04b endocrine system-2010 update

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  • To demonstrate the classical signalling mechanism of action of estrogen...
  • -estrogen may also exert its effects through non-classical estrogen receptor mechanisms.
  • To demonstrate the classical signalling mechanism of action of estrogen...
  • 04b endocrine system-2010 update

    1. 2. Endocrine System <ul><li>endocrine system – delivery of chemicals within the body; created by one organ to be delivered to another (usually far away) </li></ul><ul><li>hormones – affecting chemicals delivered around the body; to increase / decrease processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek origins: to excite / set in motion </li></ul></ul>
    2. 3. Delivery Systems <ul><li>autocrine system – chemicals made by a cell to affect itself </li></ul><ul><li>paracrine system – chemicals made to affect cells nearby </li></ul><ul><li>juxtacrine system – chemicals made to signal along a cell membrane (own cell or neighbouring cells) </li></ul>
    3. 4. Glands <ul><li>endocrine glands – organs producing molecules delivered by blood stream </li></ul><ul><li>exocrine glands – organs producing molecules delivered by ducts (cellular tubes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>salivary glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sweat glands </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Hormone Discovery - 1889 <ul><li>Joseph van Mering & Oscar Minkowski </li></ul><ul><li>removed pancreas from dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rapid weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fatigued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ants gathered around urine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>pancreas related to regulating body sugars </li></ul>
    5. 6. Hormone Roles <ul><li>hormones are specific to target cells </li></ul><ul><li>How do they know where to go? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>target cells have protein receptors for hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two hormone types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>steroid hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protein hormones </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Steroid Hormones <ul><li>made from cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>not soluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>diffuse from cell of origin (through membranes) </li></ul><ul><li>diffuse into target cell </li></ul><ul><li>often moves into nucleus to affect transcription </li></ul>
    7. 8. Steroid Hormone Action R H R H
    8. 9. Steroid Hormone Action binding area R H R H
    9. 10. Protein Hormones <ul><li>short peptide sequences </li></ul><ul><li>water soluble </li></ul><ul><li>transported from cell of origin (secretory vacuoles) </li></ul><ul><li>attach to surface receptors of target cells </li></ul><ul><li>activates enzymes to make other internal signals </li></ul>
    10. 11. Protein Hormone Action R H ATP cyclic AMP + PPi other enzymes
    11. 12. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>overlooks operation of all other glands </li></ul><ul><li>Two lobes: </li></ul><ul><li>anterior lobe – produces own hormones; released upon hypothalamus signal </li></ul><ul><li>posterior lobe – stores and releases hormones produced in hypothalamus; released upon signal </li></ul>
    12. 13. Pituitary Gland

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