History 1884 – Paul Nipkow Russian in Berlin, developed first workable device for generating electrical signals suitable for transmission. Used a spinning disk (the Nipkow disk) John Logie Baird – developed mechanical television (he was from Scotland).
History Electronic scanning Either from Zworykin (RCA) or Philo Farnsworth an Idaho farm boy.
World’s Fair New York – World’s Fair was the first real public demonstration of television (1927) $200 for a 5-inch-screen $600 for the deluxe 12-inch-screen
FCC FCC granted construction permits for the first two commercial stations in 1941 WWII slowed things down and then development picked back up when the war ended. By 1952, 108 stations were broadcasting in 17 million homes
Facts In the 1950s, more television sets were sold in the United States (70 million) than there were children born (40.5 million)
Things that shaped TV The Quiz Show Scandal I Love Lucy McCarthyism Establishment of ratings system
Quiz Show Scandal Newsreel Out of this scandal came the practice of spot commercials versus one single advertiser sponsored shows.
I Love Lucy Lucille Ball was asked to bring her radio show on TV in 1951 She said only if she could have her real husband as her co-star Network refused ( some say because it was inter- racial marriage) She also wanted the show to be filmed in front of a live audience then edited Lucy and Desi ultimately borrowed the money needed and produced the show on their own, then selling the broadcast rights to CBS
McCarthyism The Red Scare Report claimed 151 broadcast personalities were pro-Communist sympathizers. Background checks were performed on employees or possible talent hires, loyalty oaths were required from performers Many were denied paychecks or opportunity to shape the mediums content.
Nielsen Ratings Started in 1923, was carried over from radio and began as a product-testing company. Branched into market research Started reporting radio ratings then moved to TV Selects 15,000 households thought to be representative of the entire U.S. viewing audience (expanded to 100,000 this year) Records data on what people in those houses watch Uses the peoplemeter Sweeps – local viewing patterns (Feb, May, July and November) helps set advertising rates for the next 3 mos.
Nielsen How it works http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/top10 s/television.html