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# Principles of design theory of design module 2 proportion,scale, hierarchy etc

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architecture theory of design,
basic principles
Proportion
Scale
Balance
Rhythm
Symmetry
Hierarchy
Axis

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### Principles of design theory of design module 2 proportion,scale, hierarchy etc

1. 1. Theory of design Module 2
2. 2. Principles of design • Proportion • Scale • Balance • Rhythm • Symmetry • Hierarchy • Axis
3. 3. A ratio refers to the quantitative comparison of two similar things, While proportion refers to the equality of ratios It can be represented as Eg 10:5 , 10/5, 10 to 5. Examples. Aspect ratio. Ratio in size of a door or window It can be represented as Eg 10/5 = 2/1 Examples. Proportion btw hands to whole body Golden proportion
4. 4. Proportion refers to the proper or harmonious relation of one part to another or to the whole
5. 5. Proportioning systems go beyond the functional and technical determinants of architectural form and space to provide an aesthetic rationale for their dimensions. They can visually unify the multiplicity of elements in an architectural design by having all of its parts belong to the same family of proportions. They can provide a sense of order in, and heighten the continuity of, a sequence of spaces. They can establish relationships between the exterior and interior elements of a building. Theories of Proportion: • Golden Section • Classical Orders • Renaissance Theories • Modular • Ken • Anthropometry
6. 6. originate from the Pythagorean concept of “all is number” and the belief that certain numerical relationships manifest the harmonic structure of the universe. 1:1.618
7. 7. 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, and 34.
8. 8. The number of petals in a flower consistently follows the Fibonacci sequence. Pinecones Similarly, the seed pods on a pinecone are arranged in a spiral pattern. Each cone consists of a pair of spirals, each one spiraling upwards in opposing directions. The number of steps will almost always match a pair of consecutive Fibonacci numbers. For example, a 3-5 cone is a cone which meets at the back after three steps along the left spiral, and five steps along the right.
9. 9. Tree branches The Fibonacci sequence can also be seen in the way tree branches form or split. A main trunk will grow until it produces a branch, which creates two growth points. Then, one of the new stems branches into two, while the other one lies dormant. This pattern of branching is repeated for each of the new stems. A good example is the sneezewort. Root systems and even algae exhibit this pattern. Shells
10. 10. The unique properties of the Golden Rectangle provides another example. This shape, a rectangle in which the ratio of the sides a/b is equal to the golden mean (phi), can result in a nesting process that can be repeated into infinity — and which takes on the form of a spiral. It's call the logarithmic spiral, and it abounds in nature.
11. 11. Spiral Galaxies Not surprisingly, spiral galaxies also follow the familiar Fibonacci pattern. The Milky Way has several spiral arms, each of them a logarithmic spiral of about 12 degrees. As an interesting aside, spiral galaxies appear to defy Newtonian physics. As early as 1925, astronomers realized that, since the angular speed of rotation of the galactic disk varies with distance from the center, the radial arms should become curved as galaxies rotate. Subsequently, after a few rotations, spiral arms should start to wind around a galaxy. But they don't — hence the so-called winding problem. The stars on the outside, it would seem, move at a velocity higher than expected — a unique trait of the cosmos that helps preserve its shape.
12. 12. Seed heads The head of a flower is also subject to Fibonacci an processes. Typically, seeds are produced at the center, and then migrate towards the outside to fill all the space. Sunflowers provide a great example of these spiraling patterns.
13. 13. Golden ratio in art and architecture
14. 14. To the Greeks and Romans of classical antiquity, the Orders represented in their proportioning of elements the perfect expression of beauty and harmony. The basic unit of dimension was the diameter of the column. From this module were derived the dimensions of the shaft, the capital, as well as the pedestal below and the entablature above, down to the smallest detail.
15. 15. Pythagoras discovered that the consonances of the Greek musical system could be expressed by the simple numerical progression—1, 2, 3, 4—and their ratios, 1:2, 1:3, 2:3, 3:4. This relationship led the Greeks to believe they had found the key to the mysterious harmony that pervaded the universe. He squared and cubed the simple numerical progression to produce the double and triple progressions, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 1, 3, 9, 27. For Plato, these numbers and their ratios not only contained the consonances of the Greek musical scale but also expressed the harmonic structure of his universe. The architects of the Renaissance, believing that their buildings had to belong to a higher order, returned to the Greek mathematical system of proportions. These series of ratios manifested themselves not only in the dimensions of a room or a facade, but also in the interlocking proportions of a sequence of spaces or an entire plan.
16. 16. PROPORTION & SCALE / 327 Seven Ideal Plan Shapes for Rooms Seven Ideal Plan Shapes for Rooms.
17. 17. Le Corbusier developed his proportioning system, the Modulor, to order “the dimensions of that which contains and that which is contained.” He saw the measuring tools of the Greeks, Egyptians, and other high civilizations as being “infinitely rich and subtle because they formed part of the mathematics of the human body, gracious, elegant, and firm, the source of that harmony which moves us, beauty.” He therefore based his measuring tool, the Modulor, on both mathematics (the aesthetic dimensions of the Golden Section and the Fibonacci Series), and the proportions of the human body (functional dimensions).
18. 18. Facade Detail, Unité d’Habitation,
