Group 2 Burgos, StaceyCabotaje, Jose Maria Casais, Bea Pauline De Mesa, Juan Carlo Estanislao, Wencee Fenis, Cristelle
The major themes of Indian art seem to begin emerging as early as the Harappan period, about 2500 BC. With the arrival of the Indo- Europeans (or Aryans) around 1500 BC, came new artistic ideas.
Around 500 BC, the conversion to Buddhism of a large part of the population of India - brought new artistic themes. Conquests of Alexander the Great, in the 320s BC - also had an important impact on Indian art. He left colonies of Greek veteran soldiers in Afghanistan and Pakistan, some of which were sculptors.
Their Greek-style carvings attracted attention in India. First life-size stone statues in India date to the 200s BC, just after Alexander. Guptan period, about 500 AD - great cave temples of Ajanta and Ellora were carved. Scenes from the life of the Buddha became popular, and statues of the Buddha.
Carved from the 2nd-6th century and are 30 in number. Dedicated to Buddhism and the carvings in them portary the life of Lord Buddha along with other carvings like that of animals.
The Ajanta Caves were carved out of volcanic rock in the Maharashtra Plateau. It was not far off from the ancient trade routes attracting traders & pilgrims through whom the Ajanta art style diffused as far as China & Japan. Buddhist Monks employed artists to turn the stone walls into picture books of Buddhas life & teachings. They portrayed the costumes, ornaments & styles of the court life of their times.
Arrival of Islamic faith and Islamic conquerors about 1000 AD. Brought iconoclasm to India, and a love of varied and complex patterning derived from Arabic and Persian models. This affected even Hindu artists who had not converted to Islam. Small Persian-style miniature paintings also became popular.
A land of diverse cultures. Variations in physical, climatic conditions and the extent of exposure to other cultures have greatly influenced the traditions and culture of the different regions. The greatness of India - accepting the best from all the invaders and intermingling the new customs and styles with the existing - visible in all aspects - music, dance, painting, sculptures, architec ture.
Indian religions is a classification for religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. These religions are also classified as Eastern religions.
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religion of the Indian subcontinent. It includes a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on the notion of karma, dharma, and societal norms. Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation.
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one"). Sikhism embody the qualities of a "Sant- Sipahie"—a saint-soldier. One must have control over ones internal vices and be able to be constantly immersed in virtues clarified in the Guru Granth Sahib. A Sikh must also have the courage to defend the rights of all who are wrongfully oppressed or persecuted irrespective of religion, colour, caste or creed.
India is a conglomeration of men and women of various castes and creed. It is a fusion of old traditional values and the modern principles, thus satisfying all the three generations in the present India. The Elite businessman and the common vendor on the road share the same news and worship the same deity .
With a 5000-year-old culture, rich in its tapestry of ancient heritage, medieval times, Mughal rule, British rule, Progressive art and now contemporary art. The earliest recorded art of India originated from a religious Hindu background, which was later replaced by a soaring popular Buddhist art.
India has been inspired by spiritualism and mystical relationship between man and god. In India, all art, like all life, is given over to religion. Indian art is life, as interpreted by religion and philosophy. Described as theological, hieratic, or, perhaps best of all as traditional.
Art in India had survived in its homeland and spread from time to time all over the world. Many kings who recognized budding talent patronized art and themselves were great connoisseurs. Each king has left a deep impression of his affinity to the artist community. Until today, art is patronized by the rich and famous in the country.
The cultural policy of the Government of India has three major objectives: Preserving the cultural heritage of India, Inculcating Indian art consciousness amongst Indians, And promoting high standards in creative and performing arts.
Western scholars have often had difficulty understanding the complex cultural and philosophical systems that gave birth to Indian art tradition. The story of Indian art is also the story of the oldest and the most resilient culture on earth. It is seen as an amalgamation of indigenous and outside influences, yet having a unique character and distinctiveness of its own.
Spirals and curvaceous lines, vines and tendrils. Round-figured goddesses, circular amulets, colored gemstones, arches and domes, haloed deities, crescent moons, and the globe of the sun. Sculptures & paintings depict the diversity, colour and spontaneity of the country and are representations of the all-encompassing nature of Indian culture.
Kolam designs have been tradionally handed down to the younger generation by the elders. Several organisations and magazines conduct kolam exhibitions & contests to revive the interest in traditional habits & customs. There are enthusiasts who create fresh new designs, but kolams are basically redrawn by the public following the designs taught by elders or printed in books & magazines.
Flourished in India from very early periods, evident from literary sources and also from the discovered remnants. Contemporary artists have kept up to the times & excel in their modern works, giving free expression to their imagination & artistic liberty.
Can be broadly classified as the murals & miniatures. Murals- huge works executed the walls of solid structures. Miniature paintings are those executed on a very small scale on perishable material such as paper, cloth, etc., Though perfected by artisans under the various rules, not many remain today.
*Shiva (meaning "auspicious one") is a major Hindu deity, Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. In the Shaiva tradition of Hinduism, Shiva is seen as the Supreme God and has five Important works: creator, preserver, Shiva mural in the destroyer, concealer, andKailasanatha Temple, dating from the 8th century AD revealer (to bless).
Rajasthan is one of the pioneer seats of miniature paintings in India. There reflects in these paintings a continuity of the great traditions of Ajanta murals and Jain art of Gujrat. This initial art style is a blend of indigenous art forms and the elements of the art traditions of Ajanta and Gujarat. A folio from the Dhola Maru love-legend of Rajasthan, Mewar, dated 1592 A.D.
Indian paintings traditions go back to antiquity, as is evident from the murals of Ajanta, Ellora and other frescoes. The buddist palm manuscipts, the jain texts and the decan. Indian painting is an old tradition in ancient texts outlining theories of color and anecdotal accounts suggesting that it was common for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms with guest resides.
