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Liturgy workshop 2011 - Part 2


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Liturgy workshop 2011 - Part 2

  1. 1. Liturgy Workshop<br />New Translation of the Roman Missal 2011<br />
  2. 2. Starting this Advent there are changes to the liturgy that are coming <br />First relax, it is not going to be like the upheaval after Vatican Council II<br />No structural changes to the Mass, only verbal, differences in translation<br />To be honest, many changes are seemingly cosmetic for the overall essence of the Mass<br />NOTE: In this presentation I will offer a lot of information. You need not write all of it down, I want to give you a bigger vision of liturgy and understand the foundations of how we got to where we are today<br />
  3. 3. But there has been significant controversy over these linguistic changes<br />Some fear these steps will take us back before VCII; dismantling all the progress in liturgy up to today; agenda to return to the Tridentine Mass<br />Some fear it will alienate the faithful by archaic phrases and incomprehensible terminology<br />Some say it will have an adverse effect on prayer<br />Some say it will cause division in our parishes<br />Some say these are highly controversial translations which bishops and many highly respected liturgists consider to be seriously flawed: translators seem more versed in Latin than in English<br />Some say this is being imposed upon us by Rome, when we really don’t want or need these changes; People of God have no say in the matter: “pet project” of handful of bishops when VCII was overwhelmingly adopted 2,147 to 4 <br />Some say the great vision of the Council: full, conscious and active participation of the faithful will certainly be compromised: clumsy translations are not beautiful and precious therefore it is not prayerful<br />Some say it is ludicrous for Church in wake of all its global problems today to take on something like this: discredits the Church and distances the faithful<br />Some say we must heed our pastoral instinct and just say no or wait to this initiative<br />
  4. 4. In the course of this workshop I will try to address all these fears as I explain what is really going to happen to the liturgy<br />To be honest, before I started researching this change, I held to some of those fears, I just said:<br />I read the changes to the liturgy and I laughed at some of the awkward changes<br />Then I got upset, “Why do we need to put this strain on the faithful? It has taken us so long to get the phrases memorized by the faithful, why toss all this into turmoil over such little changes of translation preferences?”<br />I was somewhat baffled and said to myself, “I will do whatever Holy Mother Church commands me to, but wow, is this really necessary?”<br />I was not a fan of the changes but neither was I an adamant opponent: accepted in sort of a mini-tantrum<br />
  5. 5. Then like many times in my life, Christ wanted to help me out and teach me to trust him more than my fears and my limited understanding of the situation<br />What was the instrument of God’s providence? None other than, Msgr. Rocha<br />When Msgr. asked me to do this workshop, of course I said yes: I am happy to help the parish<br />But on the inside I was like, no I can’t believe this<br />I am going to have to be a cheerleader for something I don’t agree with or like: Let’s go team… rah…<br />I don’t even understand why these changes are really happening<br />You see the only liturgy I have ever known in the post VCII liturgy: I was born in (are you ready for this) 1974 while the changes to the liturgy happened in 1963, 45 years ago<br />I grew up with the current translations and they are so familiar to me, they are all I have ever known, I have no concept of contrast with the previous translation<br />All the prayers of the Mass are second nature to me and I will blatantly admit the truth<br />
  6. 6. I AM ATTACHED TO THE CURRENT LITURGICAL FORM:<br />Now why? Why am I attached? (this is really important and will be the point of contention for many of us)<br />Is it because I have analyzed the translations from the Latin to the English and agree that these are the most accurate and accessible forms? <br />No. I have never compared the current with the Latin (which I did in my research and found very interesting results, I will talk about that later)<br />Is it because I feel the current translations help progress the Church in our modern society the best? <br />No. I don’t even know what other options could be there. I am not a full time liturgist or least of all good translator: barely passed my Latin and Greek in seminary<br />Is it because I have studied extensively the development and history of the liturgy and feel this current translation best harmonizes with the flow of the Holy Spirit in worship?<br />No, I really did not have this vision at all. I knew why some things are in the liturgy but the overall vision, was blurry at best.<br />The real answer why I am so attached: <br />it is all I ever have known and I am fearful of the change,<br /> or perhaps uncomfortable with the change<br />
