Urine Output <ul><li>more water in usually means more urine out </li></ul><ul><li>some liquids encourage increase urine ex...
Three Effects of Urine <ul><li>Osmotic Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>pH Balance </li></ul>
Osmotic Pressure <ul><li>osmotic pressure –  water pressure due to presence of solutes </li></ul><ul><li>antidiuretic horm...
Osmotic Pressure <ul><li>What type of situation would cause increased osmotic pressure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sweating / d...
<ul><li>osmoreceptors  in hypothalamus detect increased osmotic pressure    sends signals to pituitary gland </li></ul>
Osmotic Pressure increased osmotic pressure osmoreceptors pituitary gland; release ADH decreased osmotic pressure increase...
Osmotic Pressure <ul><li>ADH increases H 2 O reabsorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dilutes blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c...
ADH Activity <ul><li>The following animation will contain some terminology not covered. </li></ul><ul><li>Animation </li><...
Hormones and Enzymes <ul><li>Side Note: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hormones only active when needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Blood Pressure <ul><li>blood pressure  – increase force of blood on blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>aldosterone  – hormone...
Blood Pressure <ul><li>aldosterone produced in  adrenal gland , above kidney </li></ul>
Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure <ul><li>What part of the kidney would be affected by low blood pressure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glomerulus; ...
Blood Pressure <ul><li>the enzyme  renin , is released </li></ul><ul><li>angiotensinogen angiotensin </li></ul>renin
Blood Pressure <ul><li>Two important functions of angiotensin: </li></ul><ul><li>causes blood vessel constriction </li></u...
low blood pressure juxtaglomerular apparatus cells to release renin; produce angiotensin blood pressure increases constric...
pH Balance <ul><li>How do living systems regulate the amount of acid / base in their systems? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>buffer...
pH Balance <ul><li>conversion of CO 2  to other compounds help regulate blood pH </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O + CO 2   H 2 CO 3...
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05 urine-hormone regulation-2010 update

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05 urine-hormone regulation-2010 update

  1. 2. Urine Output <ul><li>more water in usually means more urine out </li></ul><ul><li>some liquids encourage increase urine excretion – diuretics </li></ul><ul><li>frequency of urination dependent on hormonal signals </li></ul>
  2. 3. Three Effects of Urine <ul><li>Osmotic Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>pH Balance </li></ul>
  3. 4. Osmotic Pressure <ul><li>osmotic pressure – water pressure due to presence of solutes </li></ul><ul><li>antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – regulates blood osmotic pressure through kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>a short peptide hormone </li></ul>
  4. 5. Osmotic Pressure <ul><li>What type of situation would cause increased osmotic pressure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sweating / dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>causes increased ADH production to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase water reabsorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dilute solutes in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ADH produced in hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transported to pituitary gland </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>osmoreceptors in hypothalamus detect increased osmotic pressure  sends signals to pituitary gland </li></ul>
  6. 7. Osmotic Pressure increased osmotic pressure osmoreceptors pituitary gland; release ADH decreased osmotic pressure increased sensation of thirst increased water reabsorption by kidney
  7. 8. Osmotic Pressure <ul><li>ADH increases H 2 O reabsorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dilutes blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concentrates urine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What part of the nephron does ADH affect? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collecting ducts </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. ADH Activity <ul><li>The following animation will contain some terminology not covered. </li></ul><ul><li>Animation </li></ul>
  9. 10. Hormones and Enzymes <ul><li>Side Note: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hormones only active when needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hormones usually produced, but activated by enzyme cleavage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hormones readily available rather than waiting for the entire process of transcription / translation (too long!!) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Blood Pressure <ul><li>blood pressure – increase force of blood on blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>aldosterone – hormone which increases Na + reabsorption in kidneys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased H 2 O in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased blood pressure </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Blood Pressure <ul><li>aldosterone produced in adrenal gland , above kidney </li></ul>
  12. 13. Blood Pressure
  13. 14. Blood Pressure <ul><li>What part of the kidney would be affected by low blood pressure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glomerulus; high blood pressure needed for filtration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>decreased water pressure detected by juxtaglomerular apparatus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>receptors next to the glomerulus </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Blood Pressure <ul><li>the enzyme renin , is released </li></ul><ul><li>angiotensinogen angiotensin </li></ul>renin
  15. 16. Blood Pressure <ul><li>Two important functions of angiotensin: </li></ul><ul><li>causes blood vessel constriction </li></ul><ul><li>stimulates aldosterone release </li></ul>
  16. 17. low blood pressure juxtaglomerular apparatus cells to release renin; produce angiotensin blood pressure increases constrict blood vessels induce aldosterone release; increase Na + reabsorption
  17. 18. pH Balance <ul><li>How do living systems regulate the amount of acid / base in their systems? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>buffers – conjugate acid-base pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HCl Cl - + H + </li></ul>
  18. 19. pH Balance <ul><li>conversion of CO 2 to other compounds help regulate blood pH </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O + CO 2 H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 - + H + </li></ul><ul><li>HCO 3 - is reabsorbed in the proximal and distal tubules </li></ul>carbonic acid carbonate ion

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