Testing ModesPaper & Pencil Based Test (PPBTPPBTPPBTPPBT)Compute-Based Testing (CBTCBTCBTCBT)Dual(Computer/Paper) Based (DBTDBTDBTDBT)
The Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB)introduced Compute-Based Testing (CBT) andDual(Computer/Paper) Based (DBT) for the 2013Unified Tertiary Matriculations Examination.A pilot test was carried out on 600 Students in Abuja;According to JAMB Registrar, Prof. Dibu Ojerinde saidit was a testimony to the viability of the e-testing inline with global best practices for such examinations.“The e-testing option which we have test run andfound effective has many advantages”:It ensures prompt delivery of raw scores,It eliminates cases of incomplete results,Eliminates result blackout andchecks examination malpractice.
This is an exploratory study to find out howcandidates embraced the new testing modes acrossthe Nation as well as extract some intelligence fromtheir preference which would help future planningwhen the Computer-Based Test (CBT) will be fullyimplemented in 2015 .However, available statistics show that candidates stillprefer the traditional Paper & Pencil Based test, this,many have attributed to Lack of Awareness,Infrastructural Development & lack of operationalComputer Education as part of our secondarycurriculum.
Testing Mode & AllocationTesting Mode & AllocationTesting Mode & AllocationTesting Mode & AllocationTesting ModeTesting ModeTesting ModeTesting Mode AllocationAllocationAllocationAllocation %%%%Paper & Pencil (PPBT) 1,672,920 93.27Computer-Based (CBT) 105,685 5.89Dual(Computer/Paper) Based (DBT) 15,008 0.841,793,6131,793,6131,793,6131,793,61393.27% of total allocation went to the traditionaltesting mode – PPBT. While both CBT and DBTshared the remaining with DBT having less than1% allocation (15,008)
Advantages:Advantages:Advantages:Advantages:CBT being an innovation in the assessment systemthe accuracy and time saving of CBTease of recording and changing answersthe richness of the computer interfacethe Standardization of test environmentcomfortable and enjoyable to takechecking examination malpracticeseliminating cases of incomplete resultsprompt release of results – 30mins according to JAMBDisadvantages:Disadvantages:Disadvantages:Disadvantages:reading from the electronic medium is slower, about 20 – 30%reading from computer is less accurate to paperfirst unpleasant and uncomfortable CBT experiencePhysical and psychological problems caused by CBT, such as eyefatigue and boredomtest indicator of time remaining affects students’ coordinationdifficulty of page scrollingunforeseen technical fault with computer hardware and softwareAdvantage & Disadvantage of CBTAdvantage & Disadvantage of CBTAdvantage & Disadvantage of CBTAdvantage & Disadvantage of CBT
Candidates’ PreferenceCandidates’ PreferenceCandidates’ PreferenceCandidates’ PreferenceTesting ModeTesting ModeTesting ModeTesting Mode AllocationAllocationAllocationAllocation UsedUsedUsedUsed UnusedUnusedUnusedUnusedPPBT 1,672,920 1,629,111 43,809CBT 105,685 91,610 14,075DBT 15,008 15,008 01,793,6131,793,6131,793,6131,793,613 1,735,7291,735,7291,735,7291,735,729 57,88457,88457,88457,884Apparently, PPBT was candidates’ most preferredchoice. First, for having the highest allocation.Second, for being the only mode Candidates havebeen tested in previous examinations in secondaryschools.
Allocation & ‘Allocation & ‘Allocation & ‘Allocation & ‘Used’Used’Used’Used’ PercentagePercentagePercentagePercentageTesting ModeTesting ModeTesting ModeTesting Mode AllocationAllocationAllocationAllocation UsedUsedUsedUsed % Used% Used% Used% UsedPPBT 1,672,920 1,629,111 97.38CBT 105,685 91,610 86.68DBT 15,008 15,008 100.001,793,6131,793,6131,793,6131,793,613 1,735,7291,735,7291,735,7291,735,729This shows that DBT was the preferred choice forCandidates as all slots allocated for the exam were usedup.PPBT was almost exhausted, 97.38%. This shows thatthere is a shift from the traditional mode of testing.
13.32% of slots allocated to CBT were unused while PPBTgot 2.62%.Testing ModeTesting ModeTesting ModeTesting Mode AllocationAllocationAllocationAllocation UnusedUnusedUnusedUnused % Unused% Unused% Unused% UnusedPPBT 1,672,920 43,809 2.62CBT 105,685 14,075 13.32DBT 15,008 0 0.001,793,6131,793,6131,793,6131,793,613 57,88457,88457,88457,884Allocation &Allocation &Allocation &Allocation & ‘Unused’‘Unused’‘Unused’‘Unused’ PercentagePercentagePercentagePercentageClearly, it shows candidates embraced DBT compared toother modes and this shows that instead of a suddenintroduction and replacement of PPBT with CBT, a gradualintroduction of CBT, manifested as DBT, would ease theshock for candidates and encourage acceptance as amode of testing.
