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TYPES OF STRATEGIES
Edelyn T. Mondejar
Antoniette Renata Marcellita Sutiana
Strategic Management (BA 211)
August 2013
MondejarSutiana2013
TOPIC PRESENTATION ON:
TYPES OF STRATEGY
 Presented to: Prof. Enrique Maca, MBA
 Presented by: Edelyn T. Mondejar
Antoniette Renata Marcellita Sutiana
 Class: Strategic Management
BA – 211
Class of SY: 2013-2014
MondejarSutiana2013
TOPIC OUTLINE:
 Different types of Strategies.
 Guidelines that indicate when each strategy may
be an effective strategy to pursue.
MondejarSutiana2013
TYPES OF STRATEGY
MondejarSutiana2013
TYPES OF STRATEGY
 Management Control
 Types of integration strategies
INTEGRATION STRATEGY
MondejarSutiana2013
TYPES OF STRATEGY
INTEGRATION STRATEGY
IMAGE FROM:
http://www.opsrules.com/supply-chain-optimization-blog/bid/241648/Vertical-vs-Horizontal-Integration-Which-i
MondejarSutiana2013
VERTICAL INTEGRATION
 Vertical integration is the degree to which a
firm owns its upstream suppliers and its
downstream buyers.
TYPES OF STRATEGY: INTEGRATION
STRATEGIES
MondejarSutiana2013
A company exhibits backward vertical
integration when it controls
subsidiaries (suppliers) that produce some of
the inputs used in the production of its
products.
Control of these three subsidiaries is
intended to create a stable supply of inputs
and ensure a consistent quality in their final
product.
VERTICAL INTEGRATION : BACKWARD
INTEGRATION
TYPES OF STRATEGY: INTEGRATION
STRATEGIES
MondejarSutiana2013
 When an organization’s present suppliers are
especially expensive, or unreliable.
 When the number of suppliers is small and the
number of competitors is large.
 When an organization competes in an industry
that is growing rapidly.
 When an organization has both capital and
human resources to manage the new business of
supplying its own raw materials.
VERTICAL INTEGRATION : BACKWARD
INTEGRATION
Seven guidelines for when backward integration may be an
especially effective strategy are:
MondejarSutiana2013
 When the advantages of stable prices are
particularly important.
 When present supplies have high profit margins,
which suggests that the business of supplying
products or services in the given industry is a
worthwhile venture.
 When an organization needs to quickly acquire a
needed resource.
VERTICAL INTEGRATION : BACKWARD
INTEGRATION
Seven guidelines for when backward integration may be an
especially effective strategy are: Cont.......
MondejarSutiana2013
A company tends toward forward vertical
integration when it controls distribution
centers and retailers where its products are
sold
VERTICAL INTEGRATION : FORWARD
INTEGRATION
TYPES OF STRATEGY: INTEGRATION
STRATEGIES
MondejarSutiana2013
 When an organization’s present distributors are
especially expensive, or unreliable
 When the availability of quality distributors is so
limited as to offer a competitive advantage to
those firms that integrate forward.
 When an organization competes in an industry
that is growing and is expected to continue to
grow markedly.
VERTICAL INTEGRATION :FORWARD
INTEGRATION
Six guidelines for when forward integration may be an
especially effective strategy are:
MondejarSutiana2013
 When an organization has both the capital and
human resources needed to manage the new
business of distributing its own products.
 When the advantages of stable production are
particularly high.
 When present distributors or retailers have high
profit margins.
VERTICAL INTEGRATION :FORWARD
INTEGRATION
Six guidelines for when forward integration may be an
especially effective strategy are: Cont......
MondejarSutiana2013
Ford River Rouge
Complex
 Tire Company
 Glass Company
 Metal Company
Tesco
• Livestock
• Fruits
• Vegetables
Apple Inc.
• Processor
• Software
VERTICAL INTEGRATION :
EXAMPLES
TYPES OF STRATEGY: INTEGRATION
STRATEGIES
MondejarSutiana2013
 It is a strategy of seeking ownership of or increased
control over a firm’s competitors.
 Growth strategy.
 Mergers, acquisitions and takeovers among
competitors allow for increased economies of scale and
enhanced transfer of resources and competencies.
HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION
TYPES OF STRATEGY: INTEGRATION
STRATEGIES
MondejarSutiana2013
 Horizontal integration is accomplished by expansion
into additional business activities that are within the
same level of the value chain.