  7. 7. But Msgr. Rocha asked me to give this talk to you and so I began a journey, <br />a journey in which God opened my eyes to see the beauty of what is happening<br />a journey in which I understand the liturgy with greater love and passion than before<br />a journey in which I see the wisdom in what the Church is doing and now, after all this research I have embraced and I am excited about the changes<br />THIS JOURNEY IS WHAT I WANT TO GIVE YOU TONIGHT<br />
  8. 8. To accomplish this<br />First we are going to get an overall vision of the liturgy: <br />Briefly what is liturgy, why is it important<br />go into history to see in broad brushstrokes WHY and HOW the liturgy formed into what we have today<br />This will set us up to understand <br />the current necessity to change the translations<br />to explore how the problem arose in the first place<br />then the why behind the changes<br />we have a lot of ground to cover and I am going to be fast, so buckle up and hang on for the ride, this is going to be fun<br />
  9. 9. What is liturgy?<br />You tell me, what would you say… <br />definition (Catechism of Catholic Church #1070)<br />our concept of liturgy is very deficient<br />we need to recover deeper sense; when we don’t get the essence, we get confuse and, well intentioned, try to add to the liturgy or change focus in the liturgy<br />Catechism of Catholic Church Part 2 1066-1209<br />Liturgy is crucial to the era we live in because we are now living the sacramental economy (Catechism of Catholic Church #1076)<br />Holy Spirit dispenses the graces of Christ’s Pascal Mystery through the sacraments<br />(Catechism of Catholic Church #1085) not dramatic representation of events in Holy Week; IT IS THE EVENT; unbloodied sacrifice because it is mystical not historically present<br />Priests act IN PERSONA CHRISTI (Catechism of Catholic Church #1087)<br />We need another workshop just on liturgy, what is it and why, don’t have time for that now<br />
  10. 10. History<br />I will go over this very rapidly and not get into too much detail<br />When was the first Roman Missal: guess the year <br />1441… BC Passover<br />(440, 590: 12 or 13AD century for real one)<br />What do I mean; well what is the Roman Missal: it is a detailed instruction on the form of divine worship <br />What was the first recorded instruction on Divine Worship, well the entire prototype and prefigurement of what the Mass was going to be; that is PASSOVER<br />Exodus 12:<br />Gives time of year to do it: 14th day of Nisan, 10th day get the lamb, specific type of lamb: male, one year old without blemish<br />Time of day to slaughter it: between the evenings, eat it in the darkness of night<br />Celebrant: father of every family; before Levites became priestly tribe, originally the father bore the priestly duties; kill the lamb and explain to family as he does it<br />Ritual: how to cook the lamb, eat the lamb, number of people per lamb, what to do with its blood, eat in haste ready to leave, unleavened bread because of this haste<br />Memorial: do this every year for all generations; concept of Memorial: <br />Page 65-66 “Jesus and the Jewish Roots of the Eucharist”<br />
  11. 11. PENDULUM PRINCIPLE<br />When studying liturgy, you need to a keep balance between 2 extremes<br />On one side we have Mystery and History: God and his action in time<br />On the other we have Contemporary and Comprehensible: man in the present<br />Stay in the middle to have the best of both worlds and not become so hyper focused on God that you forget man or so focused on man that you forget God<br />On Exodus night there was perfect balance; all together; keep way of celebrating the history, not to update it, expresses Mystery of God’s action, that night all understood why they did it, understood and applicable<br />
  12. 12. 1441 Mt. Sinai<br />Go to worship<br />Golden calf: pendulum<br />Levites chosen to be the priestly tribe for action on that day<br />
  13. 13. Laws of Leviticus<br />Liturgy defined the chosen people<br />Not secondary or just for the priests<br />What separated Israel from world, living of the covenant<br />Same with us, liturgy is the deepest expression of who we are, family of God<br />Pendulum swing; more to center<br />Certain parts of these laws endure today; HISTORY AND MYSTERY, certain things are purposely not updated or brought to immediate, contemporary comprehension<br />Alb<br />Praying posture in Mass<br />Candles<br />Purify hands before prayers<br />Ordination rite, Sacred Chrism<br />Laying on of hands<br />Yom Kippor and rite to acquire forgiveness<br />
