son of your great enemy. JULIET My only love sprung from my only hate! Too early seen unknown, and known too late! Prodigious birth of love it is to me, That I must love a loathed enemy. Nurse What's this? what's this? JULIET A rhyme I learned even now Of one I danced withal. One calls within 'Juliet.' Nurse Anon, anon! Come, let's away; the strangers all are gone. Exeunt
  12. 12. Enter ROMEO ROMEO He jests at scars that never felt a wound. JULIET appears above at a window But, soft! what light through yonder window breaks? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, Who is already sick and pale with grief, That thou her maid art far more fair than she: Be not her maid, since she is envious; Her vestal livery is but sick and green And none but fools do wear it; cast it off. It is my lady, O, it is my love! O, that she knew she were! She speaks yet she says nothing: what of that? Her eye discourses; I will answer it. I am too bold, 'tis not to me she speaks: Two of the fairest stars in all the heaven, Having some business, do entreat her eyes To twinkle in their spheres till they return. What if her eyes were there, they in her head? The brightness of her cheek would shame those stars, As daylight doth a lamp; her eyes in heaven Would through the airy region stream so bright That birds would sing and think it were not night. See, how she leans her cheek upon her hand! O, that I were a glove upon that hand, That I might touch that cheek! JULIET Ay me! ROMEO She speaks: O, speak again, bright angel! for thou art As glorious to this night, being o'er my head As is a winged messenger of heaven Unto the white-upturned wondering eyes Of mortals that fall back to gaze on him When he bestrides the lazy-pacing clouds And sails upon the bosom of the air. JULIET O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo? Deny thy father and refuse thy name; Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love, And I'll no longer be a Capulet. ROMEO [Aside] Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this? JULIET
  13. 13. It is but thy name that is my enemy; Thou art thyself, though not a Montague. What's Montague? it is nor hand, nor foot, Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part Belonging to a man. O, be some other name! What's in a name? that which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet; So Romeo would, were he not Romeo called, Retain that dear perfection which he owes Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name, And for that name which is no part of thee Take all myself. ROMEO I take thee at thy word: Call me but love, and I'll be new baptized; Henceforth I never will be Romeo. JULIET What man art thou that thus bescreened in night So stumbles on my counsel? ROMEO By a name I know not how to tell thee who I am: My name, dear saint, is hateful to myself, Because it is an enemy to thee; Had I it written, I would tear the word. JULIET My ears have not yet drunk a hundred words Of that tongue's utterance, yet I know the sound: Art thou not Romeo and a Montague? ROMEO Neither, fair saint, if either thee dislike. JULIET How came thou hither, tell me, and wherefore? The orchard walls are high and hard to climb, And the place death, considering who thou art, If any of my kinsmen find thee here. ROMEO With love's light wings did I o'er-perch these walls; For stony limits cannot hold love out, And what love can do that dares love attempt; Therefore thy kinsmen are no let to me. JULIET If they do see thee, they will murder thee. ROMEO Alack, there lies more peril in thine eye Than twenty of their swords: look thou but sweet, And I am proof against their enmity. JULIET I would not for the world they saw thee here.
  14. 14. ROMEO I have night's cloak to hide me from their sight; And but thou love me, let them find me here: My life were better ended by their hate, Than death prorogued, wanting of thy love. JULIET By whose direction found thou out this place? ROMEO By love, who first did prompt me to inquire; He lent me counsel and I lent him eyes. I am no pilot; yet, were thou as far As that vast shore washed with the farthest sea, I would adventure for such merchandise. JULIET Thou knows the mask of night is on my face, Else would a maiden blush bepaint my cheek For that which thou hast heard me speak to-night Fain would I dwell on form, fain, fain deny What I have spoke: but farewell compliment! Dost thou love me? I know thou wilt say 'Ay,' And I will take thy word: yet if thou swears, Thou may prove false; at lovers' perjuries Then say, Jove laughs. O gentle Romeo, If thou dost love, pronounce it faithfully: Or if thou thinks I am too quickly won, I'll frown and be perverse an say thee nay, So thou wilt woo; but else, not for the world. In truth, fair Montague, I am too fond, And therefore thou may think my behaviour light: But trust me, gentleman, I'll prove more true Than those that have more cunning to be strange. I should have been more strange, I must confess, But that thou overheard, ere I was ware, My true love's passion: therefore pardon me, And not impute this yielding to light love, Which the dark night hath so discovered. ROMEO Lady, by yonder blessed moon I swear That tips with silver all these fruit-tree tops-JULIET O, swear not by the moon, the inconstant moon, That monthly changes in her circled orb, Lest that thy love prove likewise variable. ROMEO What shall I swear by? JULIET Do not swear at all; Or, if thou wilt, swear by thy gracious self, Which is the god of my idolatry, And I'll believe thee.
