Human Geography (part 2) Demography: the study of populationsFactors that Determine a Nation:Sovereignty; Government Systems; Economic Systems Culture: beliefs and actions that define a group of people’s way of life
Demography: the study of populations Population Density: theaverage number of people Birth (birth rates) in a particular unit area Death (death rates) (square miles; square Marriage kilometers) Migration (immigration & emigration) World Human Population 1 billion in 1800; 7 billion in 2011; 10 billion in 2050
Zero Population Growth Birth Rate + Immigration = Death Rate + Emigration Effects of Population Growth(-) Negative (+) PositiveIncreased famine Increased technologyIncreased disease Increased creativityDepletion of natural resources
Urban Populations: on the riseRural Populations: on the decline
Urban Areas in the US Urban Areas in other parts of the World
Rural Areas in the US Rural Areas in other parts of the World
Culture: beliefs and actions that define a group of people’s way of life Culture Structure1. Cultural Hearths - birthplaces of ideas from which they spread2. Language3. Religion4. Cultural Landscapes - what land areas look like based on culture5. Social Organization - families, social classes, social mobility6. Women and Minorities - history of discrimination
Cultural Hearthsdescribe centers of innovation and invention from which key culture traits moved to exert and inﬂuence surrounding regions.
Cultural Landscapeswhat land areas look like based on culture
Social Organizationfamilies, social classes, social mobility
Women and Minoritieshistory of discrimination and violence
Cultural ChangeCultures are changed by both internal and external inﬂuence; within a culture, new discoveries and ideas can bring change... Fire Stone Tools The Wheel
Cultural ConvergenceOccurs when skills, arts, ideas, habits, institutions of one culture come into contact with another culture... Music, TV, Movies... Mexican Food
Cultural Diffusion A process by which a cultural element is transmitted across some distance rom onegroup to another; often occurs through the migration of people who took their cultural traits with them to new locations...Gullah culture from Africa Chinese culture came to US in 1800s with Chinese immigration
Cultural DivergenceThe restriction of a culture from outside cultural inﬂuences...