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Framework for ranking higher institutions in nigeria

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This presentation looks at the methodologies of five international bodies that rates higher institutions across the world with the aim of providing a guiding framework for ranking Nigerian institutions.

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Framework for ranking higher institutions in nigeria

  1. 1. A Framework for Ranking Higher Institutions in Nigeria StatiSense
  2. 2. The Higher Education System in Nigeria is regulated by three Agencies under the Ministry of Education. These Agencies are saddled with regulatory oversight such as:  Granting approval for the establishment of institutions  Granting approval for all academic programmes  Establishing minimum standards for academic programmes  Accrediting programmes offered by institutions  Ensuring quality assurance of all academic programmes  Channel for external support to institutions Beside these functions, these Agencies should be able to provide to the general public a measure that shows the performance of our higher institutions against set criteria. As of today, Nigerian Students and their Parents/Sponsors depend on some external rankings of Nigerian Institutions in order to make decision as regard which institution is the Best. Introduction This presentation looks at the methodologies of five international bodies that rates higher institutions across the world with the aim of providing a guiding framework for ranking Nigerian institutions.
  3. 3. National Universities Commission (NUC) | National Board For Technical Education (NBTE) | National Commission For College Education (NCCE) | Innovation Enterprise Institutions | Vocational Enterprise Institutions NUC NBTE NCCE Universities Colleges of Education Polytechnics Monotechnics Health Technology IEI VEI Technical Colleges Ministry of Education Nigerian Higher Institutions & Their Regulators
  4. 4. Five International Rating Organizations The five organizations whose rating methodologies are being used are: 1. Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) 2. Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) 3. Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 4. Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings 5. Webometrics Ranking of World Universities (Webometrics)
  5. 5. ARWU Methodology The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) is conducted by researchers at the Center for World-Class Universities of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (CWCU). RANKING METHODOLOGY CRITERIA INDICATOR CODE WEIGHT Quality of Education Alumni of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals Alumni 10% Quality of Faculty Staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals Award 20% Highly cited researchers in 21 broad subject categories HiCi 20% Research Output Papers published in Nature and Science* N&S 20% Papers indexed in Science Citation Index-expanded and Social Science Citation Index PUB 20% Per Capita Performance Per capita academic performance of an institution PCP 10% * For institutions specialized in humanities and social sciences such as London School of Economics, N&S is not considered, and the weight of N&S is relocated to other indicators.
  6. 6. ARWU: Definition of Indicators INDICATOR DEFINITION Alumni The total number of the alumni of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals. Alumni are defined as those who obtain bachelor, Master's or doctoral degrees from the institution. Award The total number of the staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Medicine and Economics and Fields Medal in Mathematics. HiCi The number of Highly Cited Researchers selected by Thomson Reuters. N&S The number of papers published in Nature and Science between 2009 and 2013. PUB Total number of papers indexed in Science Citation Index-Expanded and Social Science Citation Index in 2013. PCP The weighted scores of the above five indicators divided by the number of full-time equivalent academic staff. Data Sources – Source http://nobelprize.org/ http://www.webofknowledge.com/ http://www.mathunion.org/ http://www.webofknowledge.com/ http://www.highlycited.com/
  7. 7. CWRU Methodology The Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) publishes the only global university ranking that measures the quality of education and training of students as well as the prestige of the faculty members and the quality of their research without relying on surveys and university data submissions. RANKING METHODOLOGY INDICATOR DEFINITION WEIGHT Quality of Education Measured by the number of a university's alumni who have won major international awards, prizes, and medals relative to the university's size 25% Alumni Employment Measured by the number of a university's alumni who have held CEO positions at the world's top companies relative to the university's size 25% Quality of Faculty Measured by the number of academics who have won major international awards, prizes, and medals. 25% Publications Measured by the number of research papers appearing in reputable journals 5% Influence Measured by the number of research papers appearing in highly- influential journals 5% Citations Measured by the number of highly-cited research papers 5% Broad Impact Measured by the university's h-index 5% Patents Measured by the number of international patent filings 5%