  15. 15. ROMEO If my heart's dear love-JULIET Well, do not swear: although I joy in thee, I have no joy of this contract to-night: It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden; Too like the lightning, which doth cease to be Ere one can say 'It lightens.' Sweet, good night! This bud of love, by summer's ripening breath, May prove a beauteous flower when next we meet. Good night, good night! as sweet repose and rest Come to thy heart as that within my breast! ROMEO O, wilt thou leave me so unsatisfied? JULIET What satisfaction canst thou have to-night? ROMEO The exchange of thy love's faithful vow for mine. JULIET I gave thee mine before thou didst request it: And yet I would it were to give again. ROMEO Wouldst thou withdraw it? for what purpose, love? JULIET But to be frank, and give it thee again. And yet I wish but for the thing I have: My bounty is as boundless as the sea, My love as deep; the more I give to thee, The more I have, for both are infinite. Nurse calls within I hear some noise within; dear love, adieu! Anon, good nurse! Sweet Montague, be true. Stay but a little, I will come again. Exit, above ROMEO O blessed, blessed night! I am afeard. Being in night, all this is but a dream, Too flattering-sweet to be substantial. Re-enter JULIET, above JULIET Three words, dear Romeo, and good night indeed. If that thy bent of love be honourable, Thy purpose marriage, send me word to-morrow, By one that I'll procure to come to thee,
  16. 16. Where and what time thou wilt perform the rite; And all my fortunes at thy foot I'll lay And follow thee my lord throughout the world. Nurse [Within] Madam! JULIET I come, anon.--But if thou means not well, I do beseech thee-Nurse [Within] Madam! JULIET By and by, I come:-To cease thy suit, and leave me to my grief: To-morrow will I send. ROMEO So thrive my soul-JULIET A thousand times good night! Exit, above ROMEO A thousand times the worse, to want thy light. Love goes toward love, as schoolboys from their books, But love from love, toward school with heavy looks. Retiring Re-enter JULIET, above JULIET Hist! Romeo, hist! O, for a falconer's voice, To lure this tassel-gentle back again! Bondage is hoarse, and may not speak aloud; Else would I tear the cave where Echo lies, And make her airy tongue more hoarse than mine, With repetition of my Romeo's name. ROMEO It is my soul that calls upon my name: How silver-sweet sound lovers' tongues by night, Like softest music to attending ears! JULIET Romeo! ROMEO My dear? JULIET At what o'clock to-morrow Shall I send to thee? ROMEO
  17. 17. At the hour of nine. JULIET I will not fail: 'tis twenty years till then. I have forgot why I did call thee back. ROMEO Let me stand here till thou remember it. JULIET I shall forget, to have thee still stand there, Remembering how I love thy company. ROMEO And I'll still stay, to have thee still forget, Forgetting any other home but this. JULIET It is almost morning; I would have thee gone: And yet no further than a wanton's bird; Who lets it hop a little from her hand, Like a poor prisoner in his twisted gyves, And with a silk thread plucks it back again, So loving-jealous of his liberty. ROMEO I would I were thy bird. JULIET Sweet, so would I: Yet I should kill thee with much cherishing. Good night, good night! parting is such sweet sorrow, That I shall say good night till it be morrow. Exit above ROMEO Sleep dwell upon thine eyes, peace in thy breast! Would I were sleep and peace, so sweet to rest! Hence will I to my ghostly father's cell, His help to crave, and my dear hap to tell. Exit
  18. 18. SCENE VI. Friar Laurence's cell. Enter FRIAR LAURENCE and ROMEO FRIAR LAURENCE So smile the heavens upon this holy act, That after hours with sorrow chide us not! ROMEO Amen, amen! but come what sorrow can, It cannot countervail the exchange of joy That one short minute gives me in her sight: Do thou but close our hands with holy words, Then love-devouring death do what he dare; It is enough I may but call her mine. FRIAR LAURENCE These violent delights have violent ends And in their triumph die, like fire and powder, Which as they kiss consume: the sweetest honey Is loathsome in his own deliciousness And in the taste confounds the appetite: Therefore love moderately; long love doth so; Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. Enter JULIET Here comes the lady: O, so light a foot Will ne'er wear out the everlasting flint: A lover may bestride the gossamer That idles in the wanton summer air, And yet not fall; so light is vanity. JULIET Good even to my ghostly confessor. FRIAR LAURENCE Romeo shall thank thee, daughter, for us both. JULIET As much to him, else is his thanks too much. ROMEO Ah, Juliet, if the measure of thy joy Be heaped like mine and that thy skill be more To blazon it, then sweeten with thy breath This neighbour air, and let rich music's tongue Unfold the imagined happiness that both Receive in either by this dear encounter. JULIET Conceit, more rich in matter than in words, Brags of his substance, not of ornament: They are but beggars that can count their worth; But my true love is grown to such excess I cannot sum up sum of half my wealth. FRIAR LAURENCE Come, come with me, and we will make short work; For, by your leaves, you shall not stay alone Till holy church incorporate two in one. Exeunt
  19. 19. SCENE V. Capulet's orchard. Enter ROMEO and JULIET above, at the window JULIET Wilt thou be gone? it is not yet near day: It was the nightingale, and not the lark, That pierced the fearful hollow of thine ear; Nightly she sings on yon pomegranate-tree: Believe me, love, it was the nightingale. ROMEO It was the lark, the herald of the morn, No nightingale: look, love, what envious streaks Do lace the severing clouds in yonder east: Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain tops. I must be gone and live, or stay and die. JULIET Yon light is not day-light, I know it, I: It is some meteor that the sun exhales, To be to thee this night a torch-bearer, And light thee on thy way to Mantua: Therefore stay yet; thou need not to be gone. ROMEO Let me be taken, let me be put to death; I am content, so thou wilt have it so. I'll say yon grey is not the morning's eye, It’s but the pale reflex of Cynthia's brow; Nor that is not the lark, whose notes do beat The vaulty heaven so high above our heads: I have more care to stay than will to go: Come, death, and welcome! Juliet wills it so. How is it, my soul? let's talk; it is not day. JULIET It is, it is: hie hence, be gone, away! It is the lark that sings so out of tune, Straining harsh discords and unpleasing sharps. Some say the lark makes sweet division; This doth not so, for she divides us: Some say the lark and loathed toad change eyes, O, now I would they had changed voices too! Since arm from arm that voice doth us affray, Hunting thee hence with hunt's-up to the day, O, now be gone; more light and light it grows. ROMEO More light and light; more dark and dark our woes! Enter Nurse, to the chamber Nurse Madam! JULIET Nurse? Nurse
  20. 20. Your lady mother is coming to your chamber: The day is broke; be wary, look about. Exit JULIET Then, window, let day in, and let life out. ROMEO Farewell, farewell! one kiss, and I'll descend. JULIET Art thou gone so? love, lord, ay, husband, friend! I must hear from thee every day in the hour, For in a minute there are many days: O, by this count I shall be much in years Ere I again behold my Romeo! ROMEO Farewell! I will omit no opportunity That may convey my greetings, love, to thee. JULIET O think thou we shall ever meet again? ROMEO I doubt it not; and all these woes shall serve For sweet discourses in our time to come. JULIET O God, I have an ill-divining soul! Methinks I see thee, now thou art below, As one dead in the bottom of a tomb: Either my eyesight fails, or thou look pale. ROMEO And trust me, love, in my eye so do you: Dry sorrow drinks our blood. Adieu, adieu! Exit .....
