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  2. 2. Advertising We typically encounter 5,000 commercial messages a day. Instead of decreasing the ad clutter – advertisers are doing more of the same in new ways  Nontraditional forms of advertising  Graffiti  Beach sculptures
  3. 3. History Romans used to write announcements on city walls Pin up adds in the 15th century Shopbills – attractive, artful business cards 1625 – the first “newsbook” containing ads The Weekly News, was printed in England.
  4. 4. History Before the Civil War, advertising was small business Primarily an agricultural country (the US) Advertising was mostly for area businesses to encourage country-folk to come to their shops.
  5. 5. Industrialization Like most other media history, the Industrial Revolution had great impact on advertising. Manufacturers wanted access to larger markets Railroad and telegraph enabled access to other areas and audiences.
  6. 6. Professionalism Between Civil War and WWI the profession of advertising developed rapidly. There were three factors that combined to move the advertising industry to establish professional standards and to regulate itself.
  7. 7. Factor ONE First was the reaction of the public and the medical profession to the abuses of patent medicine advertisers.  Snake oil salesman  Fake claims  Tonics that were useless
  8. 8. Factor TWO The critical examination of most of the country’s most important institutions, led by muckrackers (investigative reporters).
  9. 9. Factor THREE In 1914, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) was established. Among its duties was to monitor and regulate advertising. This included fairness in advertising laws Many advertising associations were created at this time and mounted crusades against gross exaggeration in advertising.
  10. 10. War Advertising Promotion of consumer products came to a near halt during the war. The ad industry turned its collective skill toward the war effort A patriotic theme was adopted.
  11. 11. War Ads
  12. 12. War Advertising Council 1941 Several national advertising and media associations joined to develop the War Advertising Council They worked to promote several government campaigns. Best known was the campaign to promote the sale of war bonds.
  13. 13. War Bonds This campaign was the largest campaign to date for a single item Helped sell 800 million bonds for $45 billion After the war, the group renamed (Advertising Council) and worked on public service campaigns. “This message is brought to you by the Ad Council.”
  14. 14. War Ad Council
  15. 15. USP Unique Selling Proposition  Highlighting the aspect of a product that sets it apart form other brands in the same product category.  M&Ms – they aren’t just chocolate candy, they “melt in your mouth, not in your hand.”  Brands in the same category, are PARITY PRODUCTS (Coke, Pepsi – both soft drinks or colas)
  16. 16. Concerns Some were concerned that advertising was increasing consumer spending on products that were not represented correctly or accurately in ads. NARB – National Advertising Review Board was created in 1971 to monitor potentially deceptive advertising. They investigate consumer complaints and complaints by advertiser’s competitors.
  17. 17. So what? In a capitalistic society, advertising makes sense! It supports our economic system People use ads to gather info before making buying decisions. Ad revenues make possible “free” mass media we use not only for entertainment for for maintenance of our democracy. Increases national productivity…shows us all the possible things we can spend money on, so we work harder to get money to spend on things we see in ads.
  18. 18. Critics Advertising is intrusive Advertising is deceptive Advertising exploits children Advertising demeans and corrupts culture  AIDA (attention, interest, desire, action) approach  Problems when important aspects of human existences are reduced to the consumption of brand-name consumer products.
  19. 19. Consumer culture Status and worth and identity reside not in ourselves but in the products with which we surround ourselves. Is this a bad thing?
  20. 20. Illusions of Comparison Think about unfinished statements  “Lasts twice as long…”  Easy-Off makes oven cleaning easier…”  Easier than WHAT  Longer than what?
  21. 21. Illusion of Comparison Comparative adjectives are used in ads and their true purpose is to create a comparison between two or more things…when the other half is not identified, there is an illusion of comparison.
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