 Using the gemstones as an example, a wholesale
jeweler could acquire or merge with another wholesale
jeweler in an attempt to horizontally integrate the
company.
HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION :
EXAMPLES
TYPES OF STRATEGY: INTEGRATION
STRATEGIES
MondejarSutiana2013
 When an organization can gain monopolistic
characteristics in a particular area or region without being
challenged by the federal government for “tending
substantially” to reduce competition.
 When an organization competes in a growing industry.
 When increased economies of scale provide major
competitive advantages.
 When an organization has both the capital and human
talent needed to successfully manage an expanded
organization.
 When competitors are faltering due to a lack of managerial
expertise or a need for particular resources that an
organization possesses.
HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION
These five guidelines indicate when horizontal integration
may be an especially effective strategy:
MondejarSutiana2013
 The strategies require intensive efforts if a firm’s
competitive position with existing products is to
improve.
 Types:
TYPES OF STRATEGY
INTENSIVE STRATEGY
MondejarSutiana2013
TYPES OF STRATEGIES: INTENSIVE
STRATEGIES
 A market penetration strategy seeks to increase market share
for present products or services in present markets through
greater marketing efforts.
 Market penetration includes increasing the number of
salespersons, increasing advertising expenditures, offering
extensive sales promotion items, or increasing publicity efforts
Market Penetration
MondejarSutiana2013
Coca-Cola advertising
budget(2010)
$2.9 billion
Microsoft advertising budget
(2010)
$1.6 billion
Apple advertising budget (2010) $691 million
From: http://www.businessinsider.com/facts-about-coca-cola-2011-6?op=1
Market Penetration
TYPES OF STRATEGIES: INTENSIVE
STRATEGIES
MondejarSutiana2013
 When current markets are not saturated with a
particular product or service.
 When the usage rate of present customers could
be increased significantly.
 When the market shares of major competitors
have been declining while total industry sales
have been increasing.
 When the correlation between dollar sales and
dollar marketing expenditures historically has
been high.
 When increased economies of scale provide major
competitive advantages.
INTENSIVE STRATEGY: MARKET
PENETRATION
These five guidelines indicate when market penetration may
be an especially effective strategy:
MondejarSutiana2013
TYPES OF STRATEGIES: INTENSIVE
STRATEGIES
 Market development involves introducing present products or
services into new geographic areas.
 Wal-Mart Stores (60), Carefour SA (28 stores), Tesco PLC ()are
expanding further in China in 2009/2010.
Market Development
J.CO Donuts & Coffee
• Cafe retailer in Indonesia
• by: Johnny Andrean Group., 2005
• Fastest growing donut & coffee chain in
South-East Asia
• As of October 2010 J.CO operates 87 outlets
throughout Asia.
• Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, China,
Philippines
MondejarSutiana2013
 When new channels of distribution are available
that are reliable, inexpensive, and of good quality.
 When an organization is very successful at what it
does.
 When new untapped or unsaturated markets exist.
 When an organization has the needed capital and
human resources to manage expanded operations.
 When an organization has excess production
capacity.
 When an organization’s basic industry is rapidly
becoming global in scope.
INTENSIVE STRATEGY: MARKET
DEVELOPMENT
These six guidelines indicate when market development
may be an especially effective strategy:
MondejarSutiana2013
TYPES OF STRATEGIES: INTENSIVE
STRATEGIES
 Product development is a strategy that seeks increased sales by
improving or modifying present products or services.
 Product development usually entails large research and
development expenditures.
 Google’s new Chrome OS operating system illuminates years of
monies spent on product development. Google expects Chrome OS
to overtake Microsoft Windows by 2015.
Product Development
Jeff Bleustein, CEO
• During the past two decades, the
company has made significant
investments in new product lines.
• The evolution engine, the softail
motorcycle, Twin Cam 88 engine.
“An American Success Story”
MondejarSutiana2013
 When an organization has successful products that
are in the maturity stage of the product life cycle.
 When an organization competes in an industry that
is characterized by rapid technological
developments.
 When major competitors offer better-quality
products at comparable prices.
 When an organization competes in a high-growth
industry.
 When an organization has especially strong research
and development capabilities.