  21. 21. ROMEO In faith, I will. Let me peruse this face. Mercutio's kinsman, noble County Paris! What said my man, when my betossed soul Did not attend him as we rode? I think He told me Paris should have married Juliet: Said he not so? or did I dream it so? Or am I mad, hearing him talk of Juliet, To think it was so? O, give me thy hand, One writ with me in sour misfortune's book! I'll bury thee in a triumphant grave; A grave? O no! a lantern, slaughtered youth, For here lies Juliet, and her beauty makes This vault a feasting presence full of light. Death, lie thou there, by a dead man interred. Laying PARIS in the tomb How oft when men are at the point of death Have they been merry! which their keepers call A lightning before death: O, how may I Call this a lightning? O my love! my wife! Death, that hath sucked the honey of thy breath, Hath had no power yet upon thy beauty: Thou art not conquered; beauty's ensign yet Is crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeks, And death's pale flag is not advanced there. Tybalt, liest thou there in thy bloody sheet? O, what more favour can I do to thee, Than with that hand that cut thy youth in twain To sunder his that was thine enemy? Forgive me, cousin! Ah, dear Juliet, Why art thou yet so fair? shall I believe That unsubstantial death is amorous, And that the lean abhorred monster keeps Thee here in dark to be his paramour? For fear of that, I still will stay with thee; And never from this palace of dim night Depart again: here, here will I remain With worms that are thy chamber-maids; O, here Will I set up my everlasting rest, And shake the yoke of inauspicious stars From this world-wearied flesh. Eyes, look your last! Arms, take your last embrace! and, lips, O you The doors of breath, seal with a righteous kiss A dateless bargain to engrossing death! Come, bitter conduct, come, unsavoury guide! Thou desperate pilot, now at once run on The dashing rocks thy sea-sick weary bark! Here's to my love!
  22. 22. Drinks O true apothecary! Thy drugs are quick. Thus with a kiss I die. Dies ... JULIET What's here? a cup, closed in my true love's hand? Poison, I see, hath been his timeless end: O churl! drunk all, and left no friendly drop To help me after? I will kiss thy lips; Haply some poison yet doth hang on them, To make die with a restorative. Kisses him Thy lips are warm. First Watchman [Within] Lead, boy: which way? JULIET Yea, noise? then I'll be brief. O happy dagger! Snatching ROMEO's dagger This is thy sheath; Stabs herself there rust, and let me die. Falls on ROMEO's body, and dies
  23. 23. The Plot Romeo and Juliet was written by William _____________. It is about two families called the __________ and the Capulets, who are bitter enemies. Romeo and Juliet are members of these families: ________ is a Montague, and Juliet is a _________. At the beginning of the play, there is a fight between the two families, and the Prince of _________ says that anybody starting another fight will be executed. At this time, Juliet’s parents want her to marry a rich young man called ________, but she soon meets Romeo at a party and they fall in love. They know that their _________ will not allow them to marry. After the party, Romeo calls to Juliet, who is standing at her bedroom ________. _______ Lawrence agrees to marry them, and thinks that this may end the fighting between the two families. They are married in secret. Juliet’s cousin, ________, has found out that Romeo went to the party, and wants to fight with him. At the fight, Romeo’s friend, _________ tries to help him, and is killed by Tybalt. Romeo then kills Tybalt. The Prince arrives, and tells Romeo that he is no longer allowed to live in Verona. Montague, Juliet’s ________, does not know about her secret marriage, and agrees that Paris can marry her. Juliet asks Friar Lawrence for help, and he gives her a ______ that will make her seem to be dead. He says that he will _______ to Romeo, to explain what is happening. Juliet takes the drug before the wedding, and her ‘dead’ body is taken to the church. Romeo does not get the letter, and his servant tells him that Juliet is ______. He buys some poison so that he can _____ himself. He goes to her tomb and drinks the poison. She wakes up, just in time to see him die. Juliet takes Romeo’s ________ and kills herself.
  24. 24. Friar Lawrence tells the two families about the ________ , and they realise the harm that their arguments have done. They agree that there will be no more __________ between the Montagues and the Capulets. dagger parents MERCUTIO Shakespeare tragedy dead Capulet kill TYBALT Montagues fighting Friar Romeo VERONA Paris write father drug window
  25. 25. In Elizabethan times, marriage was one of the highlights of every woman’s life. The difference was, back then, the woman had very little right to choose her husband. It was generally considered foolish to marry for love, although love may occur in marriage. Since a family’s wealth was passed on through marriage the parents wanted to decide who received this wealth by deciding whom the daughter married. Parents and friends were considered better able to look out for a child’s best interests, being mature and experienced in the world. They would recommend and negotiate marriages. Just because a marriage was arranged did not mean the child would never have met the other person. Except among the nobility, most people arranged their children's marriages with the children of neighbours and friends. The lower on the social scale you are, the more likely you were to have a choice in the matter. This was because the issue of where the parents’ money went was less of an issue. Children Children were seen the property of their parents, and they had to give them the respect a servant gives his master. Or else... Wives Wives were the property of their husbands. Some women were more independent than others, and some feared marriage. However, every woman expected to be married, and to depend on her male relatives throughout her life. Romeo and Juliet is set in a society that is dominated by men. We call this a patriarchal society. One example is that of Lord Capulet who shows his power in his relationship with his wife and his daughter. He says about Juliet, ‘I think she will be ruled in all respects by me.’ Think about who has the most power in the relationship between Romeo and Juliet. Juliet at one point tells Romeo what to do (or not): ‘O swear not by the moon.’ She is equal to Romeo in their use of language.
  26. 26. Romeo and Juliet and Love – Issues and Questions Romeo starts the play infatuated with Rosaline, a gorgeous girl with no interest in him. His "truelove-at-first-sight" encounter with Juliet seems like it could be just another case of puppy love. The two lovers come from warring families, but their love overcomes their families' hatred. Their whirlwind romance, however, ends in tragedy when each thinks the other is dead and chooses to commit suicide rather than live alone. While Romeo and Juliet never doubt the power of love, other characters criticize love and reject is as simply infatuation or lust. Some people interpret the play as a cautionary tale on the dangers of young love. Others argue that Romeo and Juliet's love develops throughout the play from a giddy flirtation to something deeper, and that the play charts the path of a relationship from infatuation to real love. Questions About Love 1)Romeo and Juliet is a play about love, a word that means many things to many people. Compare and contrast how various characters (like Romeo, Juliet, Mercutio, and Friar Laurence) talk about love. 2)How might a given character's view of love be affected by his or her age, social status, or relationship to other characters in the play? 3)Does Romeo's attitude toward love change or develop throughout the play? (Is there any difference between his desire for Rosaline and his passion for Juliet, for example?) 4)What is the difference between love and infatuation in Romeo and Juliet? Does the play even make a distinction? 5)Do you think the play ever critiques the intensity of Romeo and Juliet's love? Why or why not? Chew on This Try on an opinion or two, start a debate, or play the devil’s advocate. 1) Juliet's transformation from girl to woman is reflected in the changing language she uses to talk about love. In what ways does Juliet change in the play? 2)Romeo's passion for Rosaline is inauthentic but his love for Juliet is true. Is this true? What reasons do we have for this claim? 3)Romeo's so-called "love" for Juliet is no different than his passion for Rosaline because Romeo is merely in love with the idea of being in love. How is Romeo presented in the play? As a romantic hero or a fool? 4)Juliet and her mother cannot understand each other because Lady Capulet interprets love in terms of money and social status, while Juliet understands love as the product of her innermost feelings. Compare Juliet’s view of love with that of her parents.
