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INTERNET OF THINGSCOMMUNICATION PROTOCOLSSzymon Słupikszymon.firstname.lastname@example.org
IoT means Low Power Radio Laptop computer 15W average, always on WiFi: 54Mbps +, streaming data Last mile: 10Mbps + Presence sensor 15μW average (6 orders less!) 75mW transmission power 3ms transmission time @125kbps 1 message every 75 seconds 12 years on a CR2450 coin cell battery Forever on a 3x7cm photovoltaic @50lx (dim room)
Low Power Radio Protocols Range between 10m and 100m (typical) IEEE 802.15 (open / multi – vendor): Bluetooth Low Energy ZigBee 6LoWPAN Other (closed / single – vendor) ANT / ANT+ Z-Wave EnOcean (ISO/IEC 14543-3-10) Proprietary Hundreds / thousands of things
Radio Estate Properties 2.4GHz (globally unified but crowded) Bluetooth LE ZigBee 6LoWPAN ANT / ANT+ Sub–GHz: 868/902/915MHz(regional, low duty cycle) ZigBee 6LoWPAN Z-Wave EnOcean 433 MHz (globally unified) Proprietary (eg weather stations)
Bluetooth Low Energy Bluetooth SIG: http://bluetooth.org Bluetooth 1/2/3 = streaming media (audio etc.) Bluetooth LE = sensors and actors („things”) Bluetooth 4 = Bluetooth 3 & BLE (dual mode) Smartphones Not supported on Android today Only via proprietary (but open) stacks (Broadcom) Expected at GoogleIO 2013 Strict transport / open application layer Star network topology No mesh / repeaters Energy efficient receivers
ZigBee ZigBeeAlliance: http://zigbee.org Strict 802.15.4 MAC layer (868/915MHz / 2.4GHz) Common transport layer for proprietary applications Application – layer open standards emerging ZLL (ZigBee Light Link) ZHA (ZigBee Home Automation) ZSE (ZigBee Smart Energy) Ad-hoc mesh network topology Coordinators, repeaters, end nodes Destination – based routing (self healing)
Z-Wave Z-Wave Alliance: http://z-wave.com Controlled by Sigma Designs Requires membership, NDA Physical layer varies by region (frequencies / radio bands) Strict Application – layer protocol Command Classes guarantee interoperability Wide selection of compatible products Source – based routing mesh Not self – healing Controllers, slaves
EnOcean EnOcean Alliance http://enocean-alliance.org Controlled by EnOcean GmbH (the company) Spin-off of SiemensAG Designed for energy harvesting Mechanical, photovoltaic, thermoelectric True wireless: very popular for sensors Physical layer varies by region (frequencies) Application layer is optional Equipment Profiles Star network topology Up to 2 repeaters between nodes
6LoWPAN 6LoWPAN IETF group RFC 4944 IPv6 over Low powerWireless Personal Area Networks MAC layer based on 802.15.4 (same as ZigBee) Varies by region (frequencies) Fragmentation, header compression Transport layer: UDP orTCP Vendor – specific „mesh under” NXP (Jennic),TI, ZMDI Standard addressing (IPv6) and security (IPsec, IKE) No application layer standards yet Potential to „rule them all” Including BLE, ZigBee (IP),Z-Wave,PowerLine Communications
The question Which one to choose?
The answer It depends… Reach: Bluetooth LE Features: ZigBee Compatibility: Z-Wave Efficiency: EnOcean Security: 6LoWPAN