INTENSIVE STRATEGY: PRODUCT
DEVELOPMENT
These five guidelines indicate when product development
may be an especially effective strategy to pursue:
MondejarSutiana2013
 Types:
 Advantage:
Lessen the risk of being in a single industry
 Disadvantage:
More difficult to manage
TYPES OF STRATEGY
DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES
MondejarSutiana2013
 When value chains posses competitively valuable
cross-business strategic fits
 A process that takes place when a business
expands its activities into product lines that are
similar to those it currently offers.
 Either through acquisition of competitors or
through internal development of new
products/services.
RELATED DIVERSIFICATION
TYPES OF STRATEGY: DIVERSIFICATION
STRATEGIES
MondejarSutiana2013
SIX GUIDELINES FOR WHEN RELATED
DIVERSIFICATION MAY BE AN EFFECTIVE
STRATEGY ARE AS FOLLOWS.
 When an organization competes in a no-growth or a
slow-growth industry.
 When adding new, but related, products would
significantly enhance the sales of current products.
 When new, but related, products could be offered at
highly competitive prices.
DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES:
RELATED
MondejarSutiana2013
 When new, but related, products have seasonal
sales levels that counterbalance an organization’s
existing peaks and valleys.
 When an organization’s products are currently in
the declining stage of the product’s life cycle.
 When an organization has a strong management
team.
SIX GUIDELINES FOR WHEN RELATED
DIVERSIFICATION MAY BE AN EFFECTIVE
STRATEGY ARE AS FOLLOWS. CONT........
DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES:
RELATED
MondejarSutiana2013
UNRELATED DIVERSIFICATION
 An unrelated diversification strategy favors
capitalizing on a portfolio of businesses that are
capable of delivering excellent financial
performance in their respective industries, rather
than striving to capitalize on value chain
strategic fits among the businesses.
 A form of diversification when the business adds
new or unrelated product lines and penetrates
new markets
TYPES OF STRATEGY:
DIVERSIFICATION
MondejarSutiana2013
TEN GUIDELINES FOR WHEN UNRELATED
DIVERSIFICATION MAY BE AN ESPECIALLY
EFFECTIVE STRATEGY
 When revenues derived from an organization’s
current products or services would increase
significantly by adding the new, unrelated products.
 When an organization competes in a highly
competitive and/or a no-growth industry, as indicated
by low industry profit margins and returns.
 When an organization’s present channels of
distribution can be used to market the new products
to current customers.
 When the new products have countercyclical sales
patterns compared to an organization’s present
products.
DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES:
UNRELATED
MondejarSutiana2013
 When an organization’s basic industry is experiencing
declining annual sales and profits.
 When an organization has the capital and managerial
talent needed to compete successfully in a new industry.
 When an organization has the opportunity to purchase
an unrelated business that is an attractive investment
opportunity.
 When there exists financial synergy between the
acquired and acquiring firm.
 When existing markets for an organization’s present
products are saturated.
 When antitrust action could be charged against an
organization that historically has concentrated on a
single industry.
DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES:
UNRELATED GUIDELINES: CONT……
MondejarSutiana2013
DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES
 A management approach designed to reduce the
risk of loss
 Types:
TYPES OF STRATEGY
MondejarSutiana2013
RETRENCHMENT
 Sometimes called a turnaround or
reorganizational strategy
 Occurs when an organization regroups through
cost and asset reduction to reverse declining
sales
 Entail selling off land and buildings to raise
needed cash, pruning product lines, closing
marginal businesses, closing obsolete factories,
automating processes, reducing the number of
employees, and instituting expense control
systems and profits
TYPES OF STRATEGY: DEFENSIVE
STRATEGIES
MondejarSutiana2013
FIVE GUIDELINES FOR WHEN
RETRENCHMENT MAY BE AN ESPECIALLY
EFFECTIVE STRATEGY:
 When an organization has a clearly distinctive
competence but has failed consistently to meet its
objectives and goals over time.
 When an organization is one of the weaker
competitors in a given industry.
 When an organization is plagued by inefficiency,
low profitability, poor employee morale, and
pressure from stockholders to improve
performance.
DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES:
RETRENCHMENT
MondejarSutiana2013
 When an organization has failed to capitalize on
external opportunities, minimize external
threats, take advantage of internal strengths,
and overcome internal weaknesses over time;
that is, when the organization’s strategic
managers have failed (and possibly will be
replaced by more competent individuals).
 When an organization has grown so large so
quickly that major internal reorganization is
needed.
DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES:
RETRENCHMENT
FIVE GUIDELINES FOR WHEN
RETRENCHMENT MAY BE AN ESPECIALLY
EFFECTIVE STRATEGY. CONT…
MondejarSutiana2013
DIVESTITURE
 Selling a division or part of an organization
 Often is used to raise capital for further strategic
acquisitions or investments.
 Can be part of an overall retrenchment strategy
to rid an organization of businesses that are
unprofitable, that require too much capital, or
that do not fit well with the firm’s other activities
TYPES OF STRATEGY: DEFENSIVE
STRATEGIES
MondejarSutiana2013
SIX GUIDELINES FOR WHEN DIVESTITURE
MAY BE AN ESPECIALLY EFFECTIVE
STRATEGY
 When an organization has pursued a
retrenchment strategy and failed to accomplish
needed improvements.
 When a division needs more resources to be
competitive than the company can provide.
 When a division is responsible for an
organization’s overall poor performance.
DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES:
DIVESTITURE
MondejarSutiana2013
 When a division is a misfit with the rest of an
organization; this can result from radically
different markets, customers, managers,
employees, values, or needs.
 When a large amount of cash is needed quickly
and cannot be obtained reasonably from other
sources.
 When government antitrust action threatens an
organization.
DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES:
RETRENCHMENT
SIX GUIDELINES FOR WHEN DIVESTITURE
MAY BE AN ESPECIALLY EFFECTIVE
STRATEGY. CONT…..
MondejarSutiana2013
LIQUIDATION
 Selling all of a company’s assets, in parts, for
their tangible worth
 A recognition of defeat and consequently can be
an emotionally difficult strategy
TYPES OF STRATEGY: DEFENSIVE
STRATEGIES
MondejarSutiana2013
THESE THREE GUIDELINES INDICATE
WHEN LIQUIDATION MAY BE AN
ESPECIALLY EFFECTIVE
STRATEGY
 When an organization has pursued both a
retrenchment strategy and a divestiture strategy,
and neither has been successful.
 When an organization’s only alternative is
bankruptcy. Liquidation represents an orderly
and planned means of obtaining the greatest
possible cash for an organization’s assets. A
company can legally declare bankruptcy first and
then liquidate various divisions to raise needed
capital.
 When the stockholders of a firm can minimize
their losses by selling the organization’s assets.
DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES:
LIQUIDATION
MondejarSutiana2013
…the end
MondejarSutiana2013
Ref:
 David, F. R. (2011). Strategic Management. 13th
ed. Publisher: Prentice Hall.
 http://smallbusiness.chron.com/horizontally-integrated-com
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertical_integration
MondejarSutiana2013

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Strategic Management: Types of Strategy

  • 1. TYPES OF STRATEGIES Edelyn T. Mondejar Antoniette Renata Marcellita Sutiana Strategic Management (BA 211) August 2013 MondejarSutiana2013
  • 2. TOPIC PRESENTATION ON: TYPES OF STRATEGY  Presented to: Prof. Enrique Maca, MBA  Presented by: Edelyn T. Mondejar Antoniette Renata Marcellita Sutiana  Class: Strategic Management BA – 211 Class of SY: 2013-2014 MondejarSutiana2013
  • 3. TOPIC OUTLINE:  Different types of Strategies.  Guidelines that indicate when each strategy may be an effective strategy to pursue. MondejarSutiana2013
  • 5. TYPES OF STRATEGY  Management Control  Types of integration strategies INTEGRATION STRATEGY MondejarSutiana2013
  • 6. TYPES OF STRATEGY INTEGRATION STRATEGY IMAGE FROM: http://www.opsrules.com/supply-chain-optimization-blog/bid/241648/Vertical-vs-Horizontal-Integration-Which-i MondejarSutiana2013
  • 7. VERTICAL INTEGRATION  Vertical integration is the degree to which a firm owns its upstream suppliers and its downstream buyers. TYPES OF STRATEGY: INTEGRATION STRATEGIES MondejarSutiana2013
  • 8. A company exhibits backward vertical integration when it controls subsidiaries (suppliers) that produce some of the inputs used in the production of its products. Control of these three subsidiaries is intended to create a stable supply of inputs and ensure a consistent quality in their final product. VERTICAL INTEGRATION : BACKWARD INTEGRATION TYPES OF STRATEGY: INTEGRATION STRATEGIES MondejarSutiana2013
  • 9.  When an organization’s present suppliers are especially expensive, or unreliable.  When the number of suppliers is small and the number of competitors is large.  When an organization competes in an industry that is growing rapidly.  When an organization has both capital and human resources to manage the new business of supplying its own raw materials. VERTICAL INTEGRATION : BACKWARD INTEGRATION Seven guidelines for when backward integration may be an especially effective strategy are: MondejarSutiana2013
  • 10.  When the advantages of stable prices are particularly important.  When present supplies have high profit margins, which suggests that the business of supplying products or services in the given industry is a worthwhile venture.  When an organization needs to quickly acquire a needed resource. VERTICAL INTEGRATION : BACKWARD INTEGRATION Seven guidelines for when backward integration may be an especially effective strategy are: Cont....... MondejarSutiana2013