  27. 27. What is going on here? What is Romeo thinking? Did my heart love till now? forswear it, sight! For I ne'er saw true beauty till this night. But, soft! what light through yonder window breaks? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. ROMEO (1:5) Well, do not swear: although I joy in thee, I have no joy of this contract to-night: It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden; Too like the lightning, which doth cease to be Ere one can say 'It lightens.' What is Romeo thinking here? ROMEO (2:2) What is Juliet thinking here? JULIET (2:2) My only love sprung from my only hate! Too early seen unknown, and known too late! Prodigious birth of love it is to me, That I must love a loathed enemy. JULIET (1:5) What is Juliet thinking here?
  28. 28. Point (Act 1, sc1) Romeo is infatuated with Rosaline at the start of the play Evidence Explain Romeo is depressed because Rosaline does not return his love. (Act 1, sc1)Benvolio’s concern for his friend (Act1, sc5)Romeo falls in love at first sight at the Capulet’s ball. forswear it, sight! For I never saw true beauty till this night. (Act 1,sc5)Romeo realises that Juliet is a Capulet. my life is my foe’s debt. (Act1,sc5) That I must love a loathed enemy. (Act2, sc2) ‘Tis but thy name that is my enemy. (Act3, sc5) Juliet has a premonition that their relationship will end tragically. (Add your own two rows, mention especially the ending) This implies that Juliet thinks their names are the cause of their troubles. The word ‘but’ suggests that she does not understand how important this is.
  29. 29. Plot the development of R& J’s relationship across the play using the graph below. Draw a line across to show which emotion is dominant at each point in the play. Turn the page sideways and add notes to back up your points. The first is done for you. You should end up with a bar chart. Joy Content Neutral Anger Despair Two families at war. R& J yet to meet.
  30. 30. WHAT IS TRAGEDY? 'Tragedy is the imitation of ... incidents arousing pity and terror, with which to accomplish its purgation of these emotions.' ‘tragedie, a solemn play, describing cruel murders and sorrows’ Purgation = cleansing ‘Tragedie. A play or Historie ending with great sorrow and bloodshed. ‘A story in which a noble character’s actions have disastrous consequences, for which they are not entirely to blame.’ ‘Tragedy, to begin with, was a form of theatre. Now we use the word to describe all manner of sad events that happen in our world - events we hear about, read about, watch on television. But is tragedy something that happens to other people or is it an experience we go through? And if so, are we changed by it?’ How are tragedies structured? There are four parts to a tragedy Part one - the setting up the situation Part two - the complication of the action Part three - the main body of the action Part four - the ending or unwinding All of Shakespeare's tragedies have a tragic hero, or 'protagonist' who is put into a situation of conflict which he must resolve or work out. A combination of bad luck and misjudgement lead to the hero's death and the downfall of others. Homework Write a concise summary of the play Romeo and Juliet and use it to explain how Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy, referring to the above information.
  31. 31. Act 1, Scene 1: The witches plan their meeting with Macbeth. Act 1, Scene 2: A sergeant tells of the heroic deeds of Macbeth. . . . King Duncan announces that Macbeth will be given the title of Thane of Cawdor. Act 1, Scene 3: The witches prophesy that Macbeth shall be king and Banquo shall be father of kings. . . . Ross and Angus tell Macbeth he has been given the title of Thane of Cawdor. . . . Macbeth muses on the possibility of killing the King in order to be king. Act 1, Scene 4: King Duncan is told of the execution of the rebel Thane of Cawdor. . . . King Duncan thanks Macbeth for his heroic service, then announces that Malcolm is heir to the throne. Act 1, Scene 5: Lady Macbeth reads Macbeth's letter about what the weird sisters said, and works herself up to work him up to murder. . . . When Macbeth arrives, Lady Macbeth tells him to look innocent and follow her lead. READ THIS KEY SCENE Act 1, Scene 6: King Duncan arrives at Macbeth's castle and is greeted by Lady Macbeth. Act 1, Scene 7: Macbeth almost talks himself out of killing the King. . . . Lady Macbeth gives her husband a tongue-lashing that makes him commit to their plan to murder the King. READ THIS KEY SCENE Act 2, Scene 1: Past midnight, Macbeth tells Banquo that they'll speak of the witches another time, and bids him goodnight. . . . Macbeth sees "a dagger of the mind," hears his wife's bell, and goes to kill King Duncan. Act 2, Scene 2: Lady Macbeth waits for Macbeth to come with the news that he has killed the King. . . . Macbeth is so shaken by the murder that he brings the bloody daggers with him, and Lady Macbeth takes them from him, to place them with the sleeping grooms. . . . A knocking at the castle gate frightens Macbeth, and his wife comes to lead him away, so that they can wash the blood from their hands. READ THIS KEY SCENE Act 2, Scene 3: The Porter pretends that he is hell's gatekeeper, then lets in Macduff and Lennox. . . . Macduff discovers King Duncan's body. . . . Macbeth, in pretended fury, kills the King's grooms. . . . Malcolm and Donalbain, fearing that they will be murdered next, flee.
