Chapter 11 Effective Team Building
Objectives <ul><li>Upon completion of this chapter, the reader should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss advantages...
Definition of a Team <ul><li>A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, per...
Types of Teams <ul><li>Multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of varied disciplines contri...
Types of Teams <ul><li>Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams serve on several types of committees, which are created for ...
Advantages of Teamwork <ul><li>Promotes safe and efficient patient care delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Creates effective inter...
Disadvantages of Teamwork <ul><li>May take longer to achieve a goal than one individual </li></ul><ul><li>Team members may...
Informal Teams <ul><li>Can influence the organization either positively or negatively </li></ul><ul><li>Are not directly e...
Stages of Group  and Team Process  <ul><li>Forming stage </li></ul><ul><li>Storming phase </li></ul><ul><li>Norming phase ...
Forming Stage <ul><li>Occurs when the group is created and they meet as a team for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>They e...
Storming Stage <ul><li>As the group relaxes into a more comfortable team setting, interpersonal issues or opposing opinion...
Norming Stage <ul><li>A feeling of group cohesion develops </li></ul><ul><li>Team members master the ability to resolve co...
Performing Stage <ul><li>Group cohesion, collaboration, and solidarity are evident </li></ul><ul><li>Personal opinions are...
Adjourning Stage <ul><li>Termination and consolidation occur in this stage </li></ul><ul><li>The team reviews their activi...
A Winning Team <ul><li>Achieved when there is synergy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things work together harmoniously </li></ul></...
Conducive  Teamwork Environment <ul><li>Requires ongoing time and effort </li></ul><ul><li>Facility design allows for coll...
Team Communication <ul><li>Ambassador activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate with those in the hierarchy </li></ul><...
Team Size <ul><li>Team size affects performance in that too few or too many affect performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commu...
Status Differences <ul><li>Status is the measure of worth conferred on an individual by a group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High...
Psychological Safety <ul><li>Describes individual’s perceptions about the consequences of interpersonal risks in their wor...
Qualities of  Effective Team Members <ul><li>Proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Take responsibility f...
Qualities of  Effective Team Leaders <ul><li>Will organize, facilitate, and manage the entire team </li></ul><ul><li>Must ...
Qualities of  Effective Team Leaders <ul><li>Focus the team on outcome improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Track reports </li></...
Guidelines for Meetings <ul><li>Set a time frame for the meetings and stick to it </li></ul><ul><li>Review the progress </...
Guidelines for Meetings <ul><li>Sustain the flow of the meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the discussion </li></ul><ul><li...
Avoiding Groupthink <ul><li>Occurs when the desire for harmony and consensus overrides members’ rational efforts to apprai...
Symptoms of Groupthink <ul><li>The illusion of invulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Collective rationalization </li></ul><ul>...
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Chapter11

