In order to persuade an audience, you need to:1. Awaken a belief on the part of your listeners that what you are proposing is a good idea.2. Show the audience that you have a well-thought- out plan of action available.3. Be able to convince your audience that your plan of action is realistic and the right thing to do.4. Be able to “push the right buttons,” or know your audience.
Aristotle (384-322 BCE) was a Greek philosopher who studied under Plato. Aristotle studied and wrote prolifically on subjects from politics to metaphysics. Aristotles discussion of rhetoric contributed lasting ideas about the methods of persuasion. Rhetoric is the art of using language effectively and persuasively. Persuasion is an appeal to an audience. Ethos, logos, and pathos were identified by Aristotle as appeals necessary to effectively persuade an audience.
AKA “Emotions”: *“feeling”the speecha carefully reasoned argument will bestrengthened by an emotional appeal, especiallyappeal,love, anger, disgust, fear, compassion, andpatriotism.EX: If you loved me you would do this.EX: Persuading lower gas prices might want someanger in the current prices or the frustration innothing being done about it.EX: Ads that try to get you to sponsor a child.
Also called “Personal Credibility” Convince your audience that you are fair,honest, and well informed. They will thentrust your values and intentions. Citing yoursources will help this area. Honesty: Your audience is looking for you to have astrong sense of right and wrong. If you have a goodreputation with this people are more likely to listen to you. Competency: Meaning capable of getting the job done. Energy: Through nonverbals like eye contact andgestures,and a strong voice and inflections, a speakerwill come across as charismatic.
How can you gain credibility?1. Dress up to show you are serious2. Be prepared and organized3. Do your research and use it in your speech4. Eye contact5. Relate to your audience (in your speech)
For Logos, there are two subdivisions: inductive and deductive reasoningReason which begins with specifics and moves toward a generalization is inductive.Example: Several clubs have reported difficulty completing their business during lunch period. This proves that lunch periods should be longer.Example: You have never had problems with your Honda and it is 15 years old. Your neighbor has a Honda and has not had a problem for the first 50,000 miles. Thus, you reason that Hondas are reliable and good
Reason which starts with a general observationand moves to specifics is deductive. A=B, B=C, THEN C=AExample: When people hurry, inefficiency and poor communication are the results. Under current conditions clubs must hurry at lunch time meetings. Therefore, lunch period should be lengthened to allow for better club meetings.Example: You need to pass OC. to graduate. You need to do your informative and persuasive speech to pass OC. Therefore, you must do your persuasive and informative speech to graduate.Example: 1. All students (A) go to school (B). 2. You (C) are a student (A). 3. Therefore, you (C) go to school (B).
Support your reasons with proof. Facts - can be proven. Expert opinions or quotations Definitions - statement of meaning of word or phrase Statistics - offer scientific support Examples - powerful illustrations Anecdote - incident, often based onwriters personal experiences Present opposition - and give reasons andevidence to prove the opposition wrong
Logical Fallacy 1: Ad Hominem Latin for "to the man”; An arguer who uses ad hominem attacks the person instead of the argument. Whenever an arguer cannot defend his position with evidence, facts or reason, he or she may resort to attacking an opponent either through: labeling, straw man arguments, name calling, offensive remarks and anger.
Logical Fallacy 2: Argument from Authority Using the words of an "expert" or authority as the bases of the argument instead of using the logic or evidence that supports an argument. (e.g., Professor so-and-so believes in creation-science.) Simply because an authority makes a claim does not necessarily mean he got it right. If an arguer presents the testimony from an expert, look to see if it accompanies reason and sources of evidence behind it.
Logical Fallacy 3: Bandwagon Fallacy Concluding that an idea has merit simply because many people believe it or practice it. (e.g., Most people believe in a god; therefore, it must prove true.) Simply because many people may believe something says nothing about the fact of that something. For example many people during the Black plague believed that demons caused disease. The number of believers say nothing at all about the cause of disease.
Logical Fallacy 4: Correlation vs. Causation (e.g., More men play chess than women, therefore, men make better chess players than women. Or: Children who watch violence on TV tend to act violently when they grow up.) But does television programming cause violence or do violence oriented children prefer to watch violent programs? Perhaps an entirely different reason creates violence not related to television at all. Stephen Jay Gould called the invalid assumption that correlation implies cause as "probably among the two or three most serious and common errors of human reasoning.”
Logical Fallacy 5: Slippery Slope a change in procedure, law, or action, will result in adverse consequences. (e.g., If we allow doctor assisted suicide, then eventually the government will control how we die.) It does not necessarily follow that just because we make changes that a slippery slope will occur.
Minor Fallacies (but still effective!)Half Truths (suppressed evidence) An statement usually intended to deceive that omits some of the facts necessary for an accurate description.Red Herring When the arguer diverts the attention by changing the subject.TuQuoque (You Too) Where someone dismisses your viewpoint on an issue because you are yourself inconsistent in that very thing.Appeal to Tradition Where we are encouraged to buy a product or do something because it is associated with something old.
Irony Irony is present if the writer’s words contain more than one meaning. This may be in the form of sarcasm, gentle irony, or a pun (play on words). It can be used to add humour or to emphasize an implied meaning under the surface. The writers "voice" becomes important here. Hyperbole (exaggeration) Hyperbole is used to provoke strong feelings in the audience; aims to make small things seem important Cliché Clichés are phrases that are widely accepted; they are effective because they are familiar.
Repetition Overly repetitive writing can become tiresome. However, when used sparingly for effect, it can reinforce the writers message and/or entertain the reader. Writers may repeat a word, a phrase or an entire sentence for emphasis. Rhetorical Questions Sometimes a writer will ask a question to which no answer is required. The writer implies that the answer is obvious; the reader has no choice but to agree with the writers point. Parallelism When an author creates a "balanced" sentence by re-using the same word structure, this is called parallelism. Always strive for parallelism when using compound or complex sentences.
Analogy This tool is not limited to poets. Essay writers often use figures of speech or comparisons (simile, metaphor, personification) for desired emphasis. “Rule of Three” This is a very very popular persuasive device – often in speeches, speakers will aim for a parallel structure of three parts to each particular appeal; for example: “I ask you – is this fair, is it right, is it just?” Diction Is a person "slim" or "skinny"? Is an oil spill an "incident" or an "accident"? Is a government expenditure an "investment" or a "waste"? Writers tend to reinforce their arguments by choosing words which will influence their readers perception of an item or issue. Diction may also help to establish a writers "Voice" or "Tone".
Call for Attention1. Present a reason for listening: create interest, grabbing opening statement2. Establish speaker credibility: present the value of speech, invoke curiosity3. Present Thesis: clearly state the main point
Statement of Need1. Illustration of the problem: describe the issue in detail, give examples2. Consequences of the problem: explain what future events will occur if the current problem continues, or if the opposite action of the speaker’s position occurs3. Point out flaws: explain why the problem is a problem, why the consequence are not desirable, and present an alternative
Statement of Solution1. Explain proposed solution: give a detailed account of the proposed alternative2. Theoretical example: explain the theoretical reasons why the proposed example is better than the current solutions3. Practical example: explain examples of how applying the proposed example works in real world situations
Restatement of Proposed Solution1. Negative visualization: explain how the problem is worthy of change2. Positive visualization: explain how the problem could be better with the proposed solution
Restatement and Summary1. Specific Action: call to action, statement of how to enact change in individuals’ lives2. Personal interest: appeal to audience, give them reasons to be proactive3. Reason to remember: final statement, engage the audience to give them a reason to want to act, and a reason to remember to act