On gamification

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  • Side-Blotched Lizard The Orange throat is very aggressive and operates over a large territory - attempting to mate with numerous females within this larger area 2) The unaggressive Yellow Throat (called “sneakers”) mimic the markings/behavior of female lizards and sneakily slip into the Orange Throat's territory to mate with the females there (thereby overtaking the population), and The Blue Throat who mates with and carefully guards ONE female - making it impossible for the sneakers to succeed and therefore overtakes their place in a population…
  • Or rather focus on artifact and not activity
  • Thorp reported that his personal investments yielded an annualized 20 percent rate of return averaged over 28.5 years
  • On gamification

    1. 1. On Gamification Staffan Björk Gothenburg University & Interactive Institute
    2. 2. Who am I?  Associate Professor, Gothenburg University  Senior Research, Interactive Institute  Gamer
    3. 3. What do I do?
    4. 4. Some aspects of Games  Rules  Goals  Actions
    5. 5. 5/38 Some aspects of Games, cont.  Flow  Activity requiring skill  Merging of action and awareness  Clear goals and feedback  Concentration on task  Paradox of control  Loss of self-consciousness  Transformation of time  Activity becomes its own purpose - autotelic Skill Flow Difficulty Frustration Boredom Czikszentmihalyi
    6. 6. Serious Games
    7. 7. Edutainment
    8. 8. Origins of Games for Serious Activities  Olympic Games  Communication with the gods  The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (Julian Jaynes)
    9. 9. Early Serious Games?  Ludus Regularis Seu Clericalis  Balderic, 12th century  Bowling  Heathen Killing
    10. 10. War Games and Simulation Gaming  von Reiswitz  Kriegspiel, 1812-1824  Birshtein  Red Weaver, 1930s
    11. 11. Game Theory  von Neumann, 1944 (1928)  Economics  Biology  International Diplomacy
    12. 12. Gamification  Deterding et al.  “the use of game design elements in non-game contexts”  James Paul Gee  Jane McGonigal  Reality is Broken
    13. 13. Thinking too small  Games  Gamers  Gaming  Typically a focus on creating or modifying artifacts  Games are needed to game (play)
    14. 14. Gaming Activities
    15. 15. Gaming Educations  Snyder  The Hidden Curriculum  unstated academic and social norms  Miller & Parlett  Up to the Mark - a study of the examination game.  Cue-seekers  Cue-aware  Cue-deaf
    16. 16. Gaming Warfare  MAD  Von Neumann  World War I  Trench Warfare 1914– 1918: The Live and Let Live System (Ashworth, T.)
    17. 17. Gambling & Stock Trading  Kelly Criterion  Thorp & Shannon  Gambling  Beat the Dealer (Thorp, 1966)  Stock Market  Beat the Market: A Scientific Stock Market System (Thorp, 1967)
    18. 18. Voting  Dodgson  Caucus-Race  Tactical Voting  Compromising  Burying  Bullet Voting  Push-over Voting
    19. 19. Religion  Consanguinity  Indulgence  Nikah mut‘ah  Kosher food  Statistics of sinning  Wine by gentiles but automated  Sheitels and Tzniut  Tirumala Venkateswara Temple  Von Neumann & Pascal’s Wager
    20. 20. Why is this important? Why is this important to applied IT?
    21. 21. 21/53 What is Design? Buildings Products Markets Institutions Processes Artifacts Opinions Communication systems Transport systems Community services Festivities Municipals Laws initiate change in man-made things
    22. 22. Typical features of design systems  States  Rules  Feedback  User goals
    23. 23. Definitions of Game and Gaming “playing a game is the voluntary effort to overcome unnecessary obstacles.” (Suits, Grasshopper: Games, Life, and Utopia) ”...a game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context.” (Abt, Serious Games) ”A game is a form of art in which participants, named players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal.” (Costikyan, I Have no Words and I Must Design) ”Games are an exercise of voluntary control systems, in which there is a contest between powers, confined by rules in order to produce a disequilibrial outcome.” (Avedon & Sutton-Smith, The Study of Games) ”A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome.” (Salen & Zimmerman, Rules of Play) ”A game is a rule-based formal system with a variable and quantifiable outcome, where different outcomes are assigned different values, the player exerts effort in order to influence the outcome, the player feels attached to the outcome, and the consequences of the activity are optional and negotiable. “ (Juul, Half-Real)
    24. 24. The Next Generation
    25. 25. Observations  Most systems can be interpreted as games  Most systems can be gamed  Most systems can be seen as gamified already  But not conscious gamification  problem
    26. 26. Takeaways  Gaming can be seen as a stance towards doing many activities  Activities including rules and goals make this easy  Games are artifacts specifically designed to encourage this stance through the activities they offer  Designers aiming at creating or modifying activities may benefit from considering users gaming these activities  Not considering this may be very problematic…
    27. 27. Thank you! Questions?

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