  14. 14. Meeting Tent : Deuteronomy<br />More liturgical laws about how to build the worship space<br />Then the concept of sacrifice for ceremonies, purify or repentance<br />Desert - swing of pendulum, complain, murmur, forgot the Mystery and History<br />Certain parts of these laws endure today<br />Tabernacle<br />Division of the nave and sanctuary<br />Keeping the Bread of the Presence<br />Menorah lit near it<br />Incense in worship<br />Concept of sacrifice<br />Concept of bread and wine as thanksgiving<br />Celebration of feast days, and how to do it<br />
  15. 15. Temple; 1 Kings 5-9<br />explicit laws on how to adorn the Temple<br />best craftsmen to do it: followed to the minutest detail<br />not free to do whatever they want, liturgy is more than personal preference, God’s will<br />Certain parts of these laws endure today<br />Gold tabernacle<br />Centralize sacrifice of lambs to Temple, not at homes<br />Centralize ceremony for Passover, Jerusalem; people come together<br />Temple became the enduring presence of God<br />RITUAL DEFINES US, LITURGY IS WHO WE ARE<br />Ark brought to Temple by priests<br />
  16. 16. Temple Destroyed<br />832-580 BC, then destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar<br />Babylonian exile<br />Synagogue came into existence<br />Study Scripture not just sacrifice: LITURGY OF WORD<br />Scholars to explain the law: HOMILY<br />Made corollaries to law; PENDULUM STARTS TO SWING<br />
  17. 17. Temple Rebuilt 516<br />Expanded in 19 AD<br />Time of Jesus fairly large and beautiful again<br />Josephus between 3-5pm sacrificed 256,500 lambs; 2,700,200 people<br />
  18. 18. ii. Essence of the Mass: 33 AD NEW ROMAN MISSAL<br />Last supper<br />Changes ritual - Jesus commands it<br />Commands memorial<br />Resurrection, new day of worship<br />Emmaus structure for Mass: <br />Liturgy of the Word: showed how Scripture told of Messiah suffering<br />Liturgy of the Eucharist: Jesus disappears to show real presence in Eucharist (Luke 24: 30-31)<br />Synagogue and temple together<br />Pendulum balanced again: all rites and symbols both Jewish tradition and current practice<br />Certain parts of these traditions endure today<br />Chasuble<br />Stole<br />Basilica<br />Altar shape of tomb, relic of martyr: changed from wood to stone to represent death of Christ<br />
  19. 19. iii. Stages of Roman Missal<br />Origins: 1-4 centuries<br />Period of improvisation<br />Homes not churches yet<br />Followed traditional schemes and models<br />4 elements: offering, prayer, breaking bread, communion<br />
  20. 20. 2. Epoch of Local Development 4-7 centuries<br />Basilica, house of justice in Rome, converted Church, little oratories, specific legal matters, principal altar, main judge<br />Create formulas and rites<br />Start only Easter and Sunday Mass<br />Christmas Mass next, first Mass in St. Peter’s Basilica<br />St. Cyril of Jerusalem 348 made procession<br />Offertory introduced: just work to prepare for Eucharist but became spiritual<br />350-650 had the most liturgical progress in history<br />Establish canon, fixed text<br />Roman style: sober, simple, clear, linear and not much space for emotions or exaggerated symbolism: prayers were robust and juridical: express with exactness and synthetic<br />eastern style totally opposite<br />
  21. 21. 3. Epoch of Compilation 7-12 centuries<br />Compile and organize structure and text, standardize<br />Holy Roman Empire spread roman liturgical style<br />Missal, breviary, etc.<br />Put crucifix on altar<br />
  22. 22. 4. Late Medieval Epoch 12-14 centuries<br />PENDULUM SWING<br />Material importance of celebration exaggerated: <br />sequences and music, legends and apocryphal feasts; tears of Christ<br />Mass took all day<br />personal devotions took place of participating in Mass<br />layout was like the San Clemente Church in Rome<br />priest does everything, faithful are there but focus priest and Christ<br />
  23. 23. 5. Epoch of Stability 15-19 centuries<br />PENDULUM SWING<br />Council of Trent 1545; reformation dealing with, stabilize theology, wanted to change language to vernacular but much too afraid<br />Created first RUBRICS<br />1587 first congregation of Rites to govern and guide<br />300 years of stability<br />Architecture change: altar to center point <br />
  24. 24. 6. 20th Century<br />Vatican Council I<br />Reformed music<br />Promote daily communion and communion for children too<br />Reform calendar and feasts<br />
  25. 25. b. Vatican Council II<br />Sacrosanctum Concilium<br />Finality: participation of the faithful: full, conscious, active<br />General Criteria<br />Noble simplicity: removes excessively complicated ceremonies, needless repetition that is not the essential roman style: noble too, not just simple, beautiful<br />Clarity and brevity: precise<br />Comprehensibility: vernacular and teaching liturgy<br />Communitarian dimension: liturgical acts belong to the entire Mystical Body, not just priest, faithful play an essential part; laity help in rite and worship: readers, ministers: responses to people not acolytes<br />Biblical Dimension; fundamental and indispensible part, expanded<br />Unity and Variety: not rigid uniformity, legitimate variances<br />
