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PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 
5 
ESSENTIALS OF LIFE-SPAN 
DEVELOPMENT 
JOHN W. SANTROCK 
3e
CHAPTER OUTLINE 
• Physical changes 
• Cognitive changes 
• Language development 
• Early childhood education 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-2
PHYSICAL CHANGES 
• Body growth and change 
• Motor development 
• Nutrition and exercise 
• Illness and death 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-3
BODY GROWTH AND CHANGE 
• Height and weight 
• Average growth is 2.5 inches and 5 to 7 pounds per year 
during early childhood 
• Growth patterns vary individually 
• Important contributors to height differences 
• Ethnic origin 
• Nutrition 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-4
BODY GROWTH AND CHANGE 
• The brain 
• Does not grow as rapidly during early childhood as in 
infancy 
• Undergoes remarkable changes 
• From 3 to 6 years of age 
• Most rapid growth in the brain takes place in the part of the 
frontal lobes known as the prefrontal cortex 
• Rapid, distinct spurts of growth in the frontal lobes 
• Myelination: Process through which axons are covered with 
a layer of fat cells 
• Increases the speed and efficiency of information traveling 
through the nervous system 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-5
FIGURE 5.1 - THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-6
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Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch05

  • 1. PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5 ESSENTIALS OF LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT JOHN W. SANTROCK 3e
  • 2. CHAPTER OUTLINE • Physical changes • Cognitive changes • Language development • Early childhood education © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-2
  • 3. PHYSICAL CHANGES • Body growth and change • Motor development • Nutrition and exercise • Illness and death © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-3
  • 4. BODY GROWTH AND CHANGE • Height and weight • Average growth is 2.5 inches and 5 to 7 pounds per year during early childhood • Growth patterns vary individually • Important contributors to height differences • Ethnic origin • Nutrition © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-4
  • 5. BODY GROWTH AND CHANGE • The brain • Does not grow as rapidly during early childhood as in infancy • Undergoes remarkable changes • From 3 to 6 years of age • Most rapid growth in the brain takes place in the part of the frontal lobes known as the prefrontal cortex • Rapid, distinct spurts of growth in the frontal lobes • Myelination: Process through which axons are covered with a layer of fat cells • Increases the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-5
  • 6. FIGURE 5.1 - THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-6
  • 7. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Gross motor skills • Simple movements at age 3 • More adventurous at age 4 • Hair-raising risks at age 5 • Fine motor skills • Still clumsy at 3 years • Improved fine motor coordination at 4 years • Body coordination by 5 years © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-7
  • 8. NUTRITION AND EXERCISE • Overweight young children • Serious health problems in early childhood • Strongly influenced by caregivers’ behavior • Determined by body mass index U.S. has second highest rate of childhood obesity • Exercise • Young children should engage in physical activity every day © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-8
  • 9. NUTRITION AND EXERCISE • Malnutrition in young children from low-income families © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-9
  • 10. ILLNESS AND DEATH • The United States • Leading causes of death in U.S. children are: • Motor vehicle accidents • Cancer • Cardiovascular disease • Safety influenced by: • Children’s own skills and safety-related behaviors • Characteristics of their family and home, school and peers, and the community • Parental smoking a major danger © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-10
  • 11. FIGURE 5.2 - CHARACTERISTICS THAT ENHANCE YOUNG CHILDREN’S SAFETY © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-11
  • 12. ILLNESS AND DEATH • State of illness and health of the world’s children • Devastating effects of health occur in countries with high poverty rates • Dramatic increase in deaths due to HIV/AIDS, especially in poor countries © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-12
  • 13. COGNITIVE CHANGES • Piaget’s preoperational stage • Vygotsky’s theory • Information processing © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-13
  • 14. PIAGET’S PREOPERATIONAL STAGE • Preoperational stage: Piaget’s second stage • Ages 2 to 7 years • Children represent the world with words, images, and drawings • Form stable concepts and begin to reason • Cognitions are dominated by egocentrism and magical beliefs • Operations: Reversible mental actions • Allow children to do mentally what they formerly did physically © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-14
  • 15. SUBSTAGES OF PREOPERATIONAL THOUGHT • Symbolic function substage: Child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present • Occurs roughly between the ages of 2 and 4 • Limitations • Egocentrism: Inability to distinguish one’s own perspective from someone else’s • Animism: Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-15
  • 16. FIGURE 5.3 - THE THREE MOUNTAINS TASK © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-16
  • 17. SUBSTAGES OF PREOPERATIONAL THOUGHT • Intuitive thought substage: Children use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to questions • Centration and the limits of preoperational thought • Centration: Centering attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others • Conservation: Altering a substance’s appearance does not change its basic properties © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-17
  • 18. FIGURE 5.4 - PIAGET’S CONSERVATION TASK © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-18
  • 19. FIGURE 5.5 - SOME DIMENSIONS OF CONSERVATION: NUMBER, MATTER, AND LENGTH © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-19
