14a vision-hearing-stability-2011 update stacy

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14a vision-hearing-stability-2011 update stacy

  1. 2. The cornea does not have any blood vessels running through it. The cornea has the largest body of nerve bundles and is extremely sensitive to pain.
  2. 3. Light Receptors <ul><li>Rod Cells </li></ul><ul><li>collects light vs. dark information </li></ul><ul><li>Cone Cells </li></ul><ul><li>collects colour information (red, blue or green) </li></ul>Receptors on the retina receive light information. rod OR cone cell interneuron occipital lobe
  3. 5. Cones <ul><li>S-cones, M-cones, and L-cones, but they are also often referred to as blue cones, green cones, and red cones. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Learning To See <ul><li>Research Talk </li></ul>
  5. 7. Eye Disorders <ul><li>Clear images are seen when light is properly focused on the retina. </li></ul><ul><li>near-sightedness ( myopia ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eyeball is too long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need concave glasses (negative numbers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>far-sightedness ( hyperopia ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eyeball is too short </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need convex glasses (positive numbers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>astigmatism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improper lens shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>special lens required </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. normal myopia hyperopia astigmatism
  7. 9. LASIK Surgery
  8. 11. Brains & Music <ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  9. 12. Hearing <ul><li>sound waves are detected by the cochlea </li></ul>
  10. 13. Hearing <ul><li>sound waves hit the ear drum </li></ul><ul><li>vibration of ear drum vibrate three small bones in middle ear (malleus, incus and stapes) </li></ul><ul><li>bones tap on cochlea (which is filled with liquid) </li></ul><ul><li>cochlea is lined with ciliated cells </li></ul><ul><li>movement of cilia initiates neurons </li></ul>ciliated cells interneuron temporal lobe
  11. 14. Hearing <ul><li>Animation </li></ul>
  12. 15. Hearing <ul><li>we can distinguish between multiple sounds simultaneously </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different frequencies stimulate the cilia at different parts of the cochlea </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Hearing Damage <ul><li>overly loud noises can damage cochlear cilia </li></ul>
  14. 17. Stability <ul><li>semicircular canals above the cochlea contain a gel-like substance </li></ul><ul><li>otoliths – CaCO 3 granules, found upon the gel-like substance </li></ul>
  15. 18. Stability <ul><li>gravity causes otoliths to move and stimulate ciliated cells </li></ul><ul><li>direction of bent cilia indicate position to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Animation </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Control Humans </li></ul>

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