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  2. 2. Nutrients proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals provided by food and necessary for growth and the maintenance of life Nervous system an organ system that coordinates the activities of muscles, monitors organs, constructs and processes data received from the senses, and initiates actions Nutrients are needed by nervous system such as oil needed by car engine
  3. 3. Factors affecting nervous systemFactors affecting nervous system Daily Stress Factor nervous system uses up the available nutrients in the blood stream and when they are depleted, a person may begin to feel stress Deficiency Factor important because a person can actually begin to feel "stressed out" when the system has depleted the nutrients necessary to maintain the nervous system
  4. 4. Nerve NutrientsNerve Nutrients Nutrients needed by nerves to maintain its activity and function Nerve nutrients Vitamins •B complex Minerals •Calcium •Magnesium Others
  5. 5. Vitamin B1 ( Thiamin)Vitamin B1 ( Thiamin) One of the most vital nutrients for nerves Taking too much straight B1 or any one type of B vitamin may destroy the balance of other vitamins and minerals Maintain your energy supplies, Coordinate the activity of nerves and muscles, Support proper heart function Depleted by: Many substances, such as alcohol, caffeine and medications
  6. 6. Nervous system supportNervous system support 1. permits healthy development of the fat- like coverings which surround most nerves (called myelin sheaths)  degenerate or become damaged Pain, prickly sensations, and nerve deadening
  7. 7. 2. production of the messaging molecule acetylcholine  neurotransmitter, is used by the nervous system to relay messages between the nerves and muscles  acetylcholine is used by the nervous system to ensure proper muscle tone in the heart, deficiency of B1 can also result in compromised heart function
  8. 8. Source of vit. B1Source of vit. B1 Inability of the nervous system to ensure proper muscle tone in the GI tract can lead to indigestion or constipation, and muscle tenderness, particularly in the calf muscles. asparagus, mushrooms, spinach, sunflower seeds, tuna, green peas, tomatoes, eggplant
  9. 9. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) helps in the formation of the nerve cells themselves, the most basic of the nervous system structures peripheral neuropathy related to B12 deficiency : Symptom- leg and foot pains experienced by many (include "pins and needles" sensations) irreversible spinal cord degeneration
  10. 10. Vitamin B9 (folate/folic acid)Vitamin B9 (folate/folic acid) involved in the production of neurotransmitters degeneration of peripheral nerves cause both carpal tunnel syndrome (with symptoms of numbness, tingling, and pain in the hands and wrists) Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
  11. 11. Vitamin B8 (Biotin)Vitamin B8 (Biotin) useful in treating: 1.peripheral and autonomic neuropathies in diabetes 2.HIV-related neuropathies improvement in nerve conduction and relief of pain 4-8 weeks of therapy
  12. 12. Deficiency/inactivity causes disordered activity of the biotin-dependent enzyme, pyruvate carboxylase, leading to an accumulation of pyruvate and/or a depletion of aspartate, either of which could adversely affect nervous system metabolism
  13. 13. InositolInositol decreased level of myo-inositol is believed to cause a decrease in the activity of the sodium-potassium pump and, thus, to change the sodium permeability of nerves treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine can help raise nerve myo-inositol content
  14. 14. peripheral nerve function linked to nerve myo-inositol content and that acetyl-l- carnitine can raise the levels of myo- inositol in the nerves It also apparently protects the nerve membranes from free-radical damage, as evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde
  15. 15. Gamma Linolenic AcidGamma Linolenic Acid help to rebuild the myelin sheath around the nerves, thus restoring proper nerve conduction
  16. 16. Minerals: CalciumMinerals: Calcium has a role in keeping the nerves healthy as well as to ensure their ability to communicate effectively
  17. 17. Minerals: MagnesiumMinerals: Magnesium very important role in the upkeep of the nervous system help the body make use of calcium most efficiently Deficiency:  nervousness and confusion lack of potassium can lead to nervous disorders
  18. 18. Nutrient RDA Affects Food sources  (highest first) Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 2 mg energy levels, amino acid absorption, formation of brain, nerves and blood, anti-allergy, anti- depressant, protein and carbohydrate absorption, preventing skin conditions and nerve problems yeast, wheat bran, wheatgerm, oatflakes, soya flour, bananas, wholewheat, nuts, chicken, pork, fatty fish, brown rice, potatoes, vegetables, eggs, whole grains, dried beans Vitamin B12 (Colbalamin) 1 mcg DNA metabolism, making red blood cells, formation of the nerves, detoxifies cyanide in smoke fatty fish, pork, beef, lamb, white fish, eggs, cheese, milk (only found in foods of animal origin)