  • 20. VYGOTSKY’S THEORY • Social constructivist approach: Emphasizes • Social contexts of learning • Construction of knowledge through social interaction • Zone of proximal development (ZPD): Range of tasks that are too difficult for the child alone but that can be learned with guidance • Scaffolding - Changing the level of support © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-20
  • 21. VYGOTSKY’S THEORY • Language and thought • Children use speech to communicate socially and to help them solve tasks • Private speech - Use of language for self-regulation • Inner speech becomes their thoughts • More private speech = more social competence © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-21
  • 22. VYGOTSKY’S THEORY • Teaching strategies - Vygotsky’s theory can be applied to education • Assess child’s ZPD • Use the child’s ZPD in teaching • Use more-skilled peers as tutors • Monitor and encourage children’s use of private speech • Place instruction in a meaningful context © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-22
  • 23. FIGURE 5.7 - COMPARISON OF VYGOTSKY’S AND PIAGET’S THEORIES © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-23
  • 24. INFORMATION PROCESSING • Attention - Focusing of mental resources on select information • Executive attention • Action planning • Allocating attention to goals • Error detection and compensation • Monitoring progress on tasks • Dealing with difficult circumstances © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-24
  • 25. INFORMATION PROCESSING • Sustained attention: Focused and extended engagement with: • Object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment • Deficiencies in attention • Salient versus relevant dimensions • Planfulness • Memory - Retention of information over time • Short-term: Individuals can retain information up to 30 seconds with no rehearsal • Assessing short-term memory - Memory-span task © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-25
  • 26. FIGURE 5.8 - DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN MEMORY SPAN © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-26
  • 27. INFORMATION PROCESSING • How accurate are young children’s long-term memories? • There are age differences in children’s susceptibility to suggestion • There are individual differences in susceptibility • Interviewing techniques can produce substantial distortions in children’s reports about highly salient events © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-27
  • 28. INFORMATION PROCESSING • Executive functioning: • Umbrella-like concept that consists of: • Higher-level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brain’s prefrontal cortex • Managing one’s thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and self-control © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-28
  • 29. INFORMATION PROCESSING • Theory of mind: Awareness of one’s own mental process and the mental processes of others • Ages 2 to 3 - Children begin to understand the following three mental states • Perceptions • Emotions • Desires © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-29
  • 30. INFORMATION PROCESSING • Ages 4 to 5 - Realization that people can have false beliefs develops in a majority of children • Beyond age 5 - Children have a deepening appreciation of the mind itself • Rather than just an understanding of mental states • Individual differences © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-30
  • 31. FIGURE 5.10 - DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN FALSE-BELIEF PERFORMANCE © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-31
  • 32. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT • Understanding phonology and morphology • Changes in syntax and semantics • Advances in pragmatics • Young children’s literacy © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-32
  • 33. UNDERSTANDING PHONOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY • Phonology: Sound system of a language, including the sounds used and how they may be combined • During preschool years, children: • Become sensitive to the sounds of spoken words • Produce all the sounds of their language • Demonstrate a knowledge of morphology rules • Use plurals, possessives, prepositions, articles, and verb forms • Morphology: Units of meaning involved in word formation © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-33
  • 34. CHANGES IN SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS • Learn and apply rules of syntax • Syntax: Involves the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences • Show a growing mastery of complex rules for how words should be ordered • Semantics: Meaning of words and sentences • Characterize early childhood © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-34
  • 35. ADVANCES IN PRAGMATICS • Pragmatics: Appropriate use of language in different contexts • Characterize young children’s language development © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-35
  • 36. ADVANCES IN PRAGMATICS • Young children’s literacy • Positive orientation toward reading and writing must be developed • Strategies for using books effectively with preschool children • Use books to initiate conversation with young children • Use what and why questions • Encourage children to ask questions about stories • Choose some books that play with language © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-36
  • 37. EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION • Variations in early childhood education • Education for young children who are disadvantaged • Controversies in early childhood education © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-37
  • 38. VARIATIONS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION • Child-centered kindergarten: Education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development • Montessori approach: Child is given freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities • Developmentally appropriate education • Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP): Typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-38
  • 39. EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION • Education for young children who are disadvantaged • Project head start: Compensatory program designed to provide children from low-income families: • Opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for success in school • Controversies in early childhood education • Controversy over curriculum • Universal preschool education © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5-39