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Chapter 17

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Chapter 17

  1. 1. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 17 Learning Theories
  2. 2. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Learning Theories • Teaching is one of the most important roles of nurses. • Teaching is the intentional act of communicating information; facilitation of learning. – Must be aware and attend to how people learn
  3. 3. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Learning Theories—(cont.) • Learning—a change in behavior or change in mental or emotional functioning • Learning occurs as individuals interact with their environment, incorporating new information into what they already know.
  4. 4. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Learning Theories—(cont.) • Learning is the means by which skills, values, knowledge, attitudes, and emotions are acquired. • Learning creates a change within the individual. • Learning can describe a process, a product, or a function.
  5. 5. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Learning Theories—(cont.) • Three basic types of categories of learning – Affective learning (change in feelings, values, beliefs) – Cognitive leaning (acquiring information) – Psychomotor learning (skills, physical abilities)
  6. 6. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Learning Theories—(cont.) • Learning theories describe processes used to bring about changes in how we understand information and/or change in how we perform tasks or skills. • Many theories of learning can be useful for nurses. • Main categories – Behavioral learning theories – Cognitive learning theories – Adult learning theory
  7. 7. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Behavioral Learning Theories • Among the first and most widely used • Focus on what is directly observable in learners • Based on the works of Pavlov and Thorndike – Behavior (response) is the result of a stimulus. – Stimulus–response (S–R) models of learning • Thorndike—original S-R framework • Pavlov—classical conditioning • Skinner—operant conditioning • Watson—behaviorism • Hull—S–R + reinforcement
  8. 8. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Behavioral Learning Theories—(cont.) • Behavioral theories are concerned with observable and measurable aspects of behavior. • Behaviors can be controlled through rewarding desirable behavior and ignoring or punishing undesirable behavior. • Reinforcing the behavior increases its recurrence in the future.
  9. 9. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question Use of behavioral theory in learning does which of the following? A. Reinforces learning B. Rewards positive responses C. Conditions responses D. All of the above
  10. 10. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer D. All of the above Rationale: Behavioral learning theories, behavior, or response is viewed as the result of stimulus to certain conditions. The response is the learned behavior, which becomes conditioned and can be reinforced in multiple ways.
  11. 11. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cognitive Learning Theories • Behavioral learning theories fail to consider thoughts, feelings, and cognitive processes of the learner. • Cognitive theories consider the learner’s own goals, thoughts, expectations, motivations, and abilities. • Became popular in the 1960s; focus on how people learn and how to change behaviors
  12. 12. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cognitive Learning Theories—(cont.) • Cognitive-field (Gestalt) theories – Learning is closely related to perception. – Learning is reorganization of the learner’s perceptual or psychological world (i.e., his or her field). – Learning is the process of discovering and understanding relationships among people, things, and ideas in the field. – Self-actualization is a driving force that motivates human behavior.
  13. 13. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cognitive Learning Theories—(cont.) • Cognitive-field (Gestalt) theories—(cont.) – Perceptions of reality and experience are unique to each individual. – Thoughts influence actions. – Kurt Lewin was a major gestalt theorist.
  14. 14. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cognitive Development/Interaction Theories • Behavior, mental processes, and the environment are interrelated. • Assumes learning is a sequential process and takes place over time • Stresses the importance of experiential interaction with the environment • Focus on conditions that promote learning
  15. 15. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cognitive Development/Interaction Theories: Piaget • Cognitive development occurs in stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. • Stages are universal to persons everywhere. • Must be able to assimilate new information into existing cognitive structures to learn • Assimilation and accommodation processes are critical to development and learning.
  16. 16. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cognitive Development/Interaction Theories: Gagne • To be successful, learning requires varying conditions. • Learning outcomes are divided into five categories: intellectual skills, verbal information, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and attitudes. • Also believed there are eight types of learning that are sequential and hierarchical (e.g., involuntary responses to problem solving) • Teaching involves arranging conditions external to the learner to enhance learning.
  17. 17. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question Gagne categorizes learning outcomes as intellectual skills, verbal information, cognitive strategies, attitudes, and: A.Accommodation B.Behavioral intention C.Learning needs D.Motor skills
