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DNA Computing

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  • Find a path in a graph that contains each vertex once, starting and ending at a specified start and end vertex
  • Gel electrophoresisSeparates DNA by lengthShorter strands move quicker than longer strands under applied currentPrimer substance painted on a surface as a base coat
  • DNA computer, utilising DNA logic gates, the size of a teardrop would be more powerful than the worlds most powerful supercomputer
  • Sometime in late 1999, early 2000. Traditionally, DNA computer experiments were conducted in test tubes, but by utilising gold layered glass enabled DNA computers to be transferred onto solid matter.
  • Standard gene analysis approach was very time consuming, usually taking about 3 days. With this device it now takes 6 hours.
  • This design incorporates a previously unknown biochemical process that generates enough heat energy to power the device, meaning in principle that a DNA computer can work without an external energy source.
  • Designer DNA molecule created Lead researcher, says that future generations of DNA computers could function as doctors inside cells.
  • A varalaxmi

    1. 1. DNA COMPUTING<br />A.VARALAXMI<br /> ROLLNO:13808014<br />
    2. 2. DNA COMPUTING<br />Introduction<br />The DNA is a Double_Stranded molecule.<br />Each Strand is based on 4 Bases:<br />Adenine (A) <br />Thymine (T) <br />Cytosine (C)<br />Guanine (G)<br />These bases are linked through a sugar (deoxyribose).<br />IMPORTANT: <br />The linkage between bases has a direction.<br />There are complementarities between bases (Watson-Crick). <br /> (A) (T)<br /> (C)(G)<br />9/2/2009<br />
    3. 3. DNA COMPUTING<br />DNA STRUCTURE<br />9/2/2009<br />
    4. 4. DNA COMPUTING<br />Extraction<br />given a test tube T and a strand s, it is possible to extract all the strands in T that contain s as a subsequence, and to separate them from those that do not contain it.<br />Spooling the DNA with a metal hook or similar device <br />Precipitation of more DNA strands in alcohol<br />Formation of DNA strands.<br />9/2/2009<br />
    5. 5. DNA COMPUTING<br />Uniqueness of DNA<br /> DNA is a Unique Computational Element because of:<br />Extremely dense information storage.<br />Enormous parallelism.<br />Extraordinary energy efficiency.<br />9/2/2009<br />
    6. 6. DNA COMPUTING<br />Dense Information Storage<br /><ul><li>This image shows 1 gram of DNA on a CD. The CD can hold 800 MB of data.
    7. 7. The 1 gram of DNA can hold about 1x1014 MB of data.
    8. 8. The number of CDs required to hold this amount of information, lined up edge to edge, would circle the Earth 375 times, and would take 163,000 centuries to listen to.</li></ul>9/2/2009<br />
    9. 9. DNA COMPUTING<br />How enormous is the parallelism?<br />A test tube of DNA can contain trillions of strands. Each operation on a test tube of DNA is carried out on all strands in the tube in parallel !<br />Check this out……. We Typically use<br />9/2/2009<br />
    10. 10. DNA COMPUTING<br />How extraordinary is the energy efficiency?<br />Adleman figured his computer was running<br /> 2 x 1019 operations per joule.<br />9/2/2009<br />
    11. 11. DNA COMPUTING<br />Coding the information:<br />1994: The Adleman’s experiment.<br /><ul><li>Given directed graph can we find an hamiltonian path.
    12. 12. In this experiment there are 2 keywords:</li></ul>massive parallelism (all possibilities are generated)<br />complementarity (to encode the information)<br /><ul><li>This proved that DNA computing wasn’t just a theoretical study but could be applied to real problems. </li></ul>9/2/2009<br />
    13. 13. DNA COMPUTING<br />Model of DNA computer<br />Test tube is a set of molecules of DNA (multi-set of finite strings over the alphabet {A,C,G,T})<br />Operations on the tube:<br />Separate (extract)<br />Merge<br />Detect<br />Amplify<br />9/2/2009<br />
    14. 14. DNA COMPUTING<br />Separate<br />Tube T, string S {A,C,G,T}<br />+(T,S)<br />all the molecules in T containing S<br />-(T,S)<br />All the molecules in T not containing S<br />Done using a magnetic bead <br /> system or affinity column<br />9/2/2009<br />
    15. 15. DNA COMPUTING<br />Merge<br />Tubes T1, T2<br />U(T1, T2) = T1 U T2<br />Done by pouring T1 and T2 into one test tube<br />9/2/2009<br />