DBT as Preferred ChoiceDBT as Preferred ChoiceDBT as Preferred ChoiceDBT as Preferred ChoiceJAMB should embark on a gradual change from PPBT toCBT using the DBT approach.We therefore need to answer the following questions:Where (State/LGA) do we have highest acceptanceof CBT as the preferred test mode?Where are the concentration of DBT as the preferredtest mode?How best to introduce CBT seeing that it is a morecost effective testing mode?
The UTME was conducted in all the 36 States of theFederation, the FCT and some Foreign countries –Cameroun, Ghana, Saudi Arabia, Britain, Republic of Beninand South Africa. In all, there were 43 test States.ModeModeModeMode LocationsLocationsLocationsLocations TotalTotalTotalTotalPPBTPPBTPPBTPPBTHeld in all States except Ghana, SaudiArabia, Britain and South Africa39CBTCBTCBTCBTHeld in all States except in Adamawa,Bayelsa, Cameroun, Taraba, Yobe38DBTDBTDBTDBTHeld in all States except in Adamawa,Bayelsa, Cameroun, Ghana, SaudiArabia, Britain, Republic of Benin,South Africa, Taraba and Yobe33Test Mode & LocationsTest Mode & LocationsTest Mode & LocationsTest Mode & Locations
A total of 589 centres were utilized for the UTME 2013,scattered across different locations (in the previous slide).ModeModeModeMode TotalTotalTotalTotal %%%% Preference %Preference %Preference %Preference %PPBTPPBTPPBTPPBT 419 71.14 97.38CBTCBTCBTCBT 91 15.45 86.68DBTDBTDBTDBT 79 13.41 100.00Test Mode &Test Mode &Test Mode &Test Mode & CentresCentresCentresCentresDespite low preference for CBT, there are some areaswhere CBT is highly preferred, therefore it will be morebeneficial to study the character /disposition ofCandidates in these places in order to come up withsuitable adverts and awareness that would most likelyhelp them to embrace the new mode of testing.
The table above shows there are different perception toCBT, while allocated slots were totally used up in somelocations, others were partially and fairly used.UsageUsageUsageUsage LocationsLocationsLocationsLocations100%100%100%100% Anambra, Delta, Imo, Lagos, Osun, Oyo90909090 –––– 99%99%99%99%FCT-Abuja, Kano, Edo, Akwa-Ibom, Nassarawa,Plateau, Rivers80808080 –––– 89%89%89%89% Cross-River, Ondo, Kwara, Abia, Niger, Kaduna, Enugu70707070 –––– 79%79%79%79% Ekiti, Benue, Ogun, Sokoto60606060 –––– 69%69%69%69% Kogi, Ebonyi50505050 –––– 59%59%59%59% Katsina, Zamfara, Jigawa, Bauchi, Kebbi40404040 –––– 49%49%49%49% Borno, Gombe, Britain0000 –––– 39%39%39%39% Ghana, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Republic Of BeninCBT Test Mode & Usage PercentageCBT Test Mode & Usage PercentageCBT Test Mode & Usage PercentageCBT Test Mode & Usage Percentage
This goes to show that the different awareness/education would berequired in respect of usage percentages in these locations. Forinstance, little awareness would be required in places like FCT, Kano,Edo compared to Kogi, Ebonyi, Borno, Gombe and Kebbi States.CBT Test Mode & Usage PercentageCBT Test Mode & Usage PercentageCBT Test Mode & Usage PercentageCBT Test Mode & Usage PercentageFinally, since more Candidates preferred DBT to CBT, it is important togo through this route in the hope that a phase-by-phase introductionof DBT would eventually make us arrive at the final destination ofusing CBT as the preferred test mode for most Standardized Tests inNigeria.It was also observed that in some States that could not achieve 100%usage, their were centres or areas where 100% usage was achieved.E.g. Abia state though achieved 86.94% usage, CBT centres in Abaand Umudike achieved 100% usage. Bauchi state, though with a53.32% usage rate, achieved 100% in Bauchi and Yelwa centres.
A phase approach to CBT would help students accept it as a norm.Suggested ApproachSuggested ApproachSuggested ApproachSuggested ApproachPhasePhasePhasePhase ApproachApproachApproachApproach ActionActionActionAction1Ensuring that computer education is activelytaught in schools from Junior Secondary Classeswith the help of the Ministry of Education, theMinistry of Science and Technology, the Ministryof Communication TechnologyContinuousContinuousContinuousContinuous – from Juniorto Senior secondaryschools2Partner with private sector to create testingcentres (like Cyber cafes) where candidate canpay for testing time and practice mock examsRegister & licenseinterested centres3Engage the mass media actively withsensitization and education on the use of CBTMinistry of Information &National OrientationAgency4Conduct pilot tests in at least one state in eachgeo-political zone with at least 10% of last year’stotal candidates as subjectUse the 2013 applicationto know where this isneeded5Evaluate the result and take an empirical decisionbased on its outcomePPBT and DBT
JAMB must understand that CBT is asudden change to what candidates havebeen used to (PPBT), therefore a systematicapproach - as itemized in this study - wouldneed to be used in order to achieve thedesired result.If Candidates are well informed and havethe required capacity to take tests throughCBT, very few effort would be required toconvince them.