  32. 32. Act 2, Scene 4: Ross and an Old Man discuss what an unnatural night it has been. . . . Ross and Macduff doubtfully discuss the news that Malcolm and Donalbain are responsible for their father's murder. . . . Ross heads for Scone, to see Macbeth crowned King of Scotland, but Macduff is going to stay home. Act 3, Scene 1: Banquo expresses his suspicion of Macbeth, and wonders if the witches' predictions will come true for himself, as they have for Macbeth. . . . Macbeth questions Banquo about the ride he's taking and insists he return in time for a banquet that night. . . . Macbeth persuades two Murderers that Banquo is their enemy, then sends them out to kill Banquo and his son, Fleance. Act 3, Scene 2: Lady Macbeth and Macbeth both envy the peaceful dead, who sleep in peace, while they, who have everything, live in constant fear of losing everything. . . . Macbeth reassures Lady Macbeth that their problems will be solved by a terrible deed to be done in the night. READ THIS KEY SCENE Act 3, Scene 3: A third Murderer joins the first two. . . . Banquo is killed, but Fleance escapes. Act 3, Scene 4: Macbeth and Lady Macbeth welcome the guests to their banquet. . . . Macbeth hears from First Murderer that Banquo is dead, but Fleance has escaped. . . . The bloody Ghost of Banquo -- which only Macbeth can see -- appears among the guests. . . . When his guests are gone, Macbeth tells his wife he's going to find out why Macduff didn't attend their banquet. Then he hints that he may have to shed more blood, and decides he will speak to the witches again. Act 3, Scene 5: The three Witches appear with Hecate, who scolds them for having dealings with Macbeth without including her. Hecate tells them that Macbeth is coming to see them the next morning, and then they will show him some magic that will mislead him to his own destruction. Act 3, Scene 6: Lennox and another Lord have a conversation which shows that they have seen through Macbeth's lies and know that he is responsible for the murder of Banquo and King Duncan. They also wish Macduff well, because he has gone to England for help in freeing Scotland from the tyrant Macbeth. Act 4, Scene 1: Chanting "Double, double, toil and trouble," the three Witches stir the cauldron. . . . The witches call up apparitions which give Macbeth warnings, promises, and prophecies: beware Macduff, fear "none of woman born," fear nothing until Birnam wood
  33. 33. come to Dunsinane, Banquo's issue shall be kings. . . . The Witches vanish and Macbeth calls in Lennox, who tells him that Macduff has fled to England, whereupon Macbeth orders the murder of Macduff's wife and children. Act 4, Scene 2: Ross brings Lady Macduff the news that her husband has fled Scotland. . . . Lady Macduff and her son joke about Macduff being a traitor. . . . A messenger rushes in to tell Lady Macduff to run for her life, but right after him come the murderers who kill the boy and his mother. Act 4, Scene 3: Macduff seeks Malcolm's support for a war against Macbeth, and Malcolm tests Macduff's intentions. . . . A doctor tells of the English King's miraculous ability to heal the sick. . . . Speaking to Malcolm and Macduff, Ross tells of Scotland's suffering under Macbeth and of the slaughter of Macduff's wife and children. Everyone is now ready to make war against Macbeth. Act 5, Scene 1: Lady Macbeth's waiting-gentlewoman tells a doctor of the Lady's sleepwalking. . . . Lady Macbeth walks and talks in her sleep, revealing guilty secrets. READ THIS KEY SCENE Act 5, Scene 2: The Scottish forces arrayed against Macbeth are on the march. The Scottish leaders comment on Macbeth's desperate rage. Act 5, Scene 3: Macbeth hears that his thanes are abandoning him, that the English army is approaching, and that his wife is soul-sick, but he tries to convince himself that he has nothing to fear, and prepares to fight. Act 5, Scene 4: The forces opposed to Macbeth enter Birnam wood, and Malcolm gives the order for every soldier to cut a tree branch and hold it before him. Act 5, Scene 5: Macbeth expresses his defiance of the forces marching against him, then hears a cry of women and receives the news of his wife's death. . . . A messenger reports that Birnam woods is coming to Dunsinane; Macbeth goes out to meet his fate. READ THIS KEY SCENE Act 5, Scene 6: The English and Scottish forces, led by Malcolm, begin their attack upon Dunsinane. Act 5, Scene 7: Macbeth fights Young Siward and kills him. . . . Macduff seeks Macbeth. . . . Malcolm and Siward take possession of Dunsinane.
  34. 34. Act 5, Scene 8: Macduff and Macbeth do battle. Macbeth boasts that he cannot be harmed by "one of woman born," but Macduff replies that he was "from his mother's womb / Untimely ripp'd." They fight on and Macduff kills Macbeth. . . . Malcolm, Siward and the rest enter. Siward receives the news of his son's heroic death. . . . Macduff enters with the head of Macbeth. Malcolm is hailed king of Scotland, whereupon he rewards his followers and invites all to see him crowned.
  35. 35. Enter MACBETH Great Glamis! worthy Cawdor! Greater than both, by the all-hail hereafter! Thy letters have transported me beyond This ignorant present, and I feel now The future in the instant. MACBETH My dearest love, Duncan comes here to-night. LADY MACBETH And when goes hence? MACBETH To-morrow, as he purposes. LADY MACBETH O, never Shall sun that morrow see! Your face, my thane, is as a book where men May read strange matters. To beguile the time, Look like the time; bear welcome in your eye, Your hand, your tongue: look like the innocent flower, But be the serpent under it. He that's coming Must be provided for: and you shall put This night's great business into my dispatch; Which shall to all our nights and days to come Give solely sovereign sway and masterdom. MACBETH We will speak further. LADY MACBETH Only look up clear; To alter favour ever is to fear: Leave all the rest to me. Exeunt
  36. 36. SCENE VII. Macbeth's castle. ... Servants with dishes and service, and pass over the stage. Then enter MACBETH MACBETH If it were done when 'tis done, then 'twere well It were done quickly: if the assassination Could trammel up the consequence, and catch With his surcease success; that but this blow Might be the be-all and the end-all here, But here, upon this bank and shoal of time, We would jump the life to come. But in these cases We still have judgment here; that we but teach Bloody instructions, which, being taught, return To plague the inventor: this even-handed justice Commends the ingredients of our poisoned chalice To our own lips. He's here in double trust; First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, Strong both against the deed; then, as his host, Who should against his murderer shut the door, Not bear the knife myself. Besides, this Duncan Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been So clear in his great office, that his virtues Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued, against The deep damnation of his taking-off; And pity, like a naked new-born babe, Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, horsed Upon the sightless couriers of the air, Shall blow the horrid deed in every eye, That tears shall drown the wind. I have no spur To prick the sides of my intent, but only Vaulting ambition, which over leaps itself And falls on the other. Enter LADY MACBETH How now! what news? LADY MACBETH He has almost supped: why have you left the chamber? MACBETH Hath he asked for me? LADY MACBETH Know you not he has? MACBETH We will proceed no further in this business: He hath honoured me of late; and I have bought Golden opinions from all sorts of people,
  37. 37. Which would be worn now in their newest gloss, Not cast aside so soon. LADY MACBETH Was the hope drunk Wherein you dressed yourself? hath it slept since? And wakes it now, to look so green and pale At what it did so freely? From this time Such I account thy love. Art thou afeard To be the same in thine own act and valour As thou art in desire? Wouldst thou have that Which thou esteem'st the ornament of life, And live a coward in thine own esteem, Letting 'I dare not' wait upon 'I would,' Like the poor cat in the adage? MACBETH Prithee, peace: I dare do all that may become a man; Who dares do more is none. LADY MACBETH What beast was it, then, That made you break this enterprise to me? When you durst do it, then you were a man; And, to be more than what you were, you would Be so much more the man. Nor time nor place Did then adhere, and yet you would make both: They have made themselves, and that their fitness now Does unmake you. I have given suck, and know How tender 'tis to love the babe that milks me: I would, while it was smiling in my face, Have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums, And dashed the brains out, had I so sworn as you Have done to this. MACBETH If we should fail? LADY MACBETH We fail! But screw your courage to the sticking-place, And we'll not fail. When Duncan is asleep-Whereto the rather shall his day's hard journey Soundly invite him--his two chamberlains Will I with wine and wassail so convince That memory, the warder of the brain, Shall be a fume, and the receipt of reason A limbeck only: when in swinish sleep Their drenched natures lie as in a death, What cannot you and I perform upon
  38. 38. The unguarded Duncan? what not put upon His spongy officers, who shall bear the guilt Of our great quell? MACBETH Bring forth men-children only; For thy undaunted mettle should compose Nothing but males. Will it not be received, When we have marked with blood those sleepy two Of his own chamber and used their very daggers, That they have done it? LADY MACBETH Who dares receive it other, As we shall make our griefs and clamour roar Upon his death? MACBETH I am settled, and bend up Each corporal agent to this terrible feat. Away, and mock the time with fairest show: False face must hide what the false heart doth know.