  26. 26. Today<br />Sacrosanctum Concilium 1963 under Pope Paul VI<br />Full, conscious and active participation of the faithful<br />Eucharist is the source and summit of our Christian lives: Lumen Gentium 11<br />ICEL formed<br />Change Latin to English<br />Saying in Italian: every translator is a betrayer; hard to do this and capture the same thought with all its nuances in the other language: Greek has 5 words for love, what do we do when we don’t have the word in English or even the tense<br />Can’t merely translate word for word if you want full, active and conscious participation<br />Method was called Dynamic Equivalence: see the sense of the Latin text and then translate the meaning into English: maybe use different words or phrases, make it immediately accessible to the faithful<br />Drop repetition or awkward structures of the Latin, that don’t replicate in English<br />
  27. 27. Problem<br />Paraphrasing is not translation<br />Changed meaning, whether by accident or agenda; innocent or intended<br />Fails to give what Latin intended and eliminate poetic beauty in original<br />Certain theologies were in vogue at the time and took precedent over the history and mystery: each age has a theological fashion if you will but slowly should the Church incorporate this into its Tradition and patrimony<br />Overcorrection versus under correction<br />Like Peter in the washing of the feet (John 13:6-10); impulse was because of his love for Christ that we went to extremes<br />First no, then yes whole body<br />Other countries did not have this problem: Spanish is not having a change<br />
  28. 28. ii. Today: liturgiam authenticam<br />Drafts carefully prepared, revised and corrected over 9 years: started under PJPII, Cardinal Arinze (not Cardinal Ratzinger) spearheaded<br />All Bishops in English countries consulted, they were able to invite experts to comment and advise<br />Methodology<br />Formal equivalence<br />Page 3 example and further read Bishop Elliot; then above paragraph<br />Reflect and there are some Sunday prayers that are great but many seem to be lacking something and for longest of time I could not say why<br />Actually many are bland and missing the Mystery; of course I am more theologically sensitive than all of you, studied for 12 years, but deeper problem<br />Went and translated my own, won’t embarrass myself with the horrible translating that I did (in fact had to use a translating program on the computer) but the content from the Latin was not there; 90% no, 10% yes. It was a good prayer, but it just wasn’t an accurate translation<br />I was flabbergasted<br />
  29. 29. 4. Differences that make a big difference<br />Word grace omitted many times: specific theological reality<br />But not understood: job of the Church to make it understood<br />Part of the mystery, truth and history<br />Actually leads to inadvertent heresy: pelagianism; save ourselves by own effort and not the grace of God<br />Leads further: what we do is what matters most, not so much what God does<br />We make liturgy; the community over Christ; liturgy is no longer a gift to us from God through Christ but something that we fabricate, our work, what we create<br />San Jose survey of deaneries and question was, What is the most important part of the Mass for you? The results were: #1 community, #2 music, #3 homily<br />My first answer was not even on the list: Eucharist, presence of Christ<br />Did the liturgy cause this or was it a deeper line of thought in the Church, who knows, what is objective is the EXAGGERATION OF THE PENDULUM<br />
  30. 30. Loss of doctrine with our Blessed Mother; <br />dropped adjectives and hurt theology<br />glory of her virginity remaining vs. became the virgin mother of your Son<br />trendy ideological motives of these changes<br />CHANGES SO FREQUENT THAT THERE IS NO LONGER THE ROMAN MISSAL<br />Loss of metaphors<br />Biblical allusions or direct quotes: receive you vs. come under my roof<br />So what, it’s the same thing: well the point is to quote the scriptures in this moment, not get a ball park figure<br />Style to Latin, get used to it in normal culture; if I started saying this talk by 4 score and 7 years ago; immediately thoughts come to your head; also there is a style and mystery to this phrase; it’s not common English or immediately comprehensible, how many years is that, but man it makes a lasting impression, this is style<br />TRUTH OF THE MYSTERY; read paragraph<br />Christ draws us into his mystery: it is not just what we do<br />