  • 11. A company tends toward forward vertical integration when it controls distribution centers and retailers where its products are sold VERTICAL INTEGRATION : FORWARD INTEGRATION TYPES OF STRATEGY: INTEGRATION STRATEGIES MondejarSutiana2013
  • 12.  When an organization’s present distributors are especially expensive, or unreliable  When the availability of quality distributors is so limited as to offer a competitive advantage to those firms that integrate forward.  When an organization competes in an industry that is growing and is expected to continue to grow markedly. VERTICAL INTEGRATION :FORWARD INTEGRATION Six guidelines for when forward integration may be an especially effective strategy are: MondejarSutiana2013
  • 13.  When an organization has both the capital and human resources needed to manage the new business of distributing its own products.  When the advantages of stable production are particularly high.  When present distributors or retailers have high profit margins. VERTICAL INTEGRATION :FORWARD INTEGRATION Six guidelines for when forward integration may be an especially effective strategy are: Cont...... MondejarSutiana2013
  • 14. Ford River Rouge Complex  Tire Company  Glass Company  Metal Company Tesco • Livestock • Fruits • Vegetables Apple Inc. • Processor • Software VERTICAL INTEGRATION : EXAMPLES TYPES OF STRATEGY: INTEGRATION STRATEGIES MondejarSutiana2013
  • 15.  It is a strategy of seeking ownership of or increased control over a firm’s competitors.  Growth strategy.  Mergers, acquisitions and takeovers among competitors allow for increased economies of scale and enhanced transfer of resources and competencies. HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION TYPES OF STRATEGY: INTEGRATION STRATEGIES MondejarSutiana2013
  • 16.  Horizontal integration is accomplished by expansion into additional business activities that are within the same level of the value chain.  Using the gemstones as an example, a wholesale jeweler could acquire or merge with another wholesale jeweler in an attempt to horizontally integrate the company. HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION : EXAMPLES TYPES OF STRATEGY: INTEGRATION STRATEGIES MondejarSutiana2013
  • 17.  When an organization can gain monopolistic characteristics in a particular area or region without being challenged by the federal government for “tending substantially” to reduce competition.  When an organization competes in a growing industry.  When increased economies of scale provide major competitive advantages.  When an organization has both the capital and human talent needed to successfully manage an expanded organization.  When competitors are faltering due to a lack of managerial expertise or a need for particular resources that an organization possesses. HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION These five guidelines indicate when horizontal integration may be an especially effective strategy: MondejarSutiana2013
  • 18.  The strategies require intensive efforts if a firm’s competitive position with existing products is to improve.  Types: TYPES OF STRATEGY INTENSIVE STRATEGY MondejarSutiana2013
  • 19. TYPES OF STRATEGIES: INTENSIVE STRATEGIES  A market penetration strategy seeks to increase market share for present products or services in present markets through greater marketing efforts.  Market penetration includes increasing the number of salespersons, increasing advertising expenditures, offering extensive sales promotion items, or increasing publicity efforts Market Penetration MondejarSutiana2013
  • 20. Coca-Cola advertising budget(2010) $2.9 billion Microsoft advertising budget (2010) $1.6 billion Apple advertising budget (2010) $691 million From: http://www.businessinsider.com/facts-about-coca-cola-2011-6?op=1 Market Penetration TYPES OF STRATEGIES: INTENSIVE STRATEGIES MondejarSutiana2013
  • 21.  When current markets are not saturated with a particular product or service.  When the usage rate of present customers could be increased significantly.  When the market shares of major competitors have been declining while total industry sales have been increasing.  When the correlation between dollar sales and dollar marketing expenditures historically has been high.  When increased economies of scale provide major competitive advantages. INTENSIVE STRATEGY: MARKET PENETRATION These five guidelines indicate when market penetration may be an especially effective strategy: MondejarSutiana2013
  • 22. TYPES OF STRATEGIES: INTENSIVE STRATEGIES  Market development involves introducing present products or services into new geographic areas.  Wal-Mart Stores (60), Carefour SA (28 stores), Tesco PLC ()are expanding further in China in 2009/2010. Market Development J.CO Donuts & Coffee • Cafe retailer in Indonesia • by: Johnny Andrean Group., 2005 • Fastest growing donut & coffee chain in South-East Asia • As of October 2010 J.CO operates 87 outlets throughout Asia. • Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, China, Philippines MondejarSutiana2013
