08a metabolism regulation-2010 update-stacy


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08a metabolism regulation-2010 update-stacy

  1. 2. Glands <ul><li>Three glands control metabolism: </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior pituitary </li></ul>
  2. 3. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>regulates glucose metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>regulates growth and tissue differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Where is it located? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>base of neck, anterior to larynx </li></ul></ul>
  3. 5. Thyroid Hormones <ul><li>Produces two hormones: </li></ul><ul><li>thyroxine (T4) </li></ul><ul><li>iodothyronine (T3) </li></ul>
  4. 6. Thyroid Hormones <ul><li>both T3 & T4 are derived from the amino acid tyrosine </li></ul><ul><li>although derived from amino acid, T3 & T4 are more hydrophobic in nature and will diffuse into cells </li></ul>
  5. 7. Thyroid Hormone Regulation <ul><li>hyperthyrodism = high thyroxine release </li></ul><ul><li>Cause: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ hot” nodules / Grave’s disease (whole thyroid) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high glucose metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>weight loss with increased appetite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increased heat release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suppressive medication </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Thyroid Hormone Regulation <ul><li>hypothyroidism = low thyroxine release </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>iodine deficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low glucose metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>weight gain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decreased heart release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>synthetic hormone medication </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Thyroid Hormone Regulation <ul><li>What is the signal to indicate that thyroid hormone levels should be changed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change in metabolic rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What detects this change? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>releases thyroid-releasing hormone ( TRH ) to signal to the pituitary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does TRH do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>signals pituitary to release thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH ) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. decreased metabolism hypothalamus pituitary gland to release TSH decreased blood sugar thyroid gland to release thyroxine TRH increase sugar metabolism
  9. 11. Thyroid Disorders: Goiters <ul><li>Why is table salt iodized? </li></ul><ul><li>low iodine levels result in enlarged thyroid glands - goiter </li></ul>
  10. 12. Thyroid Disorders: Thyrotoxicosis <ul><li>Cause: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased thyroid activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>similar to hyperthyroidism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bulging eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>goiter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suppressive medication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>radioactive iodine therapy (localized radiation) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. Calcium <ul><li>Where is calcium stored? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>99% of calcium stored in bones for structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roles of calcium: </li></ul><ul><li>required for muscle contraction </li></ul><ul><li>important in neuronal communication </li></ul><ul><li>bone structure maintenance </li></ul>
  12. 15. Bone Structure <ul><li>living bones are complex tissues </li></ul><ul><li>osteoblasts – cell which build bones </li></ul><ul><li>osteoclasts – cells which break down bones (release calcium) </li></ul>
  13. 16. Parathyroid Glands <ul><li>smaller glands within the thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>responsible for increasing Ca 2+ levels in blood </li></ul><ul><li>produces parathyroid hormone ( PTH ) </li></ul>
  14. 17. hypocalcemia parathyroid gland release PTH increased Ca 2+ levels increased Ca 2+ uptake in intestines (diet) & kidneys (reabsorption) increases osteoclast activity activation of vitamin D; required for Ca 2+ absorption
  15. 18. Calcium Level Regulation <ul><li>different organ and hormone responsible to decrease high calcium levels </li></ul><ul><li>organ = thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>hormone = calcitonin </li></ul>
  16. 19. hypercalcemia thyroid gland release calcitonin decreased Ca 2+ levels inhibits Ca 2+ absorption by intestines decreases osteoclast activity
  17. 20. Hormone Structures <ul><li>PTH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peptide hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>calcitonin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peptide hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>vitamin D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>steroid-based hormone </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. Parathyroid Disorders <ul><li>Two types of parathyroid disorders: </li></ul><ul><li>hypoparathyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>hyperparathyoidism </li></ul>
  19. 22. Hypoparathyroidism <ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>absent parathyroid from birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accidental removal upon thyroid removal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased Ca 2+ levels in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensitive nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uncontrollable spasms of the limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>daily calcium and vitamin D supplements </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Hyperparathyroidism <ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tumors on the parathyroid gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>kidney stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aches & pains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>osteoporosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>depression & fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>removal of parathyroid tissue </li></ul></ul>