Basics of petroleum geology


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Basics of petroleum geology

  1. 1. 1/11/13 Basics of petroleum geology SlideShare Submit Search… Upload Browse Go Pro Login Signup Ads by Google Oil Field Jobs Oil and Gas Oil Shale Map Petroleum Geology Email Favorite S ave Flag Embed Related M ore Geology 2718 views Geology 506 views Petroleum 537 views «‹›» 7 /23 Basics of petroleum geology Geological Maps by Shahnawaz Mustafa on Jul 15, 2012 979 views + Follow 464 views More… Geology Words 5791 views 1–1 of 1 comment Geologic Time 1 comment 4418 views hayet_dz thank you so much Engineering Geology 1 month ago Reply 6995 views Engineering Geology 371 views Post Comment Subscribe to comments Geology Project 139 views Geological Time 1522 views Basics of petroleum geology Presentation T 1/4
  2. 2. 1/11/13 Basics of petroleum geology 1. Basics of Petroleum Geology Presented By: Shahnawaz Mustafa Geologic Timeline 2060 views 2. The science of petroleum geology• Chemistry Geochemistry is a major component of petroleum geology • Detailed knowledge of the mineralogical Geologic Timeline composition of rocks – reservoir quality. • Pore-fluid chemistry Pore-• Physics 858 views Geophysics contributes to: • Understanding the structures involved in trapping: folds, faults • Understanding the wells: wireline logs, lithology, Retail Petroleum porosity 3059 views 3. • Biology • Biochemistry: transformation of plant and animal tissues into kerogen and through to oil and gas. • Study of fossil life: Paleontology Basic Needs 901 views 4. Formation of an oil accumulationBurial of adequate organic source material. most petroleum is derived from the accumulation of trillions of individual Basics micro-organisms. micro-Burial to the appropriate depths. depths of 2-6 km and 7388 views temperatures of 60-160º C. 2- 60-Presence of a reservoir-quality rock. reservoir- a porous storage space. Sandstone and limestones are the most common Geology History of Israel reservoir rocks. To be a reservoir they must have: Porosity, Porosity, to hold 1399 views the hydrocarbons Permeability, Permeability, to allow fluid flow S alt mines. Geological services. 5. Presence of an adequate seal A seal is an impermeable bed (such as a shale 720 views or a bed of salt) that sits on top of the trap and prevents the hydrocarbons rising any further.Presence of a trap In order to prevent the hydrocarbons Geologic Time S cale 9 rising to the surface and escaping they must be caught in a confined space, 9754 views termed a trap. i.e. the source, reservoir and seal must be arranged in such a way that the petroleum is trapped. Geologic Time Lecture 6. Organic MatterWhen an organism (plant or animal) dies, it isnormally 2521 views oxidizedUnder exceptional conditions: organic matter is buriedand preserved in sedimentsThe composition of the organic matter strongly influences GeologíA4ºA whether the organic matter can produce coal, oil or gas. 655 views 7. Basic components of organic matter in sediments• PROTEINS• Geology 380 Library Instruction CARBOHYDRATES• LIPIDS (Fats)• LIGNINAll of these + Time + Temperature 1504 views + Pressure = KEROGEN 8. Types of Kerogen• Type I : algal kerogen – “best” oil source – Lipid-rich Geology and the Environment Lipid-• Type II: herbaceous II: kerogen – Good oil source – Includes 2655 views zooplankton (sapropelic)• Type III: woody III: kerogen (coaly) – Good gas source The Geology Times 475 views 9. OIL FORMATION 10. The Petroleum System Geology for kids (Japanese) 425 views 11. The Source Rock • A type of rock which contains organic matter and is capable to generate the hydrocarbons. • Best example of source rock is shale. Geology of Maui 2355 views 12. The Reservoir Rock • A reservoir rock is that kind of rock which can hold the hydrocarbons. • Most common examples of reservoir rocks are sandstone and Carbonates (limestone and dolomite). Geological Time Analogies 1594 views 13. The Reservoir Rock: Dolomite • This is an example of an important reservoir rock type. • Fossils have been hollowed out by the chemical conversion of unocal v mesa petroleum limestone to dolomite, creating pore spaces so large that they are sometimes 2373 views called “cavernous porosity” porosity” 14. The Seal• The seal or cap rock is an impermeable rock which don’t allow S cience Petroleum Power 299 views the hydrocarbons to escape from the reservoir rock.• Common examples of 2/4
  3. 3. 1/11/13 Basics of petroleum geology rocks are, chalks , shales, clays etc. S cience Petroleum Power 2 198 views 15. The Trap• A subsurface obstacle to flow of petroleum to the earth’s surface.• Classified (broadly) into Structural Traps Examples: folds and faults. S cience Petroleum Power Stratigraphic Traps Examples: pinch out and unconformity traps 316 views 16. Structural Traps S cience Petroleum Power 2 17. Stratigraphic traps 289 views 18. Migration Processes• Primary Migration: involves the expulsion of petroleum from the source rocks to reservoir rock.• Secondary Migration: S cience Petroleum Power 2 255 views involves the movement of petroleum through permeable layers (carrier beds) to the trap. trap. Petroleum Program Update 19. Reservoir Porosity and PermeabilityThere are two fundamental physical 730 views properties that a good reservoir must have: (1) porosity, or sufficient void space to contain significant petroleum. petroleum. (2) permeability, the ability FUNDAMENTAL OF PETROLEUM of petroleum to flow through these voids. voids. EXPLORATION 1393 views 20. Types of porosity occidental petroleum 2008 21. Reservoir properties are to be confirmed through• Direct methods (Core)• 231 views Indirect method (logs) 22. Presence of Oil/Gas is confirmed through (1) Logs (2) Cuttings/cores (3) occidental petroleum S upplementals Testing Seal Integrity is the most important factor for preservation of 255 views hydrocarbon in pools occidental petroleum S lide Presentation 255 views Petroleum Tower Historic S ignificance 2430 views Petroleum Tower A1 A11a 471 views Basic well log interpretation Search Connect on LinkedIn Follow us on Twitter Find us on Facebook Find us on Google+ Learn About Us About Careers Our Blog Press Contact us Help & Support Using 3/4
  4. 4. 1/11/13 Basics of petroleum geology SlideShare 101 Terms of Use Privacy Policy Copyright & DMCA Community Guidelines SlideShare on mobile Pro & more Go PRO New Business Solutions Advertise on SlideShare Developers & API Developers Section Developers Group Engineering Blog Blog Widgets © 2013 SlideShare Inc. All rights reserved. RSS Feed ENGLISH English Français 4/4