  • 23.  When new channels of distribution are available that are reliable, inexpensive, and of good quality.  When an organization is very successful at what it does.  When new untapped or unsaturated markets exist.  When an organization has the needed capital and human resources to manage expanded operations.  When an organization has excess production capacity.  When an organization’s basic industry is rapidly becoming global in scope. INTENSIVE STRATEGY: MARKET DEVELOPMENT These six guidelines indicate when market development may be an especially effective strategy: MondejarSutiana2013
  • 24. TYPES OF STRATEGIES: INTENSIVE STRATEGIES  Product development is a strategy that seeks increased sales by improving or modifying present products or services.  Product development usually entails large research and development expenditures.  Google’s new Chrome OS operating system illuminates years of monies spent on product development. Google expects Chrome OS to overtake Microsoft Windows by 2015. Product Development Jeff Bleustein, CEO • During the past two decades, the company has made significant investments in new product lines. • The evolution engine, the softail motorcycle, Twin Cam 88 engine. “An American Success Story” MondejarSutiana2013
  • 25.  When an organization has successful products that are in the maturity stage of the product life cycle.  When an organization competes in an industry that is characterized by rapid technological developments.  When major competitors offer better-quality products at comparable prices.  When an organization competes in a high-growth industry.  When an organization has especially strong research and development capabilities. INTENSIVE STRATEGY: PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT These five guidelines indicate when product development may be an especially effective strategy to pursue: MondejarSutiana2013
  • 26.  Types:  Advantage: Lessen the risk of being in a single industry  Disadvantage: More difficult to manage TYPES OF STRATEGY DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES MondejarSutiana2013
  • 27.  When value chains posses competitively valuable cross-business strategic fits  A process that takes place when a business expands its activities into product lines that are similar to those it currently offers.  Either through acquisition of competitors or through internal development of new products/services. RELATED DIVERSIFICATION TYPES OF STRATEGY: DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES MondejarSutiana2013
  • 28. SIX GUIDELINES FOR WHEN RELATED DIVERSIFICATION MAY BE AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY ARE AS FOLLOWS.  When an organization competes in a no-growth or a slow-growth industry.  When adding new, but related, products would significantly enhance the sales of current products.  When new, but related, products could be offered at highly competitive prices. DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES: RELATED MondejarSutiana2013
  • 29.  When new, but related, products have seasonal sales levels that counterbalance an organization’s existing peaks and valleys.  When an organization’s products are currently in the declining stage of the product’s life cycle.  When an organization has a strong management team. SIX GUIDELINES FOR WHEN RELATED DIVERSIFICATION MAY BE AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY ARE AS FOLLOWS. CONT........ DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES: RELATED MondejarSutiana2013
  • 30. UNRELATED DIVERSIFICATION  An unrelated diversification strategy favors capitalizing on a portfolio of businesses that are capable of delivering excellent financial performance in their respective industries, rather than striving to capitalize on value chain strategic fits among the businesses.  A form of diversification when the business adds new or unrelated product lines and penetrates new markets TYPES OF STRATEGY: DIVERSIFICATION MondejarSutiana2013
  • 31. TEN GUIDELINES FOR WHEN UNRELATED DIVERSIFICATION MAY BE AN ESPECIALLY EFFECTIVE STRATEGY  When revenues derived from an organization’s current products or services would increase significantly by adding the new, unrelated products.  When an organization competes in a highly competitive and/or a no-growth industry, as indicated by low industry profit margins and returns.  When an organization’s present channels of distribution can be used to market the new products to current customers.  When the new products have countercyclical sales patterns compared to an organization’s present products. DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES: UNRELATED MondejarSutiana2013