    16. 16. DNA COMPUTING<br />Detect<br />Given a tube T, say yes if T contains at least one DNA molecule, and say no if it contains none.<br />Done using PCR with appropriate primers, followed by gel electrophoresis<br />9/2/2009<br />
    17. 17. DNA COMPUTING<br />Amplify<br />Given a tube T, produce two tubes T’(T) and T’’(T), such that T = T’(T) = T’’(T)<br />Complex process, prone to error<br />May be preferable to avoid it<br />9/2/2009<br />
    18. 18. DNA COMPUTING<br />Polymerase Chain Reaction<br />PCR: One way to amplify DNA.<br />PCR alternates between two phases: separate DNA into single strands using heat; convert into double strands using primer and polymerase reaction.<br />PCR rapidly amplifies a single DNA molecule into billions of molecules<br />9/2/2009<br />
    19. 19. EVOLUTION OF DNA COMPUTERS<br />
    20. 20. DNA COMPUTING<br />Evolution of the DNA computers<br />Began in 1994 when Dr. Leonard Adleman wrote the paper “Molecular computation of solutions to combinatorial problems”.<br />He then carried out this experiment successfully – although it took him days to do so!<br />9/2/2009<br />
    21. 21. DNA COMPUTING<br />Evolution of the DNA computers<br />DNA computers moved from test tubes onto gold plates.<br />9/2/2009<br />
    22. 22. DNA COMPUTING<br />Evolution of the DNA computers<br />First practical DNA computer unveiled in 2002. Used in gene analysis.<br />9/2/2009<br />
    23. 23. DNA COMPUTING<br />Evolution of the DNA computers<br />Self-powered DNA computer unveiled in 2003.<br />First programmable autonomous computing machine in which the input, output, software and hardware were all made of DNA molecules.<br />Can perform a billion operations per second with 99.8% accuracy.<br />9/2/2009<br />
    24. 24. DNA COMPUTING<br />Evolution of the DNA computers<br />Biological computer developed that could be used to fight cancers.<br />‘Designer DNA’ identifies abnormal and is attracted to it.<br />The Designer molecule then releases chemicals to inhibit its growth or even kill the malignant cells.<br />Successfully tested on animals.<br />9/2/2009<br />
    25. 25. DNA COMPUTING<br />ENVIRONMENTAL CAPABILITY<br />DNA computer must aim to be compatible with seven environments to succeed.<br />Intrapsychic – Already complies since it has been conceptualised!<br />Construction/manufacture – This will be answered in time.<br />Adoption – Should inherit customer base of silicon computers.<br />9/2/2009<br />
    26. 26. DNA COMPUTING<br />ENVIRONMENTAL CAPABILITY<br />Use – Already seen the potential for this.<br />Failure – Inherits this from silicon microprocessors.<br />Scrapping – Cleaner to dispose of than current microprocessors.<br />Political/ecological – Could face opposition from technophobes.<br />9/2/2009<br />
    27. 27. DNA COMPUTING<br />Advantages of DNA Computers<br />DNA Computing guarantees UNIVERSAL COMPUTATIONS.<br />There is a plenty supply and hence, it is a cheap resource.<br />DNA computers can be made many times smaller than today&apos;s computers<br />DNA computers are massively parallel in their computation.<br />9/2/2009<br />
    28. 28. LIMITATIONS<br />
    29. 29. DNA COMPUTING<br />LIMITATIONS<br />DNA computers are not completely accurate at this moment in time.<br />During an operation, there is a 95% chance a particular DNA molecule will ‘compute’ correctly. Would cause a problem with a large amount of operations.<br />DNA has a half-life.<br />Solutions could dissolve away before the end result is found.<br />9/2/2009<br />
    30. 30. DNA COMPUTING<br />THE FUTURE!<br /><ul><li>DNA Manipulation technology has rapidly improved in recent years, and future advances may make DNA computers more efficient.
    31. 31. The University of Wisconsin is experimenting with chip-based DNA computers.
    32. 32. DNA computers are unlikely to feature word processing, emailing and solitaire programs.
    33. 33. Instead, their powerful computing power will be used for areas of encryption, genetic programming, language systems, and algorithms or by airlines wanting to map more efficient routes. Hence better applicable in only some promising areas.</li></ul>9/2/2009<br />
    34. 34. DNA COMPUTING<br />THANK YOU!<br /> It will take years to develop a practical, workable DNA computer.<br /> But…Let’s all hope that this DREAM comes true!!!<br />9/2/2009<br />

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