  19. 19. Nutrient RDA Affects Food sources  (highest first) Vitamin C  (Ascorbic acid) 60 mg anti-oxidant, assists iron absorption, activates folic acid, anti-stress, brain and nerves, immune system, protection against viruses and bacteria, healing wounds, reducing cholesterol, cell lifespan, preventing scurvy. Also a natural laxative. acerola cherry juice, camu pulp, rosehip syrup, blackcurrants, guavas, parsley, kale, horseradish, broccoli tops, green peppers, citrus fruit, kiwi fruit, berries, tomatoes, cauliflower, potatoes, green leafy vegetables Biotin (formerly known as B8) 150 mcg energy levels, maintaining healthy skin, hair, sweat glands, nerves, bone marrow and sex glands yeast, eggs, wholegrains, wheat bran, wheatgerm, wholemeal bread, maize (corn), fish, meats, rice, vegetables
  20. 20. Nutrient RDA Affects Food sources  (highest first) Folate, folacin, folic acid (formerly known as B9) 200 mcg RNA and DNA metabolism, production of red blood cells, preventing birth defects and promoting disease resistance in young babies. A deficiency during pregnancy can result in spina bifida in the newborn infant. yeast, soya flour, wheatgerm, wheat bran, nuts, green leafy vegetables, rye and whole wheat, pulses (beans), wholemeal bread, citrus fruit, egg yolks, brown rice, carrots, melon, apricots, pumpkin, avocado Inositol 500- 1,000mg controls blood cholesterol levels, anti-anxiety, maintains healthy hair lecithin granules, beef heart, desiccated liver, wheatgerm, lecithin oil. liver, brown rice, cereals, beef steak, citrus fruits, nuts, molasses, pulses, green vegetables, wholemeal bread, soya flour
  21. 21. Nutrient RDA Affects Food sources  (highest first) Niacin (formerly known as B3) 18 mg converting food into energy, building red blood cells, maintains healthy skin, nerves, brain, tongue and digestion yeast, wheat bran, nuts, chicken, soya flour, meat, fatty fish, whole grains, cheese, dried fruit, wholemeal bread, brown rice, wheatgerm, eggs, avocado, peanuts Pantothenic acid (formerly known as B5) 6 mg energy levels, anti-stress remedy, controls fat metabolism, antibody formation, maintains healthy nerves, detoxifies drugs, fatigue, allergies, asthma, psoriasis yeast, peanuts, pecans and hazelnuts, wheat bran, wheatgerm, soya flour, eggs, chicken, meats, whole grains, dried beans and peas, wholemeal bread, mushrooms, cauliflower, potatoes, avocado, oranges, bananas, milk, fresh fish, cheese
  22. 22. Nutrient RDA Affects Food sources  (highest first) Calcium 800mg bones and teeth hard cheeses, soft cheeses, tinned fish, nuts, pulses (beans), cow's milk, root vegetables, eggs, cereals, fruit, wholemeal bread, fresh fish, human milk Magnesium 300mg bones, nerves and muscles, energy production soya beans, nuts, yeast, wholewheat flour, brown rice, dried peas, shrimps, wholemeal bread, rye flour, seafood, dried fruit, vegetables, meats, bananas, green leafy vegetables Manganese 2.5- 5mg growth, joints and bones, nervous system, energy production, female sex hormones cereals, wholemeal bread, nuts, pulses (beans), fruit, green leafy vegetables, liver, root vegetables, meats, fish, black tea
  23. 23. Nutrient RDA Affects Food sources  (highest first) Potassium - maintains body water balance, catalyst for enzymes involved in energy production, stabilising body cell structure, protein synthesis, control of nerve impulse transmission, acid/alkali balance, intestinal tract dried fruits, soya flour, molasses, wheat bran, raw salad vegetables, chips, nuts, breakfast cereal, muesli, drinking chocolate, savoury biscuits, fresh fruit, boiled vegetables, fish, meats, fruit juices, eggs, cheese, brown rice, white rice
  24. 24. CURRENT RESEARCHESCURRENT RESEARCHES Positively Well: Living With HIV As A Chronic, Manageable Survival Disease  therapies which have proven useful for diabetics may also work for at least some people living with HIV who develop neuropathy.
  25. 25. University of Athens regular, long-term use of biotin in diabetics was very effective both for improvement in nerve conduction and relief of pain In this study, biotin was given via daily intramuscular injection (10 mg/day) for 6 weeks; then 3 times per week (10 mg), intramuscularly, for 6 weeks; then 5 mg/day taken orally for up to two years.
  26. 26. University of Alabama found a statistically significant improvement in nerve function in diabetics placed on a diet high in inositol doses of 2-6 grams per day has resulted in improvements in neuropathy Robert Atkins, M.D., has reported his successful use of 2-6 grams per day for reversing diabetic neuropathy, and physicians at St. James Hospital in Leeds, England, have reported good results with even smaller dosages
  27. 27. Stanley Mirski, M.D. a large percentage of his diabetic patients who suffer from neuropathy have achieved improvements with daily thiamine supplementation in doses of 50- 100 mg
  28. 28. ConclusionConclusion Deficiency of nutrients could lead to many nerve related diseases. The only way to treat the nerve damaged that are caused by nutrients, is to take the correct nutrients; vitamins and minerals in adequate amount.