  • 32.  When an organization’s basic industry is experiencing declining annual sales and profits.  When an organization has the capital and managerial talent needed to compete successfully in a new industry.  When an organization has the opportunity to purchase an unrelated business that is an attractive investment opportunity.  When there exists financial synergy between the acquired and acquiring firm.  When existing markets for an organization’s present products are saturated.  When antitrust action could be charged against an organization that historically has concentrated on a single industry. DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES: UNRELATED GUIDELINES: CONT…… MondejarSutiana2013
  • 33. DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES  A management approach designed to reduce the risk of loss  Types: TYPES OF STRATEGY MondejarSutiana2013
  • 34. RETRENCHMENT  Sometimes called a turnaround or reorganizational strategy  Occurs when an organization regroups through cost and asset reduction to reverse declining sales  Entail selling off land and buildings to raise needed cash, pruning product lines, closing marginal businesses, closing obsolete factories, automating processes, reducing the number of employees, and instituting expense control systems and profits TYPES OF STRATEGY: DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES MondejarSutiana2013
  • 35. FIVE GUIDELINES FOR WHEN RETRENCHMENT MAY BE AN ESPECIALLY EFFECTIVE STRATEGY:  When an organization has a clearly distinctive competence but has failed consistently to meet its objectives and goals over time.  When an organization is one of the weaker competitors in a given industry.  When an organization is plagued by inefficiency, low profitability, poor employee morale, and pressure from stockholders to improve performance. DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES: RETRENCHMENT MondejarSutiana2013
  • 36.  When an organization has failed to capitalize on external opportunities, minimize external threats, take advantage of internal strengths, and overcome internal weaknesses over time; that is, when the organization’s strategic managers have failed (and possibly will be replaced by more competent individuals).  When an organization has grown so large so quickly that major internal reorganization is needed. DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES: RETRENCHMENT FIVE GUIDELINES FOR WHEN RETRENCHMENT MAY BE AN ESPECIALLY EFFECTIVE STRATEGY. CONT… MondejarSutiana2013
  • 37. DIVESTITURE  Selling a division or part of an organization  Often is used to raise capital for further strategic acquisitions or investments.  Can be part of an overall retrenchment strategy to rid an organization of businesses that are unprofitable, that require too much capital, or that do not fit well with the firm’s other activities TYPES OF STRATEGY: DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES MondejarSutiana2013
  • 38. SIX GUIDELINES FOR WHEN DIVESTITURE MAY BE AN ESPECIALLY EFFECTIVE STRATEGY  When an organization has pursued a retrenchment strategy and failed to accomplish needed improvements.  When a division needs more resources to be competitive than the company can provide.  When a division is responsible for an organization’s overall poor performance. DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES: DIVESTITURE MondejarSutiana2013
  • 39.  When a division is a misfit with the rest of an organization; this can result from radically different markets, customers, managers, employees, values, or needs.  When a large amount of cash is needed quickly and cannot be obtained reasonably from other sources.  When government antitrust action threatens an organization. DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES: RETRENCHMENT SIX GUIDELINES FOR WHEN DIVESTITURE MAY BE AN ESPECIALLY EFFECTIVE STRATEGY. CONT….. MondejarSutiana2013
  • 40. LIQUIDATION  Selling all of a company’s assets, in parts, for their tangible worth  A recognition of defeat and consequently can be an emotionally difficult strategy TYPES OF STRATEGY: DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES MondejarSutiana2013
  • 41. THESE THREE GUIDELINES INDICATE WHEN LIQUIDATION MAY BE AN ESPECIALLY EFFECTIVE STRATEGY  When an organization has pursued both a retrenchment strategy and a divestiture strategy, and neither has been successful.  When an organization’s only alternative is bankruptcy. Liquidation represents an orderly and planned means of obtaining the greatest possible cash for an organization’s assets. A company can legally declare bankruptcy first and then liquidate various divisions to raise needed capital.  When the stockholders of a firm can minimize their losses by selling the organization’s assets. DEFENSIVE STRATEGIES: LIQUIDATION MondejarSutiana2013
  • 43. Ref:  David, F. R. (2011). Strategic Management. 13th ed. Publisher: Prentice Hall.  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/horizontally-integrated-com  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertical_integration MondejarSutiana2013

Editor's Notes

  1. MondejarSutiana2013