  39. 39. SCENE II. The same. Enter LADY MACBETH LADY MACBETH That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold; What has quenched them has given me fire. Hark! Peace! It was the owl that shrieked, the fatal bellman, Which gives the sternest good-night. He is about it: The doors are open; and the surfeited grooms Do mock their charge with snores: I have drugged their possets, That death and nature do contend about them, Whether they live or die. MACBETH [Within] Who's there? what, ho! LADY MACBETH Alack, I am afraid they have awaked, And 'tis not done. The attempt and not the deed Confounds us. Hark! I laid their daggers ready; He could not miss them. Had he not resembled My father as he slept, I had done it. Enter MACBETH My husband! MACBETH I have done the deed. Didst thou not hear a noise? LADY MACBETH I heard the owl scream and the crickets cry. Did not you speak? MACBETH When? LADY MACBETH Now. MACBETH As I descended? LADY MACBETH Ay. MACBETH Hark! Who lies in the second chamber? LADY MACBETH Donalbain. MACBETH This is a sorry sight. Looking on his hands LADY MACBETH A foolish thought, to say a sorry sight.
  40. 40. MACBETH There's one did laugh in his sleep, and one cried 'Murder!' That they did wake each other: I stood and heard them: But they did say their prayers, and addressed them Again to sleep. LADY MACBETH There are two lodged together. MACBETH One cried 'God bless us!' and 'Amen' the other; As they had seen me with these hangman's hands. Listening their fear, I could not say 'Amen,' When they did say 'God bless us!' LADY MACBETH Consider it not so deeply. MACBETH But wherefore could not I pronounce 'Amen'? I had most need of blessing, and 'Amen' Stuck in my throat. LADY MACBETH These deeds must not be thought After these ways; so, it will make us mad. MACBETH I thought I heard a voice cry 'Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep', the innocent sleep, Sleep that knits up the ravelled sleeve of care, The death of each day's life, sore labour's bath, Balm of hurt minds, great nature's second course, Chief nourisher in life's feast,-LADY MACBETH What do you mean? MACBETH Still it cried 'Sleep no more!' to all the house: 'Glamis has murdered sleep, and therefore Cawdor Shall sleep no more; Macbeth shall sleep no more.' LADY MACBETH Who was it that thus cried? Why, worthy thane, You do unbend your noble strength, to think So brainsickly of things. Go get some water, And wash this filthy witness from your hand. Why did you bring these daggers from the place? They must lie there: go carry them; and smear The sleepy grooms with blood. MACBETH I'll go no more: I am afraid to think what I have done; Look on it again I dare not. LADY MACBETH Infirm of purpose! Give me the daggers: the sleeping and the dead Are but as pictures: 'tis the eye of childhood
  41. 41. That fears a painted devil. If he do bleed, I'll gild the faces of the grooms withal; For it must seem their guilt. Exit. Knocking within MACBETH Whence is that knocking? How is't with me, when every noise appals me? What hands are here? ha! they pluck out mine eyes. Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood Clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather The multitudinous seas in incarnadine, Making the green one red. Re-enter LADY MACBETH LADY MACBETH My hands are of your colour; but I shame To wear a heart so white. Knocking within I hear a knocking At the south entry: retire we to our chamber; A little water clears us of this deed: How easy is it, then! Your constancy Hath left you unattended. Knocking within Hark! more knocking. Get on your nightgown, lest occasion call us, And show us to be watchers. Be not lost So poorly in your thoughts. MACBETH To know my deed, it were best not know myself. Knocking within Wake Duncan with thy knocking! I would thou couldst! Exeunt
  42. 42. SCENE II. The palace. Enter LADY MACBETH and a Servant LADY MACBETH Is Banquo gone from court? Servant Ay, madam, but returns again to-night. LADY MACBETH Say to the king, I would attend his leisure For a few words. Servant Madam, I will. Exit LADY MACBETH Nought's had, all's spent, Where our desire is got without content: It is safer to be that which we destroy Than by destruction dwell in doubtful joy. Enter MACBETH How now, my lord! why do you keep alone, Of sorriest fancies your companions making, Using those thoughts which should indeed have died With them they think on? Things without all remedy Should be without regard: what's done is done. MACBETH We have scotched the snake, not killed it: She'll close and be herself, whilst our poor malice Remains in danger of her former tooth. But let the frame of things disjoint, both the worlds suffer, Ere we will eat our meal in fear and sleep In the affliction of these terrible dreams That shake us nightly: better be with the dead, Whom we, to gain our peace, have sent to peace, Than on the torture of the mind to lie In restless ecstasy. Duncan is in his grave; After life's fitful fever he sleeps well; Treason has done his worst: nor steel, nor poison, Malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing, Can touch him further. LADY MACBETH Come on; Gentle my lord, sleek o'er your rugged looks; Be bright and jovial among your guests to-night. MACBETH
  43. 43. So shall I, love; and so, I pray, be you: Let your remembrance apply to Banquo; Present him eminence, both with eye and tongue: Unsafe the while, that we Must lave our honours in these flattering streams, And make our faces vizards to our hearts, Disguising what they are. LADY MACBETH You must leave this. MACBETH O, full of scorpions is my mind, dear wife! Thou know’st that Banquo, and his Fleance, lives. LADY MACBETH But in them nature's copy's not eterne. MACBETH There's comfort yet; they are assailable; Then be thou jocund: ere the bat hath flown His cloistered flight, ere to black Hecate's summons The shard-borne beetle with his drowsy hums Hath rung night's yawning peal, there shall be done A deed of dreadful note. LADY MACBETH What's to be done? MACBETH Be innocent of the knowledge, dearest chuck, Till thou applaud the deed. Come, seeling night, Scarf up the tender eye of pitiful day; And with thy bloody and invisible hand Cancel and tear to pieces that great bond Which keeps me pale! Light thickens; and the crow Makes wing to the rooky wood: Good things of day begin to droop and drowse; While night's black agents to their preys do rouse. Thou marvell at my words: but hold thee still; Things bad begun make strong themselves by ill. So, prithee, go with me. Exeunt