  8. 8. Quacquarelli Symonds Methodology The primary aim of the QS World University Rankings is to help students make informed comparisons of leading universities around the world. Based on six performance indicators, the rankings are designed to assess universities in four areas: research, teaching, employability and internationalization. RANKING METHODOLOGY INDICATOR DEFINITION WEIGHT Academic reputation Academic reputation is measured using a global survey, in which academics are asked to identify the institutions where they believe the best work is currently taking place within their own field of expertise. 40% Employer reputation The survey asks employers to identify the universities they perceive to be producing the best graduates. 10% Student-to-faculty ratio Measure of the number of academic staff employed relative to the number of students enrolled. 20% Citations per faculty This indicator aims to assess universities’ research impact. A ‘citation’ means a piece of research being cited (referred to) within another piece of research. 20% International faculty ratio Aim to assess how successful a university has been in attracting students and academics from other nations. 5% international student ratio 5%
  9. 9. QS: Assessment Areas RESEARCH Indicators considered here include assessments of research quality amongst academics, and awards TEACHING A key role of a university is the nurture of tomorrow's finest minds, inspiring the next generation of potential research academics. EMPLOYABILITY Graduate employability encompasses more than academic strength, focusing on ‘work- readiness’ INTERNATIONALIZATION proportion of international students and staff, nos. of exchange students arriving and departing, no. of nationalities represented in the student body, etc. Facilities University infrastructure is an indicator which enables students to know what to expect from their university experience. Online/Distance learning student services and technology, track record, student faculty engagement, student interaction, commitment to online and reputation of the university. Social Responsibility Engagement measures how seriously a university takes its obligations to society by investing in the local community as well as in charity work and disaster relief. Innovation Innovation, the output of the universities activities and findings to economy, society and culture, has become increasingly relevant for universities. Arts & Culture Effective indicators are the number of concerts and exhibitions organized by the institution, the number of credits and cultural awards and cultural investment. Inclusiveness The accessibility of the university to students, particularly at scholarships and bursaries, disability access, gender balance and low-income outreach. Specialist Criteria This category looks at accreditations and discipline rankings.
  10. 10. THE Methodology The Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings are the only global performance tables that judge research-intensive universities across all their core missions: teaching, research, knowledge transfer and international outlook. RANKING METHODOLOGY INDICATOR DEFINITION WEIGHT Teaching The learning environment 30% Research Volume, income and reputation 30% Citation Research influence 30% International Outlook Staff, students and research 7.5% Industry Income Knowledge transfer 2.5% THE use 13 carefully calibrated performance indicators to provide the most comprehensive and balanced comparisons, trusted by students, academics, university leaders, industry and even governments.
  11. 11. THE Methodology CRITERIA INDICATOR WEIGHT Teaching (the learning environment) Reputation survey 15% Staff-to-student ratio 4.5% Doctorate-to-bachelor’s ratio 2.25% Doctorates awarded-to-academic staff ratio 6% Institutional income 2.25% Research (volume, income and reputation) Reputation survey 18% Research Income 6% Research productivity 6% Citation Research influence 30% International Outlook ((staff, students, research) International-to-domestic-student ratio 2.5% International-to-domestic-staff ratio 2.5% International collaboration 2.5% Industry Income Knowledge transfer 2.5%
  12. 12. Webometrics Methodology Webometrics is the largest academic ranking of Higher Education Institutions. Since 2004 and every six months an independent, objective, free, open scientific exercise is performed by the Cybermetrics Lab (Spanish National Research Council, CSIC) for the providing reliable, multidimensional, updated and useful information about the performance of universities from all over the world based on their web presence and impact. RANKING METHODOLOGY CRITERIA INDICATOR WEIGHT Visibility Impact 50% Activity Presence (1/3) 50%Openness (1/3) Excellence (1/3)
  13. 13. Webometrics Methodology INDICATOR DEFINITION Impact The quality of the contents is evaluated through a "virtual referendum", counting all the external inlinks that the University webdomain receives from third parties. Those links are recognizing the institutional prestige, the academic performance, the value of the information, and the usefulness of the services as introduced in the webpages according to the criteria of millions of web editors from all over the world. Presence (1/3) The total number of webpages hosted in the main webdomain (including all the subdomains and directories) of the university as indexed by the largest commercial search engine (Google). Openness (1/3) The global effort to set up institutional research repositories is explicitly recognized in this indicator that takes into account the number of rich files (pdf, doc, docx, ppt) published in dedicated websites according to the academic search engine Google Scholar. Excellence (1/3) The academic papers published in high impact international journals are playing a very important role in the ranking of Universities.