Was an instrument for communicating Indian religious thought forover 2,000 years. The manuscript was intended to preserve anddisseminate Indian sacred texts in the service of religion, as wellas the great literary epics.
Generally confined to miniatures either as book illustrations or as single works to be kept in albums. Emerged from Persian miniature painting, with Indian Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist influences. Developed largely in the court of the Mughal Empire (16th - 19th centuries), and later spread to other Indian courts, both Muslim and Hindu, and later Sikh.
Mughal Paintings ByMir Sayyid Alis, one of the great artists of the Mughal Empire
Main elements are the introduction of arches and beams, the arcuate style of construction. Traditional Indian building style is trabeate, using pillars and beams and lintels.
Early buildings of the Slave dynasty did not employ true Islamic building styles and consisted of false domes and false arches. The introduction of true arches and true domes start to appear, the earliest example is the Alai Darwaza by the side of Qutb Minar.
The different religious beliefs are also reflected in the mode of construction and architectural styles. Islamic style incorporated many elements from traditional Indian style and a compound style emanated. Decorative brackets, balconies, pendentive decorations, etc in the architecture is an example in this regard.
With the advent of Islam, architecture slightly adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion, but it remained strongly Indian at its heart and character. Arches and domes began to be used and the mosque or masjid began to form part of the landscape. The sahn or the open courtyard for congregational worship with the enclosing cloisters or liwans and the sanctuary at the Western end offered a different architectural vocabulary.
The name Taj Mahal, with Taj meaningCrown and Mahal meaning Palace, literally means ‘Crown Palace’.
The other distinguishing features of Indo-Islamic architecture are the utilisation of kiosks (chhatris), tall towers (minars) and half-domed double portals. Human worship and its representation are not allowed in Islam, buildings and other edifices are generally decorated richly in geometrical and arabesque designs.
These were carved on stone in low relief, cut on plaster, painted or inlaid. The use of lime as mortar was also a major element distinct from the traditional building style.
The Vedas have many words for houses. It appears that the main distinction was between: Chardis (house with a thatched roof), Harmyam (a house of brick and stone that had a courtyard in the middle), and Gotra (a multi-dwelling complex with sheds for animals). The Rig-Veda speaks once of a palace with 1000 doors, and twice of a palace with 1000 columns.
Gained prominence during the reign of the emperor Ashoka. Primarily represented by three important building types- the Chaitya Hall (place of worship), the Vihara (monastery) and the Stupa (hemispherical mound for worship/ memory) Exemplified by the magnificent caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa.
Chaitya Hall (place of worship)Upper LeftVihara (Monastery)Lower LeftStupa (Hemispherical moundfor worship)Upper Right
Greek influence led the Indian architecture of the time, especially the rock-cut art, to fall under one of the two categories: the Mathura school of art which was strictly Indian in spirit and did not adopt from the Greek styles, and the Gandharva school of art which incorporated influences of the Greek art.
The division of Buddhism into Hinayana and Mahayana phases also influenced the nature of rock-cut art, the former being represented by artifacts used by the Buddha, and the latter by images of the Buddha. Early temples were rock-cut, later structural temples evolved. The Kailasanatha temple at Ellora is a good example of the former, excavated from top to bottom out of a massive rock face.
The first sculptures in the Indian subcontinent date back to the Indus Valley civilization, where stone and bronze carvings have been discovered. This is one of the earliest instances of sculpture in the world.
Later, as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism developed further, India produced some of the most intricate bronzes in the world, as well as unrivaled temple carvings.
Some huge shrines, such as the one at Ellora were not actually constructed using blocks, but instead carved out of rock, making them perhaps the largest and most intricate sculptures in the world. Sculpture was the favoured medium of artistic expression on the Indian subcontinent. Indian buildings were profusely adorned with it and indeed are often inseparable from it.
The temples were carved out of 100,000 cubic yardsof rock. Stone provided an ideal building material ina place regularly hit by monsoon rains.
Metal sculptures are especially favored because of their beauty, glow, finesse and durability. Statues of Indian deities like Shiva, Nataraja, Durga, Kali, Ganesha, and Buddha Statues in various stances, along with other secular statues have been crafted by skilled artisans from bronze, brass, gold, silver and more.
Indian sculptures were almost invariably abstracted human forms, used to instruct people in the truths of the Hindu, Buddhist, or Jain religions. The nude was used both to represent the body as a symbol of spirit and to reveal the imagined shapes of the gods.
Themultiple heads and arms of sculptured Hindu divinities were thought necessary to display the manifold attributes of these gods’ power.Sculpture of Hindu God, Vishnu
Bollywood BO=Bombay (Old Mumbai) LLYWOOD = Hollywood (Center of American film industry) Bollywood film music is called filmi music (from Hindi, meaning "of films"). Songs from Bollywood movies are generally pre- recorded by professional playback singers, with the actors then lip synching the words to the song on- screen, often while dancing.
Golden Age of Indian Cinema 1940’s- 1960’s: Following Indias independence, the period from the late 1940s to the 1960s is regarded by film historians as the "Golden Age" of Hindi cinema. And most of the storylines of the movies during this era were based on social themes concentrated on the working-urban class life in India.
isan indian composer, singer- songwriter, record producer, musician, multi- instrumentalist and philanthropist. Described as the worlds most prominent and prolific film composer by Time Magazine.
Hisworks are notable for integrating eastern classical music with electronic music sounds, world music genres and traditional orchestral arrangements. Jai Ho" (Hindi: ) (English: May there be victory) is one of the most notable songs written by A.R.Rahman. This song was written for the movie Slumdog Millionaire.