  44. 44. ACT V SCENE I. Dunsinane. Ante-room in the castle. Enter a Doctor of Physic and a Waiting-Gentlewoman Doctor I have two nights watched with you, but can perceive no truth in your report. When was it she last walked? Gentlewoman Since his majesty went into the field, I have seen her rise from her bed, throw her night-gown upon her, unlock her closet, take forth paper, fold it, write upon it, read it, afterwards seal it, and again return to bed; yet all this while in a most fast sleep. Doctor A great perturbation in nature, to receive at once the benefit of sleep, and do the effects of watching! In this slumbery agitation, besides her walking and other actual performances, what, at any time, have you heard her say? Gentlewoman That, sir, which I will not report after her. Doctor You may to me: and 'tis most meet you should. Gentlewoman Neither to you nor any one; having no witness to confirm my speech. Enter LADY MACBETH, with a taper Lo you, here she comes! This is her very guise; and, upon my life, fast asleep. Observe her; stand close. Doctor How came she by that light? Gentlewoman Why, it stood by her: she has light by her continually; it is her command. Doctor You see, her eyes are open. Gentlewoman Ay, but their sense is shut. Doctor What is it she does now? Look, how she rubs her hands. Gentlewoman It is an accustomed action with her, to seem thus washing her hands: I have known her continue in this a quarter of an hour. LADY MACBETH Yet here's a spot.
  45. 45. Doctor Hark! she speaks: I will set down what comes from her, to satisfy my remembrance the more strongly. LADY MACBETH Out, damned spot! out, I say!--One: two: why, then, 'tis time to do it.--Hell is murky!--Fie, my lord, fie! a soldier, and afeard? What need we fear who knows it, when none can call our power to account?--Yet who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him. Doctor Do you mark that? LADY MACBETH The thane of Fife had a wife: where is she now?-What, will these hands ne'er be clean?--No more o' that, my lord, no more o' that: you mar all with this starting. Doctor Go to, go to; you have known what you should not. Gentlewoman She has spoke what she should not, I am sure of that: heaven knows what she has known. LADY MACBETH Here's the smell of the blood still: all the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. Oh, oh, oh! Doctor What a sigh is there! The heart is sorely charged. Gentlewoman I would not have such a heart in my bosom for the dignity of the whole body. Doctor Well, well, well,-Gentlewoman Pray God it be, sir. Doctor This disease is beyond my practise: yet I have known those which have walked in their sleep who have died holily in their beds. LADY MACBETH Wash your hands, put on your nightgown; look not so pale.--I tell you yet again, Banquo's buried; he cannot come out on his grave. Doctor Even so? LADY MACBETH To bed, to bed! there's knocking at the gate: come, come, come, come, give me your hand. What's done cannot be undone.--To bed, to bed, to bed!
  46. 46. Exit Doctor Will she go now to bed? Gentlewoman Directly. Doctor Foul whisperings are abroad: unnatural deeds Do breed unnatural troubles: infected minds To their deaf pillows will discharge their secrets: More needs she the divine than the physician. God, God forgive us all! Look after her; Remove from her the means of all annoyance, And still keep eyes upon her. So, good night: My mind she has mated, and amazed my sight. I think, but dare not speak. Gentlewoman Good night, good doctor. Exeunt
  47. 47. SCENE V. Dunsinane. Within the castle. Enter MACBETH, SEYTON, and Soldiers, with drum and colours MACBETH Hang out our banners on the outward walls; The cry is still 'They come:' our castle's strength Will laugh a siege to scorn: here let them lie Till famine and the ague eat them up: Were they not forced with those that should be ours, We might have met them dareful, beard to beard, And beat them backward home. A cry of women within What is that noise? SEYTON It is the cry of women, my good lord. Exit MACBETH I have almost forgot the taste of fears; The time has been, my senses would have cooled To hear a night-shriek; and my fell of hair Would at a dismal treatise rouse and stir As life were in it: I have supped full with horrors; Direness, familiar to my slaughterous thoughts Cannot once start me. Re-enter SEYTON Wherefore was that cry? SEYTON The queen, my lord, is dead. MACBETH She should have died hereafter; There would have been a time for such a word. To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow, Creeps in this petty pace from day to day To the last syllable of recorded time, And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle! Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage And then is heard no more: it is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing.
  48. 48. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth’s Relationship Macbeth’s words Lady Macbeth’s words LM to M 1,5: ‘My dearest partner in greatness… ‘ LM to M: 1,5: ‘Greatness is promised thee’. LM to M 1,5: ‘Yet I do fear thy nature: It is too full o’the milk of human-kindness’ LM to M 1,7: ‘What beast was’t then That made you break this enterprise to me? When you durst do it, then you were a man. LM to M 2,2: ‘Infirm of purpose!’ LM to M 2,2: ‘My hands are of your colour, but I shame To wear a heart so white.’ LM to M 3,2: ‘Say to the King I would attend his leisure For a few words’ LM to M 3,4: ‘O, these flaws and starts Impostors to true fear, would well become A woman’s story at a winter’s fire.’ LM to herself 5,1: ‘The thane of Fife had a wife: where is she now? – What will these hands never be clean? – No more o’that my lord, no more o’that.’ M to LM, 1,5: ‘My dearest love’ ‘Bring forth men-children only! For thy undaunted mettle should compose Nothing but males.’ M to LM, 2,2: ‘O full of scorpions is my mind, dear wife!’ M to LM, 2,2: ‘Be innocent of the knowledge, dearest chuck Till thou applaud the deed’ M to LM, 2,2: Thou marvell’st at my words, but hold thee still, Things bad begun make strong themselves by ill. M to LM 3,4: ‘You make me strange Even to the disposition that I owe When now I think you can behold such sights and keep the natural ruby of your cheeks, When mine is blanched with fear’ M about LM 5,5: ‘She should have died hereafter, There would have been time for such a word.’ Plot the Relationship. When is it close? Who is in charge at the beginning? Signs it’s beginning to fall apart. Macbeth’s reaction to her death.
