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Global media


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Global media

  1. 1. Global media<br />Chapter 15<br />
  2. 2. Shift Happens<br /><br /><br /><br />
  3. 3. Five Concepts <br />The Western Concept (Great Britian)<br />Development Concept<br />Revolutionary Concept<br />Authoritarianism<br />Communism<br />
  4. 4. The Western Concept<br />Combination of libertarianism and social responsibility theory<br />There is no such thing as completely free media system<br />Even commercially driven systems include the expectation not only of public service but also significant participation of the government<br />
  5. 5. Great Britain<br />Good example<br />BBC was originally build on the public trust concept.<br />To limit government and advertiser control the BBC was funded by the consumer purchase of licenses (fees) levied on receivers.<br />
  6. 6. Britain – not as free<br />They do not enjoy the freedoms of the first amendment<br />Prior restraint does occur<br />D-Notice – prior restraint, when a committee of government officials and reps from the media industry can agree on the issuance of a notice to NOT publicize something<br />Not allowed to report on court trial in progress, Parliament can pass restrictions whenever it pleases.<br />
  7. 7. The Development Concept<br />A bit one at the moment (former soviet bloc, South America and other developing Third World countries).<br />Here…usually, government and media work in partnership to ensure that media assist in planned, beneficial development of the country.<br />Content is designed to meet needs - societal and culturally.<br />
  8. 8. Revolutionary Concept<br />I think this is the most pertinent right now, powerful and most active form <br />Four Aims of revolutionary media: <br />Ending government monopoly over information<br />Facilitating the organization of opposition to the incumbent or current powers<br />Destroying the legitimacy of a standing government<br />Bringing down a standing government<br />
  9. 9. Revolutionary<br />Former Yugoslavia – 33 radio stations and 18 TV stations combined to create in 1998 to form the Association of Independent Electronic Media (ANEM)for the purpose of challenging the regime of Slobodan Milosevic – fought for Serbian independence. <br />
  10. 10. Authoritarianism and Communism<br />Very few Communist countries remain – book takes the two concepts together<br />China – good example because of how it controls or operates its media, but also because it shows how hard it is for these countries to keep this kind of strict control over media and audience.<br />Google vs China <br />
  11. 11. Programming<br />Most programming throughout the world, generally tends to look like what we have here in the U.S.<br />Two Reasons<br />The United States is a world leader in international distribution of broadcast fare<br />Very early in the life of television, American producers flooded the world with their programming at low prices<br />
  12. 12. Cultural Imperialism<br />Macbride report – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 1980<br />Looked at the question of how to maintain national an cultural sovereignty in the face of rapid globalization of mass media. <br />The glut of Westernized content was thought to overshadow or displace content of other countries<br />Seen as a kind of colonialization or CULTURAL IMPERIALISM <br />
  13. 13. Macbride Report<br />Called for the establishment of a New World Information Order (NWIO)<br />Called for monitoring of all news and entertainment that entered other nations<br />Called for the monitoring and licensing of foreign journalists<br />Required prior government permission be obtained for direct radio, television and satellite transmission INTO foreign countries<br />Western nations rejected this as a direct infringement on the freedom of press<br />
  14. 14. Quotas<br />Even places like Canada instituted national quotas – certain percentages of all media there had to be produced there, in comparison to imported media from the US. <br />
  15. 15. The Global Village<br />There are opportunities and on both ends of the Global Village<br />McDonald’s example<br />
  16. 16. Global Village<br />The question remains, but is really impractical – is globalization good or bad? <br />Regardless, the Internet has created a situation where globalization is unharnessed <br />“Culture” however seems to be redefined into not just national cultures or smaller local cultures, but even by subjects, topic, interests and hobbies, music likes and so on. <br />