  18. 18. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer D. Motor skills Rationale: Motor skills are one of the learning outcomes needed in many circumstances.
  19. 19. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cognitive Development/Interaction Theories: Bandura • Bandura—social learning theory – Concerned with social influences that affect learning (culture, ethnicity) – Environment, cognitive factors, and behavior interact reciprocally. – Emphasis on self-efficacy
  20. 20. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cognitive Development/Interaction Theories: Bandura—(cont.) – Focus is on how people learn from one another. – Concepts of observational learning, imitation, and modeling (vicarious learning) – Cognition plays a role in learning.
  21. 21. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cognitive Development/Interaction Theories: Bandura—(cont.) – Self-efficacy is the competence to perform a specific task or range of tasks. – People are more likely to engage in behaviors they can perform successfully—those with high self- efficacy. – Teaching efforts should focus on developing self- efficacy.
  22. 22. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cognitive Development/Interaction Theories: Bandura—(cont.) • Bandura social learning theory—Implications – Learners learn by observing others. – Modeling can help teach new behavior/s. – Teachers must model appropriate behaviors. – Students must believe they are capable of learning— self-efficacy.
  23. 23. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cognitive Development/Interaction Theories: Bandura—(cont.) • Bandura’s work is widely used in nursing. • Many citations relate to research. – Self-efficacy of abused women – Education program for patients who receive an implantable cardioverter defibrillator – Nurses’ perceived cultural self-efficacy – Self-efficacy and physical activity in elders – Self-efficacy training for people with ESRD
  24. 24. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Adult Learning Theory (Andragogy) • Malcolm Knowles initially presented his work on adult learning principles in the 1970s. • Coined the term “andragogy” as a process model to describe how adults learn Knowles
  25. 25. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Adult Learning Theory (Andragogy)— (cont.) • Knowles believed that adult learning did not follow the principles of traditional pedagogy in which teachers are responsible for deciding what, where, when, and how information will be learned. • Believed because adults are more self-directed, they should control their own learning.
  26. 26. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Adult Learning Theory—Assumptions • Need to know: Adults need to know why they need to learn something. • Self-concept: Maturity moves self-concept from dependence to being self-directed. • Experience: Maturity increases experience that can be helpful in learning.
  27. 27. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Adult Learning Theory—Assumptions— (cont.) • Readiness to learn: Life problems or situations create a readiness to learn. • Orientation to learning: need to recognize application of information (need to relate what they are learning to personal/professional experiences)
  28. 28. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Adult Learning Theory—Assumptions— (cont.) • Motivation: Adults are primarily motivated by a desire to solve immediate and practical problems. • Motivation is often internal rather than external.
  29. 29. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Adult Learning Theory—Implications— (cont.) • Learners should be motivated and ready to learn. • Learners should be involved in planning and evaluation of instruction. • Instruction should be problem centered rather than content oriented.
  30. 30. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Adult Learning Theory—Implications • Learners should be explained why they are studying something. • Instruction should be task oriented and should consider range of background of learners. • Learners should be able to relate subject to personal/professional experiences.
  31. 31. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Adult Learning Theory—Application • Knowles work has been used by nurses in – Practice (patient education) • Model of andragogy for osteoporosis education • Approach to cardiac in-patient education • Facilitating self-management in diabetes education – Education • Graduate education curriculum design • Use of journaling in an RN-BSN program • Continuing education—computer learning needs
  32. 32. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Learning Styles • Most individuals have a preferred style of learning—how they interact with instructional circumstances to enhance learning. – Visual – Auditory – Tactile/kinesthetic • May prefer “global” or analytic view
  33. 33. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question Tell whether the following statement is true or false: All information should be presented in the same method to patients.
  34. 34. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False Rationale: Every learner is different; this includes patients. The APN or RN providing education should assess the individual for best learning style and use the method of learning to suit the learner.
  35. 35. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Basic Principles of Learning • Learning may be emotional as well as intellectual. • Learning is highly unique—People learn in different ways. • Learning can be painful.
  36. 36. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Basic Principles of Learning—(cont.) • Learning is facilitated when – Moving from simple to complex, concrete to abstract, and known to unknown – Information is personal and individualized. – Relevant to learners’ needs and problems – The individual is attentive. – Feedback is provided promptly.

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