  14. 14. ARWU CWUR QS THE Webometrics Alumni Quality of Education Academic reputation Reputation survey Impact Award Alumni Employment Employer reputation Staff-to-student ratio Presence (1/3) HiCi Quality of Faculty Student-to-faculty ratio Doctorate-to-bachelor’s ratio Openness (1/3) N&S Publications Citations per faculty Doctorates awarded-to- academic staff ratio Excellence (1/3) PUB Influence International faculty ratio Institutional income PCP Citations International student ratio Reputation survey Broad Impact Research Income Patents Research productivity Research influence International-to-domestic-student ratio International-to-domestic-staff ratio International collaboration Knowledge transfer Summary of Methodologies These are the Indicators by which World Universities are being ranked. There are some similarities in Indicators across different ranking institutions; however, there are some common indicators among them.
  15. 15. The Nigerian University Dilemma Majority, if not all, of Nigerian Universities would not appear on the radar if measured on these Indicators, particularly on those Indicators that looks at Publications in world journals, Alumni winning a Nobel laureate, Patents, International Students and Faculties, etc. This is evidenced through The Higher Education (THE) ranking of Universities. THE started ranking Universities in 2011, not until this year (2015) that a Nigerian University made the top 800 universities list. That University is the University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Precisely, the University of Ibadan showed up at the 680th position. In addition to this, Webometric, approaches university ranking in an unconventional but 21st Century manner, using web presence and impact as a major approach to ranking. In reality, most Nigerian Universities would not be able to compete with the rest of the world on these Indicators. Some do not have a website and those that manage to register their presence online are packed with dead links and outdated information. Therefore, how can Nigerian Universities compete with the rest of the World if the ranking Indicators are skewed in some unfavourable directions? How can these Indicators be grouped better for ALL?
  16. 16. Grouping the Indicators These ranking indicators can be grouped into some distinct factors that characterizes top institutions: Quality of Instruction Quality of Faculty Infrastructure Publication Alumni Award & Recognition Employers Perspective This therefore would allow institutions to be more creative in identifying Indicators in each category that they can use to measure how well they perform and equally compete with other institutions.
  17. 17. Ranking Nigerian Universities The last rating of Nigerian Universities locally that I am aware of was in 2002. Since then, the Nigerian populace have depended on foreign ratings, especially the five organizations considered in this presentation. Who Should Rate Nigerian Universities? National Universities Commission (NUC) Concerned Professionals (Just like THE, ARWU, QS, etc.) For the peculiar challenge of access to Data in Nigeria, NUC is the best bet Personally, I do not think the inability of NUC to provide this service to Nigerian Students and other Stakeholders is about lack of capacity or competence, it is that they have not seen the need for such service.
