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Efr ch3 managedcare_sr2.4

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Efr ch3 managedcare_sr2.4

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3: MANAGED CARE AND PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT • Point out at least two major differences between managed care reimbursement and fee-for-service reimbursement • Give at least two examples of how managed care review mechanisms reduce health care costs • Explain at least three utilization or financial measures for providers working in managed care settings or under managed care contracts • Compare at least two distinct characteristics of managed care organizations and accountable care organizations Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 1
  2. 2. HISTORY OF PRE-PAID HEALTH PLANS • 1880s: Mayo Clinic physician group practice • 1929: Ross-Loos pre-paid group practice plan • 1929: Shadid’s first full-risk capitated contract • 1930s: Dr. Garfield/Kaiser Permanente • 1930s: IPA-model HMO in San Joaquin Valley • 1934: PPO Southern California Edison Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 2
  3. 3. RAPID GROWTH OF HMOS • HMO Act of 1973 allowed and encouraged growth • 1980: health care inflation was double the CPI • Employers looking for alternatives to FFS • Prevalence and dangers of unneeded care • Kaiser and national networks reduce costs • 1990s: competition, mergers and acquisitions, new forms of managed care Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 3
  4. 4. PRINCIPLES OF MANAGED CARE • Principles address FFS problems such as supplier-induced demand and moral hazard • Capitation: a fixed payment established per plan enrollee and paid to provider for specified services over specified time period – Incentives to control costs, as provider may keep surplus – Quality indicators and regulation protect against under-care – Stop-loss insurance protects providers from unusual costs • Gatekeeping: access to specialists must be authorized by a primary care provider Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 4
  5. 5. HOW CAPITATION CAN ALIGN INCENTIVES Fee-for-service: • The more is done, the more Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. is earned • Incentives for over-care, increased length of stay • Does not ensure, may even reduce, quality and access while increasing costs • PCP: improves access but may lead to “churning” Capitation: • The less is done, the more is retained as earnings • Incentives for under-care— quality and access standards must be established and met while reducing costs • PCP: health plan exports risk but may lead to access problems 5
  6. 6. REVIEW MECHANISMS • Prospective review (or preauthorization) involves reviewing a provider’s plan for care prior to the intervention, and authorizing whether or not the plan will pay the costs – For example, elective surgeries • Concurrent review (or utilization review) occurs during hospitalization, when the reviewer evaluates the medical record and determines whether continued hospitalization is medically necessary for each additional day of hospitalization • Retrospective review (or claims review) occurs after health care is provided and the claim for reimbursement is filed. The claim and other documentation are reviewed to determine whether the intervention was medically necessary and may be authorized for payment Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 6
  7. 7. REVIEW MECHANISMS (CONT’D) • Review mechanisms are intended to align incentives to reduce procedures and hospitalizations that are medically unnecessary – Providers must demonstrate a rationale for treatment and document their treatment plan and patient outcomes – Review mechanisms may lead to disputes between providers and the health plan around patient care decisions – Review mechanisms also generate added work for providers as well as considerable administrative costs for both providers and the managed care plan Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 7
  8. 8. OVERALL PRIMARY CARE UTILIZATION AND FINANCIAL DATA • Member months: total of all months of coverage for each health plan enrollee over the plan year 1st Quarter Member Months 2012 = Members Enrolled January 2012 + Members Enrolled February 2012 + Members Enrolled March 2012 35,000 = 10,000 + 12,000 + 13,000 • P&L (profit and loss) statement: difference between revenues and costs 1st Quarter of FY 2012 P&L = 1st Quarter Revenues – 1st Quarter Costs $200,000 = $1,500,000 - $1,300,000 Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 8
  9. 9. OVERALL PRIMARY CARE FINANCIAL INDICATORS • Average capitation per member month – Total Capitation Revenue ÷ Member Months • Average cost per member per month (PMPM) – Total Paid Charges ÷ Member Months • PCP visits per member per year – Primary Care Visits ÷ Member Months x 12 • Specialty referral visits per member per year – Referral Visits ÷ Member Months x 12 • Specialty care costs PMPM – Total Specialty Referral Costs ÷ Member Months Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 9
  10. 10. OVERALL INPATIENT COSTS AND UTILIZATION • Inpatient care costs PMPM – Total Inpatient Costs ÷ Member Months • Inpatient admissions per 1000 members per year (PTMPY) – Total Admissions ÷ Member Months x 12 x 1000 • Inpatient days per 1000 members per year – Total Inpatient Days ÷ Member Months x 12 x 1000 Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 10