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Chapter11

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Effective Team Building
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Upon completion of this chapter, the reader should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss advantages and disadvantages of teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review key concepts of creating an effective team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the stages of a team process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss ways to create a conducive environment for teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the qualities of an effective team member </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the qualities of an effective team leader </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Definition of a Team <ul><li>A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they are mutually accountable </li></ul><ul><li>Teams exist for specific purposes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Teams <ul><li>Multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprised of varied disciplines contributing to an individual patient’s care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team works closely and communicates frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the disciplines to work together collaboratively </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Teams <ul><li>Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams serve on several types of committees, which are created for specific goals or tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal is to improve patient care </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Advantages of Teamwork <ul><li>Promotes safe and efficient patient care delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Creates effective interprofessional communication </li></ul><ul><li>Equalizes power through shared governance </li></ul><ul><li>Improves interpersonal relationships and job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes free exchange of ideas, team cohesion, trust, and mutual respect </li></ul><ul><li>Improves stability in employee satisfaction </li></ul>
  7. 7. Disadvantages of Teamwork <ul><li>May take longer to achieve a goal than one individual </li></ul><ul><li>Team members may have disagreements on the best course of action </li></ul><ul><li>Teams develop through time-consuming predictable stages of selecting the right members for the team, organizing team goals and manpower, and team collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Some team members may lack interest, motivation, or skills to participate in the team process </li></ul>
  8. 8. Informal Teams <ul><li>Can influence the organization either positively or negatively </li></ul><ul><li>Are not directly established or sanctioned by the organization, but often form naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Can become very powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Often responsible for facilitating improvements in the working conditions </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stages of Group and Team Process <ul><li>Forming stage </li></ul><ul><li>Storming phase </li></ul><ul><li>Norming phase </li></ul><ul><li>Performing stage </li></ul><ul><li>Adjourning phase </li></ul>
  10. 10. Forming Stage <ul><li>Occurs when the group is created and they meet as a team for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>They explore the purpose of the team, why they are called to be part of a team, and what contribution they can bring to the table </li></ul><ul><li>Proceed to establishing team goals and expectations </li></ul>
  11. 11. Storming Stage <ul><li>As the group relaxes into a more comfortable team setting, interpersonal issues or opposing opinions may arise to cause conflict between the members </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is healthy and a natural process </li></ul><ul><li>Must openly confront issues and conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Real teams don’t emerge unless individuals on them take risks involving conflict, trust, interdependence, and hard work </li></ul>
  12. 12. Norming Stage <ul><li>A feeling of group cohesion develops </li></ul><ul><li>Team members master the ability to resolve conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Team members learn to respect differences of opinion and work together </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming barriers to performance is how groups become teams </li></ul>
  13. 13. Performing Stage <ul><li>Group cohesion, collaboration, and solidarity are evident </li></ul><ul><li>Personal opinions are set aside in order to achieve group goals </li></ul><ul><li>Team members are openly communicating, know each other’s roles and responsibilities, are taking risks, and trusting and relying on each other </li></ul>
  14. 14. Adjourning Stage <ul><li>Termination and consolidation occur in this stage </li></ul><ul><li>The team reviews their activities and evaluates their progress </li></ul><ul><li>The team leader summarizes the group’s accomplishments and the roles each member played in achieving these goals </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to provide closure so each member leaves with a sense of accomplishment </li></ul>
  15. 15. A Winning Team <ul><li>Achieved when there is synergy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things work together harmoniously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The whole is greater than the sum of the parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The needs and characteristics of a patient, clinical unit, or system are matched with the nurse’s competencies </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Conducive Teamwork Environment <ul><li>Requires ongoing time and effort </li></ul><ul><li>Facility design allows for collaboration and interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Social factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear identification and ownership of the team goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear definition and acceptance of each person’s roles and responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear delineation of team processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear opportunities to build trust </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Team Communication <ul><li>Ambassador activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate with those in the hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to protect the team from outside pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task coordinator activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate with lateral levels in the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scout activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur in general ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning in the external environment </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Team Size <ul><li>Team size affects performance in that too few or too many affect performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication and coordination problems increase with large teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller teams have lower incidence of social loafing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals in large teams are able to maintain anonymity and gain from the work of the group without making a suitable contribution </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Status Differences <ul><li>Status is the measure of worth conferred on an individual by a group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-status members initiate communication more often and are provided more opportunities to participate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lower-status member may be ignored or intimidated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Status differences have significant impacts on patient outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Need to build a trust-sensitive environment </li></ul>
  20. 20. Psychological Safety <ul><li>Describes individual’s perceptions about the consequences of interpersonal risks in their work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Created by mutual respect and trust among team members </li></ul><ul><li>Describes a climate that fosters productive discussion and non-punitive action </li></ul>
  21. 21. Qualities of Effective Team Members <ul><li>Proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Take responsibility for one’s actions, decisions, and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Seize initiatives to do whatever is necessary to get the job done consistent with correct principles </li></ul>
  22. 22. Qualities of Effective Team Leaders <ul><li>Will organize, facilitate, and manage the entire team </li></ul><ul><li>Must understand how various learning styles, cultural diversity, and personality differences play into the dynamics of teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Have good communication skills, conflict resolution skills, and leadership skills </li></ul>
  23. 23. Qualities of Effective Team Leaders <ul><li>Focus the team on outcome improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Track reports </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize contributing members </li></ul>
  24. 24. Guidelines for Meetings <ul><li>Set a time frame for the meetings and stick to it </li></ul><ul><li>Review the progress </li></ul><ul><li>Help group members feel comfortable with one another </li></ul><ul><li>Establish ground rules </li></ul><ul><li>Get a report from each member </li></ul>
  25. 25. Guidelines for Meetings <ul><li>Sustain the flow of the meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Work to avoid groupthink </li></ul><ul><li>Close the meetings by summarizing accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>Identify a time frame for future meetings </li></ul>
  26. 26. Avoiding Groupthink <ul><li>Occurs when the desire for harmony and consensus overrides members’ rational efforts to appraise the situation </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences of groupthink are that teams may limit themselves to one possible solution and fail to conduct a comprehensive analysis of a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Team leaders can help avoid groupthink </li></ul>
  27. 27. Symptoms of Groupthink <ul><li>The illusion of invulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Collective rationalization </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in the inherent morality of the team </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotyping others </li></ul><ul><li>Pressures to conform </li></ul><ul><li>The use of mindguards </li></ul><ul><li>Self-censorship </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion of unanimity </li></ul>

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