LESSON 1:LIFE BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR• Middle Class – independent farmers, lawyers, doctors, and MERCHANTS, people who buy and sell goods• Life on a Plantation: • On a large plantation, a planter might use an OVERSEER, a person who managed the workers. • Enslaved people lived in small, one room cabins and worked long hours tending crops, working as carpenters, blacksmiths, maids, cooks, and butlers.• Life on a Small Farm: • Many farm owners were YEOMAN FARMERS, farmers who owned a small amount of land and worked it themselves. Some yeoman farmers were even freed African Americans.• Life in the City: • All different classes of people lived and worked in large cities including freed slaves that worked as ARTISANS, or skilled workers, such as tailors, barbers, butchers, and bakers.
USE A MAP SCALE• A MAP SCALE is a short measurement tool that allows a person using a map to measure very long distances, such as mile or kilometers.• Use a ruler to figure out the distance between two places.
LESSON 2:COTTON AND SLAVERY• The invention of the cotton gin made cleaning cotton fast and easy. How did this affect the farming of cotton? 50% of people living in South Carolina were enslaved.• Life of enslaved people on a cotton plantation: • Farmed six days a week • Given water and food made from corn • When work was finished, some fished and planted gardens • Some had other jobs: carpenters, boat builders, tool makers, blacksmiths, or household workers• ABOLITIONISTS, or people who worked to end slavery, ran the Underground Railroad• Slavery began to divide the country: • North – “free” states; South – “slave” states • The North did not want to return fugitive slaves to the South • Congress made California a free state • Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law
LESSON 3:SOUTH CAROLINA LEAVES THE UNION• South thought slavery was necessary to the economy and it gave enslaved people a better life; North disagreed.• South Carolina feared Abraham Lincoln would end slavery and ignore their state’s rights; they decided to SECEDE, or break away, from the U.S. and start their own country at the Secession Convention.• Other Southern states followed South Carolina and formed the Confederate States of America, or the Confederacy; the North became the Union.• The Civil War begins: • Union wanted control of all federal forts • Fort Sumter was under Union control; Confederates wanted them to leave so they fired the first shots • Union and Confederacy gathered troops to start a war
LESSON 1:THE WAR BETWEEN THE STATES• Strengths and Weaknesses: • Union – larger army, more factories and railroads • Confederacy – where most fighting took place, knew the land well• Union set up a BLOCKADE, ships or soldiers to stop supplies or people from entering or leaving a place. How did this affect South Carolina?• Sherman’s March: • Union General William T. Sherman and his army marched through Georgia toward South Carolina burning towns and plantations.• The Civil War ends: • Sherman’s March destroyed much of South Carolina • Confederate forces had few supplies and soldiers left • Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia in 1865
USE A CROSS – SECTION DIAGRAM• A CROSS – SECTION DIAGRAM is a picture or a drawing that shows you what is inside and outside of building, machine, or object. Part of the diagram are often labeled.• It can help you understand how the parts of a building, a machine, or an object fit together or how it works.
LESSON 2:THE EFFECTS OF WAR• South Carolina’s Suffering: • Towns and farms were destroyed including Columbia and Charleston • Railroad tracks were ripped up • Livestock was gone • Most people needed food and shelter; had little money • Many plantation owners lost their land because they could not operate or pay taxes • Banks closed and people lost their savings• End of Slavery • Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 • Thirteenth Amendment was passed that ended slavery throughout the nation in 1865 • Many Southerners did not want to change and were against laws and organizations that helped FREEDMEN, or people who had been freed from slavery • The Freedman’s Bureau helped newly freed African Americans by providing food, medical care, and education
LESSON 2:THE EFFECTS OF WAR• Changes to Farming: • Most cotton plantations were broken up into smaller farms • Many freedman stayed to farm the land • SHARECROPPER, a person who farms land for the person who owns it; the owner provided equipment, livestock, feed, and a place to live in exchange for a large share of the crop grown on the land • Freemen also mined PHOSPHATE, a mineral used as fertilizer• Other Economic Changes: • Towns grew around textile mills in rural areas • Railroads were rebuilt and expanded; made it easier to sell textiles to Northern cities • CARPETBAGGERS, Northern business men who moved to the South after the war; many Southerners thought they were taking advantage of the South’s problems
LESSON 3:REBUILDING SOUTH CAROLINA• Andrew Johnson became president after Abraham Lincoln was assassinated.• South Carolina had to rebuild and rejoin the Union. The period of RECONSTRUCTION, the act of rebuilding, began (1865 – 1877)• Problems of Reconstruction: • Southern states could rejoin the Union only if they agreed to certain terms: end slavery, 10% of voters had to pledge loyalty to the Union, form a new government, and write a new constitution • Southern states passed black codes; this angered some members of Congress who thought Southern leaders should not have the power to make such laws • Southern states were governed by U.S. military and would only leave if the states wrote a new constitution stating that ALL men would have the right to vote• Reconstruction ended when President Rutherford B. Hayes ordered all U.S. troops to leave the South in the Compromise of 1877