  11. 11. PRIMARY CARE UTILIZATION, FINANCIAL DATA, AND INDICATORS BY PCP • Primary care visits by PCP • Paid charges by PCP • Other primary care paid charges by PCP • Average cost per primary care visit – Paid Charges by PCP ÷ PCP Visits Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 11
  12. 12. COST AND UTILIZATION DATA AND FINANCIAL INDICATORS BY SPECIALTY CARE SERVICES • Referral costs by specialty, by PCP, and by specialist • Total number of referrals and referral rates per 100 (or 1000) PCP visits by PCP – Referral Rate = Referrals ÷ PCP visits x 100 (or 1000) • Referral visits per referral by specialist – Referral Visits for each Specialist ÷ Total Authorized Referrals for each Specialist • Referral visits per referral by each specialty • Average referral cost by PCP – Total Referral Costs ÷ Referrals by PCP • Average cost per visit by specialist – Referral Costs by Individual Specialist ÷ Referral Visits by Individual Specialist Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 12
  13. 13. UTILIZATION DATA AND FINANCIAL INDICATORS BY INPATIENT CARE SERVICES • Inpatient costs by PCP • Admissions and admission rates per 100 (or 1000) PCP visits by PCP – Admission Rate = Admissions ÷ PCP Visits x 100 (or 1000) • Inpatient LOS and inpatient days by PCP • Average inpatient LOS (ALOS) – Total Inpatient Days ÷ Total Admissions • Average cost per admission by PCP – Inpatient Costs ÷ Admissions by PCP Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 13
  14. 14. OUTLIER EVALUATION • Important to identify why the outlier occurred to manage costs and utilization • Helps focus on reasons for costs or utilization higher than anticipated Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 14
  15. 15. COMPARISON OF DATA AND INDICATORS OVER TIME • Compare past performance to current performance • Identify trends • Identify unexpected changes • Monitor PCP, specialty services, inpatient services, and other areas generating costs and utilization Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 15
  16. 16. Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. ACOS • ACOs share the same goals as MCOs of controlling costs while ensuring access and high-quality patient care • ACO reimbursement is on a per-episode, bundled basis – For example, care provided for a total hip replacement would extend from hospitalization and surgery through skilled nursing care and rehabilitation, on through home health care and transition to the home setting • Another feature of ACOs is shared savings, shared risk, or gainsharing – When providers such as physicians and hospitals work together to reduce health care costs, a negotiated portion of the savings is returned to the providers as an incentive 16
  17. 17. ACOS (CONT’D) • A key provision of ACOs is value-based purchasing, which directly links payment to quality of care – For example, EBP, care coordination, reporting quality indicators, and quality improvement efforts – In addition, ACOs must develop processes ensuring patient engagement and patient centered care • ACOs establish a patient-centered medical home for culturally sensitive, comprehensive health care • ACOs address problems of under-care by ensuring open access and a well-coordinated vertical system of care from hospital to community • ACOs address problems of over-care by implementing strategies such as bundled payment for episodes of care, which aligns all the providers Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 17
  18. 18. ACOS VS. MCOS • The emphasis on care coordination throughout a patient episode, payment based on disease episodes, evidence-based care, and patient engagement set ACOs apart from MCOs • In addition, ACOs are prohibited from gatekeeping Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 18
  19. 19. MANAGED CARE TERMS AND CONCEPTS • Capitation revenue is the amount of authorized capitation reimbursement • Paid charges or the charges authorized by the capitation plan and used as a measure of costs • Incurred but not reported (IBNR) or unreported expenses for which the IPA or MCO will be liable, estimated to ensure an adequate reserve of funds to pay those expenses • Administrative costs are the indirect costs of running a program or service, also referred to as overhead • Medical loss ratio (MLR) represents the portion of a health plan’s expenses allocated to clinical services compared to total revenue • Administrative loss ratio (ALR) represents the portion of a health plan’s expenses allocated to administrative costs and profit compared to total revenue Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 19
  20. 20. MANAGING MEDICATION COSTS • Formulary, or approved prescribing list – Often established to manage medication costs – Consumers might pay out-of-pocket or share costs of non-formulary or brand-name medications if generic medications are available • Generic medications are equivalent to brand-name drugs but are not associated with a pharmaceutical company • Brand-name medications are pharmaceuticals for which the drug company retains the patent Copyright © Springer Publishing Company, LLC. All Rights Reserved. 20

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