  18. 18. 18 National Universities Commissions  To lay down Minimum Academic Standards in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and to accredit their degrees and other academic awards;  To ensure that quality is maintained within the academic programmes of the Nigerian University System;  …to investigate and study the financial needs of university research and to ensure that adequate provision is made for this in the universities;  To undertake periodic reviews of the terms and conditions of service of personnel engaged in the universities and to make recommendations thereon to the Federal Government where appropriate;  To act as the agency for channelling all external aid to the universities in Nigeria; The Functions of the Commission are: Let’s take a look at the NUC Operating Structure
  19. 19. National Universities Commission Inspection & Monitoring Executive Secretary’s Office Quality Assurance Research & Innovation Open & Distance Education Protocol & Special Duties Physical Planning Finance & Accounts Information & Communication Tech. Student Support Services Management Support Services Academic Standards Lagos Office NUC Operating Structure Outcome of activities from Divisions such as Inspection & Monitoring, Quality Assurance, Academic Standards, etc., could serve as data that would assist in rating Nigerian Universities.
  20. 20. National Universities Commission Inspection & Monitoring Quality Assurance Research & Innovation Open & Distance Education Student Support Services Academic Standards Selected Divisions for Rating Universities
  21. 21. National Universities Commission Selected Activities of Some Divisions Inspection & Monitoring  Monitors and evaluates all universities with focus on such areas as academic briefs and master plan implementation, institutional management and governance, student and staff numbers, staff quality and mix, teaching and research quality; infrastructural input and other issues pertinent to quality assurance (quarterly).  Monitors and inspects, from time to time, the certificates awarded to approved programmes in order to maintain quality and standards (quarterly).  Inspects facilities in the universities to determine their currency, the use of up-to-date ICT facilities and the quality of the staff manning them (quarterly). Quality Assurance Obtaining annually, the list of approved Full-Time/Part-Time Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Distance Learning academic programmes from the Department of Academic Standards to determine programmes that are mature for accreditation; Open & Distance Education Promote, popularize and coordinate, the deployment of E-learning tools in the delivery of university education in Nigeria Research & Innovation Collection and collation of timely and up-to-date data on Nigerian Universities for dissemination to the general public. Student Support Services  Encouraging universities to develop and deploy career development and management initiatives that will help students develop critical lifelong learning skills that will enable them make wise and intelligent decisions and choices of careers.  Facilitating and coordinating the emergence of Counselling and Human Development Centres with well-developed resources in all Nigerian Universities. Academic Standards  Accreditation of degree programmes in Nigerian Universities;  Ensuring compliance by universities with Postgraduate BMAS for the various disciplines;  Ensuring compliance by universities with the BMAS for the various programmes;  Conducting periodic Needs Assessment of Nigerian graduates at both local and international markets;  Monitoring the state and development of universities libraries;
  22. 22. 22 Quality of Instruction Quality of Faculty Infrastructure Publication Alumni Award & Recognition Employers Perspective Inspection & Monitoring Research & Innovation Student Support Services Quality Assurance Open & Distance Education Academic Standards Mapping NUC Divisions to Rating Indicators Clearly, the NUC can create a Ranking Methodology leveraging on the outcomes of the activities of its different Divisions. This methodology would take into consideration our environment as well as adapt other international indicators, where possible.
  23. 23. Inspection & Monitoring Research & Innovation Student Support Services Quality Assurance Open & Distance Education Academic Standards Proposed Ranking Methodology A proposed Ranking Methodology for Nigerian Universities Nigerian Universities Ranking Methodology Student Survey UTME Performance Employers’ Perspectives Online Visibility
  24. 24. Reference – National Universities Commissions http://www.nuc.edu.ng/1 The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) http://www.shanghairanking.com/2 The Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) http://www.cwur.org/3 Quacquarelli Symonds World University Rankings http://www.topuniversities.com/4 The Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings https://www.timeshighereducation.com5 The "Webometrics Ranking of World Universities“ http://www.webometrics.info/6
  25. 25. Analysis by: Wale Micaiah e: walegate@yahoo.com m: 08078001800 w: www.statisense.com Freely share, freely use and freely acknowledge the source – © Wale Micaiah

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