  31. 31. iii. Changes in responses<br />We’re not going to go over all the priestly changes; it would take a long time and you don’t have to say them, it’s not going to be a big issue: will mention one little bit<br />Greeting: BIGGEST CONTROVERSY IS HERE<br />And with your spirit; what does this mean<br />I had big issues with this one: read various explanations and said people are tripartite; body, soul and spirit and I said NO<br />Soul and spirit same? What does this mean<br />Here is what I uncovered<br />
  32. 32. Reason for change<br />Scripture<br />Direct quote from Scripture OT and NT; Ruth 2:4 and 2 Timothy 2:22<br />Probably phrase taken straight from synagogue<br />History <br />Early Christians used this from beginning; Fathers of the Church verify this<br />Foreign to Greek and Latin world but kept: so should we<br />Living connection with history as we keep Amen, Alleluia, Hosanna, Kyrie Elaison<br />Mystery<br />First in Hebrew: “Lord be with you” was greeting of kindness and recognition of a reality: The Lord is present<br />Semitic response literally means “and also with you” your person literally<br />Quickly history separated from Jewish context and went into sense of the spirit that the bishop or priest received in ordination<br />Why only say with major orders, not lay people<br />Today the sense is this: priest acknowledges the Lord is present in the faithful and asks God to bless their lives and common priesthood<br />People acknowledge the power and leadership of the priest vested by Holy Spirit not by his own power<br />
  33. 33. I confess: greatly, and triple affirmation; my fault, my own fault, my own most grievous fault: FORMAL EQUIVALENCE<br />Gloria: restores phrases that were never translated, largely returns to first English translation 64-69<br />Orate fraters: my sacrifice and yours: <br />formal and theological: 2 modes of offering the Mass: priest and priestly people with him<br />Holy Church restored; why take out a mark of the Church????<br />Sanctus<br />Accuracy: God of power and might to Lord God of hosts<br />Domine Deus Sabaoth: Sabaoth is Hebrew reference to countless angelic armies<br />
  34. 34. Consecration<br />For many vs. for all<br />Latin is pro multis; in Gospels, not pro omnibus<br />Some say Hebrew word means ‘all’ even though literal translation is ‘many’<br />This is argued by scholars<br />Theology<br />Christ died for all, but this is not what Christ is getting at<br />His blood will be shed for the redemption of souls, but there are some for whom that redemption will be in vain; in other words, some people will be condemned<br />Highlighting man’s freedom, not the universality of Christ’s sacrifice<br />Christ did die for all but does not force this salvation upon us, we choose<br />Invitation to communion<br />Closer to Scripture and better theology<br />Lord I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof but only say the word and my soul shall be healed.<br />Shift to God’s initiative; old; Lord I am not worthy (that I should) to receive you… <br />now some balk at this and say it is poor grammar; subject change, better to keep all I or all God, not change subject when a conjunction joins them.<br />Not about proper grammar as it is theological focus: this is a minor fault but the theological focus is more important<br />
  35. 35. Summary<br />New translation is <br />RICHER, MORE ELEGANT IN STYLE (maybe not customary English, like Gettysburg address) <br />MORE TRUTHFUL IN DOCTRINAL CONTENT, <br />CLOSER TO THE SCRIPTURE <br />AND MORE SPIRITUAL/MYSTICAL/ MYSTERY<br />Will gradually deepen the quality and tone of worship<br />
  36. 36. Conclusion<br />Benefits<br />Privileged moment to live for future generations<br />Reawaken the depth of the Mass, unite us with the roots of who we are<br />Transmit to next generation the Memorial, of why we do what we do<br />Greater depth to the celebration, to the Mystery and History of the Mass<br />Reality check<br />There will be turmoil, cynicism and anger among some<br />Most of it is attachment not a reasoned out assessment of the situation<br />Transition not easy: better doctrine but need to teach<br />We need you to give the reasons and support it<br />It will be aggravating even for all of us<br />Hard to accustom self to new way of saying things, get irritated<br />This is normal, just getting used to it<br />Remember to go over the reasons WHY so peace returns<br />
  37. 37. Appendix<br />Adoremus Bulletin:<br />Parish Guide to Implementing the Roman Missal:<br />Catechism of the Catholic Church #1322-1419<br />Bishop Peter Elliot; Adoremus Bulletin November 2010<br />Fr. Edward McNamara then go to library and liturgy; tons of common questions regarding liturgy and he is awesome: Jesus Christ, living and present in the liturgy<br />Jesus and the Jewish Roots of the Eucharist: Unlocking the Secrets of the Last Supperby Brant Pitre<br />