19. 19. The traditional Japanese unit of measure, the shaku, was originally imported from China. It is almost equivalent to the English foot and divisible into decimal units. Another unit of measure, the ken, was introduced in the latter half of Japan’s Middle Ages. Although it was originally used simply to designate the interval between two columns and varied in size, the ken was soon standardized for residential architecture. Unlike the module of the Classical Orders, which was based on the diameter of a column and varied with the size of a building, the ken became an absolute measurement.
20. 20. •Refers to the measurement of the size and proportions of the human body. •Its applicability to the design process is seen in the physical fit, or interface, between the human body and the various components of space. • anthro=man, pometry=measure
21. 21. Scale refers to how we perceive or judge the size of something in relation to something else. Human scale to the court buildingLarge mural and human
22. 22. The entity an object or space is being compared to may be an accepted unit or standard of measurement. 1m 3.28 ft
23. 23. Scale model of a building Scale model of a scooter
24. 24. which refers not to the actual dimensions of things, but rather to how small or large something appears to be in relation to its normal size or to the size of other things in its context.
25. 25. Relation between window size and facade
26. 26. Many building elements have sizes and characteristics that are familiar to us and which we use to gauge the sizes of other elements around them. Such elements as residential window units and doorways help give us an idea of how large a building is and how many stories it has.
27. 27. The entrance portico of the library at the University of Virginia, modeled after the Pantheon in Rome, is scaled to the overall building form while the doorway and windows behind it are scaled to the size of the spaces within the building.
28. 28. Reims Cathedral Human scale doorsMonumental scale entry
29. 29. Human scale in architecture is based on the dimensions and proportions of the human body. we can use elements that have human meaning and whose dimensions are related to the dimensions of our posture, pace, reach, or grasp.
30. 30. A space that is intimate in scale describes an environment in which we feel comfortable, While something that is monumental in scale makes us feel small in comparison,
31. 31. The axis is perhaps the most elementary means of organizing forms and spaces in architecture. It is a line established by two points in space, about which forms and spaces can be arranged in a regular or irregular manner.
32. 32. Axis line
33. 33. Axis line
34. 34. Axis line
35. 35. Axis line
36. 36. Parts of the design are equally distributed to create a sense of stability. Both physical and visual balance exist. Types •Symmetrical or formal balance •Asymmetrical or informal balance •Radial balance •Vertical balance •Horizontal balance
37. 37. The elements within the design are identical in relation to a centerline or axis. The Taj Mahal Mausoleum Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India ©iStockphoto.com
38. 38. Parts of the design are not identical but are equal in visual weight. Chateau de Chaumont Saone-et-Loire, France Wikipedia.org
39. 39. Radial Balance Design elements radiate outward from the center. Microsoft Office clipart Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II Milan, Italy Dresden Frauenkirche Deresden, Germay
40. 40. The top and bottom parts are equal.
41. 41. A symmetrical condition requires the balanced arrangement of equivalent patterns of form and space on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane, or about a center or axis.
42. 42. The value system by which relative importance is measured will of course depend • on the specific situation, • needs and desires of the users • decisions of the designer. The values expressed may be individual or collective, personal or cultural
43. 43. • Exceptional size • Unique shape • Strategical position
44. 44. Potala Palace, Lhasa, Tibet (China), 17th century
45. 45. Location of castle in hills
46. 46. View of Florence illustrating the dominance of the cathedral over the urban landscape
47. 47. Champs-Élysées, Paris, France
48. 48. Eiffel tower, Paris
49. 49. A datum refers to a line, plane, or volume of reference to which other elements in a composition can relate. It organizes a random pattern of elements through its regularity, continuity, and constant presence.
50. 50. Datum line
51. 51. Philip Exeter Academy Library, Exeter, New Hampshire, 1967–1972, Louis Kahn datum
52. 52. Rhythm refers to any movement characterized by a patterned recurrence of elements or motifs at regular or irregular intervals.
53. 53. Cube house design Rotterdam, Netherlands
54. 54. Unity is achieved by the consistent use of lines, color, material, and/or texture within a design. Unity ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
55. 55. The feature in a design that attracts one’s eye – the focal point • Emphasis can be achieved through size, placement, shape, color, and/or use of lines Mosque - Egypt Microsoft Office clipart Wikipedia.org Ceiling mosaic in Park Gruell
56. 56. Noticeably different Can be created with •Color •Proportion and scale •Shape •Texture •Etc. ©iStockphoto.com
57. 57. The pleasing agreement of parts or combination of parts in a composition -- Harmony involves the selection/design of elements that share a common trait, however, Harmony becomes monotony without Variety. Common traits orientation colors or values shape/size, materials, variety: the extent of the differences in design elements -- visual interest is enhanced by introducing dissimilar elements and spatial arrangements.
58. 58. Emphasis / Dominance ‘Dominance’ is an important principle of design that relates to the visual weight of an architectural composition, while ‘Emphasis’ refers to the object or element which first catches the attention of the viewer. An architect needs to create an area of emphasis or a focal point, which is considered as the visual starting point from which the eye will begin the journey of recognizing the whole architecture work.
59. 59. A sense of moment or action in design using line s and forms