08a metabolism regulation-2010 update-stacy

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08a metabolism regulation-2010 update-stacy

  1. 1. MetabolismWhat is a healthy metabolism?What is an unhealthy metabolism?
  2. 2. GlandsThree glands control metabolism:2. Thyroid gland3. Parathyroid gland Anterior pituitary
  3. 3. Thyroid Gland regulates glucose metabolism regulates growth and tissue differentiationWhere is it located?  base of neck, anterior to larynx
  4. 4. Thyroid HormonesProduces two hormones:3. thyroxine (T4)7. iodothyronine (T3)
  5. 5. Thyroid Hormones both T3 & T4 are derived from the amino acid tyrosine although derived from amino acid, T3 & T4 are more hydrophobic in nature and will diffuse into cells
  6. 6. Thyroid Hormone Regulationhyperthyrodism = high thyroxine releaseCause:  “hot” nodules / Grave’s disease (whole thyroid)Symptoms:  high glucose metabolism  weight loss with increased appetite  anxiety  increased heat releaseTreatment:  suppressive medication
  7. 7. Thyroid Hormone Regulationhypothyroidism = low thyroxine releaseCauses:  iodine deficiencySymptoms:  low glucose metabolism  weight gain  fatigue  decreased heart releaseTreatment:  synthetic hormone medication
  8. 8. Thyroid Hormone RegulationWhat is the signal to indicate that thyroid hormone levels should be changed?  change in metabolic rateWhat detects this change?  hypothalamus  releases thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) to signal to the pituitaryWhat does TRH do?  signals pituitary to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  9. 9. decreased metabolismdecreased blood TRH pituitary gland to hypothalamus sugar release TSH increase sugar thyroid gland to metabolism release thyroxine
  10. 10. Thyroid Disorders: GoitersWhy is table salt iodized? low iodine levels result in enlarged thyroid glands - goiter
  11. 11. Thyroid Disorders:ThyrotoxicosisCause:  increased thyroid activitySymptoms:  similar to hyperthyroidism  bulging eyes  goiterTreatment:  suppressive medication  radioactive iodine therapy (localized radiation)
  12. 12. CalciumWhere is calcium stored?  99% of calcium stored in bones for structureRoles of calcium:4. required for muscle contraction5. important in neuronal communication6. bone structure maintenance
  13. 13. Bone Structure living bones are complex tissues osteoblasts – cell which build bones osteoclasts – cells which break down bones (release calcium)
  14. 14. Parathyroid Glands smaller glands within the thyroid gland responsible for increasing Ca2+ levels in blood produces parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  15. 15. hypocalcemiaincreased Ca2+ parathyroid gland release PTH levels increased Ca2+ uptake in intestines (diet) & kidneys (reabsorption) increases osteoclast activity activation of vitamin D; required for Ca2+ absorption
  16. 16. Calcium Level Regulation different organ and hormone responsible to decrease high calcium levels organ = thyroid hormone = calcitonin
  17. 17. hypercalcemiadecreased Ca2+ thyroid gland release calcitonin levels inhibits Ca2+ absorption by intestines decreases osteoclast activity
  18. 18. Hormone Structures PTH  peptide hormone calcitonin  peptide hormone vitamin D  steroid-based hormone
  19. 19. Parathyroid DisordersTwo types of parathyroid disorders:4. hypoparathyroidism5. hyperparathyoidism
  20. 20. HypoparathyroidismCauses:  absent parathyroid from birth  accidental removal upon thyroid removalSymptoms:  decreased Ca2+ levels in blood  sensitive nerves  uncontrollable spasms of the limbsTreatment  daily calcium and vitamin D supplements
  21. 21. HyperparathyroidismCauses:  tumors on the parathyroid glandSymptoms:  kidney stones  aches & pains  osteoporosis  depression & fatigueTreatment:  removal of parathyroid tissue

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