  49. 49. Comparisons How they are when we first see them What is the main problem that they face? How do they decide to deal with the problem? What kind of language do they use? Give examples. Give examples of any other language devices Shakespeare uses in their dialogue What happens to them at the end of the play? Romeo and Juliet Macbeth and Lady Macbeth
  50. 50. Compare how Shakespeare presents the relationship between Romeo and Juliet and the relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth? All Assessment Objectives are addressed (including contexts): AO2=10%; other 3=5%. You will be assessed on how you: AO1: respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations (5%) AO2: explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes and settings (10%) AO3: make comparisons and explain links between texts, evaluating writers’ different ways of expressing meaning and achieving effects (5%) AO4: relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts; explain how texts have been influential and significant to self and other readers in different contexts and at different times. (5%) In other words you are assessed on: The quality of your response to the play The quality of your response to the question Your understanding of the ideas or themes in the novel Your understanding of the language used in the novel Your understanding of the way the plot is organised Your understanding of the dramatic features used in the novel Your understanding of the context of the novel Your use of quotations from the novel. How all of these might affect the audience!
  51. 51. How well can you do this? Band Mark Key words What you need to do to get into this band sophisticated engagement with a broad range of ideas and techniques in both texts 5 33–40 ‘Sophisticated, impressive’ 4 25–32 ‘Confident, assured’ assured engagement with a broad range of ideas and techniques in both texts 3 17–24 ‘Clear, consistent’ clear and consistent engagement with a range of ideas and techniques in both texts 2 9–16 ‘Some’ some engagement with some ideas and techniques in both texts 1 1–8 ‘Limited’ limited engagement with a limited range of ideas and techniques in both texts
  52. 52. Essay Plan: 1) Write about when the plays were written. (R+J 1596; Macbeth 1605) and how this was a different time to today. How might this affect how the plays were written and what they say about relationships between men and women? How might the audience have reacted differently around 1600 compared to today? 2) Refer to the two couples here and what their relationships say about the times when the plays were written. 3) Write about the first meeting between Romeo and Juliet in act 1, scene 5. Look at the language used to express their love at first sight. You might want to also refer to the balcony scene in act 2 scene 2. Write about religious language. 4) Write about the first meeting between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in the play in act 1, scene 5. Look at the language used to express their attitudes to each other. You might want to refer to act 1 scene 7 also, where Lady Macbeth urges Macbeth to kill Duncan. Write about violent language. 5) What are the differences in the two relationships? Who has the higher status in each relationship? Who seems to have the most power? Use connectives! 6) Write about the wedding scene (or the lead up to it since we don’t actually see it on stage) in act 2 scene 6 of Romeo and Juliet. 7) Write about the aftermath of Duncan’s death in act 2 scene 2. How do both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth react to it? What does this say about the characters? 8) Write about the morning after Romeo and Juliet’s wedding in act 3 scene 5. Have the characters changed at all? 9) Write about the banquet scene in Macbeth. (Act 3 scene 4) Have the characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth changed at all? 10) Write about the deaths of Romeo and Juliet in act 5 scene 3. How might the audience react to this scene? 11) Write about the death of Lady Macbeth. What does Macbeth’s reaction say about him and his feelings towards his wife. 12) Sum up what you’ve said about the two relationships. How are the similar and how are they different?
  53. 53. 1)Write about when the plays were written. (R+J 1596; Macbeth 1605) and how this was a different time to today. How might this affect how the plays were written and what they say about relationships between men and women? How might the audience have reacted differently around 1600 compared to today? 4) Write about the first meeting between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in the play in act 1, scene 5. Look at the language used to express their attitudes to each other. You might want to refer to act 1 scene 7 also, where Lady Macbeth urges Macbeth to kill Duncan. Write about violent language. 2) Refer to the two couples here and what their relationships say about the times when the plays were written. 3) Write about the first meeting between Romeo and Juliet in act 1, scene 5. Look at the language used to express their love at first sight. You might want to also refer to the balcony scene in act 2 scene 2. Write about religious language. 5) What are the differences in the two relationships? Who has the higher status in each relationship? Who seems to have the most power? Use connectives! 6) Write about the wedding scene (or the lead up to it since we don’t actually see it on stage) in act 2 scene 6 of Romeo and Juliet.
  54. 54. 7) Write about the aftermath of Duncan’s death in act 2 scene 2. How do both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth react to it? What does this say about the characters? 8) Write about the morning after Romeo and Juliet’s wedding in act 3 scene 5. Have the characters changed at all? 9) Write about the banquet scene in Macbeth. (Act 3 scene 4) Have the characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth changed at all? 10) Write about the deaths of Romeo and Juliet in act 5 scene 3. How might the audience react to this scene? 11) Write about the death of Lady Macbeth. What does Macbeth’s reaction say about him and his feelings towards his wife. 12) Conclusion Sum up what you’ve said about the two relationships. How are the similar and how are they different? For each section, focus on the language, the devices used and the themes explored.
  55. 55. The things you need to write about are in bold, how well you need to do them for each band is in italics The Marking Criteria for the Shakespeare Controlled Assessment Band 5 (33-40) ‘Sophisticated, Impressive’  sophisticated engagement with writers’ ideas and attitudes. They develop sophisticated interpretations using imaginatively selected supporting textual detail  sophisticated analysis of aspects of language and structure, perceptive and imaginative exploration of points of linkage  perceptive and imaginative comment on the significance of the contexts Band 4 (25-32) ‘Confident, Assured’  sustained and developed appreciation of writers’ ideas and sustained and developed appreciation of writers’ ideas and attitudes and provide convincing interpretations using precisely selected supporting textual detail  analysis of aspects of language and structure in convincing detail.  thoughtful consideration of links between the texts  thoughtful consideration of the significance of the contexts of the texts Band 3 (17–24) ‘Clear, Consistent’  clear understanding of writers’ ideas and use relevant and appropriate supporting textual detail  clear understanding of features of language and structure supported by relevant and appropriate quotation supported by relevant and appropriate quotation  clear understanding of links and some points of comparison between texts  a clear grasp of the significance of some aspects of the contexts Band 2 (9–16) ‘Some’  some familiarity with writers’ ideas supported by a range of textual detail  some familiarity with obvious features of language and structure supported by some relevant textual detail  some relevant comments about links between texts  some relevant comments about the significance of the contexts.