Cubism Group # 1Arreola, Ma. Elizabeth Baldoza, Jessica Basilio Jr., Basilio Bautista, Marianne Bigornia, Gian Burgos, StaceyCabotaje, Jose Maria
What is Cubism? Cubism is the most radical, innovative, and influential ism of twentieth-century art. It is complete denial of the Classical conception of beauty. Cubism is a modern art movement in which forms are abstracted by using an analytical approach to the object and painting the basic geometric solid of the object. Cubism is a backlash to the impressionist period in which there is more of an emphasis of light and color. Cubism itself follows Paul Cezanne statement that "Everything in nature takes its form from the sphere, the cone, and the cylinder." in which these 3 shapes are used to depict the object of the painting. Another way that the cubist expressed their painting was by showing different views of an object put together in a way that you can not actually see in real life.
History Cubism was one of the most influential visual art styles of the earlytwentieth century. The leaders of this art movement were Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881–1973)and Georges Braque (French, 1882–1963) in Paris between 1907 and 1914 and theirstarting point was a common interest in the later paintings of Paul Cézanne.. The Cubism period stated in Paris in 1908, reached its peak in 1914, andcontinued into the 20s.Other painters from this period include: -Fernand Leger -Francis Picabia and R -Roger De La Fresnaye.
Why Cubism? It was the first style of abstract art which evolved at the beginning of the20th century in response to a world that was changing with unprecedented speed. Cubism was an attempt by artists to revitalize the tired traditions ofWestern art which they believed had run their course. The Cubists challengedconventional forms of representation, such as perspective, which had been therule since the Renaissance. Their aim was to develop a new way of seeing whichreflected the modern age. The Cubist painters rejected the inherited concept that art should copynature, or that they should adopt the traditional techniques of perspective,modeling, and foreshortening. They wanted instead to emphasize thetwo-dimensionality of the canvas. So they reduced and fractured objects intogeometric forms, and then realigned these within a shallow, relieflike space. Theyalso used multiple or contrasting vantage points.
In the four decades from 1870-1910, western society witnessed moretechnological progress than in the previous four centuries. During this periodinventions such as photography, cinematography, sound recording, the telephone,the motor car and the airplane heralded the dawn of a new age. Artists needed a more radical approach at this time to reflect themodernity of the era using the tired and trusted traditions that had served artfor the last four centuries, or - a new way of seeing that expanded thepossibilities of art in the same way that technology was extending the boundariesof communication and travel. This new way of seeing was called Cubism - the first abstract style ofmodern art.
Types of Cubism Analytical Cubism- Analytic cubism was mainly practiced by Braque, and is very simple, with dark, almost monochromatic colours. Painting Analysis: Braque’s “Violin and Pitcher” reflects on how intellectual cubism is. The violin is easy to see, while the pitcher is less obvious, but still easily spotted a little above and to the left of the violin. Studying the bottom two-thirds of the canvas, your eye moves around the violin and the pitcher, seeing depth and distance and space–an odd, faceted space, but space nonetheless that you could, presumably, stick your arm into. You imagine you could reach behind the violin or between it and the pitcher. It’s puzzling, because it’s not clear if the violinis in front of the pitcher or vice versa, and the two seem to switch places as you look between them, but you are certain the pitcher is round and the neck of the violin is standing free.Georges Braque’s “Violin and Pitcher” 1910
Synthetic Cubism-Synthetic cubism was muchmore energetic, and oftenmade use of collage includingthe use of several two-dimensional materials. Thistype of cubism was developedby Picasso. Influenced by the introduction of bold and simple collage shapes, Synthetic Cubism moved away from the unified monochrome surfaces of Analytic Cubism to a more direct, colourful and decorative style. Although synthetic cubist images appear more abstract in their use of simplified forms, the other elements of their composition are applied quite traditionally. Interchanging lines, colours, patterns and textures, that switch from geometric to freehand, dark to light, positive to negative and plain to patterned, advance and recede in rhythms across the picture plain.
CUBISM is an overwhelmingly intellectual art, a fact that is immediatelyobvious when you look at it. It has to be intellectual, because it’s certainly not an artoverly concerned with beauty or pleasure or aesthetics as we traditionally understandthem. What is not immediately obvious is the wit of Cubism. The Renaissance said that a painting provides a glimpse into a three-dimensional world, looking through a frame as if through a window, but Braque andPicasso said no, a painting is pigment on canvas. There is no other world. There is only a flat surface contrived by the artist to give the illusion of spaceand depth. The artist is under no obligation to make the world of canvas resembleour world–he or she can take apart the world and reassemble it anyway he or she likes.Depth, shading, perspective–they’re all just game, and the artist can play by any ruleshe or she likes. It’s not real. During the two artists time of collaboration from 1907 and ending with theFirst World War, their styles intermingled and they painted the same subjects, makingtheir works at times closely resemble each other.
Pablo Picasso (1881- 1973) Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century. He is widely known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, paintingin a realistic manner through his childhood and adolescence; during the first decade ofthe 20th century his style changed as he experimented with different theories,techniques, and ideas. His revolutionary artistic accomplishments brought himuniversal renown and immense fortune, making him one of the best-known figures in20th century art. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist “Les DemoisellesdAvignon” (1907), and “Guernica “(1937), a portrayal of the German bombing ofGuernica during the Spanish Civil War.
Les Demoiselles dAvignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon, and originally titled The Brothel of Avignon) A large oil painting of 1907 by the Spanish artist Picasso. The work portrays five nude female prostitutes from a brothel on Carrer dAvinyó (Avinyó Street) in Barcelona. Each figure is depicted in a disconcerting confrontational manner and none are conventionally feminine. The women appear as slightly menacing and rendered with angular and disjointed body shapes. Two are shown with African mask-like faces and three more with faces in the Iberian style of Picassos native Spain, giving them a savage aura. Picasso was unconsciously influenced by African and Tribal Art several months before completing this painting.GuernicaIt was created in response to the bombing ofGuernica, Basque Country, by German andItalian warplanes at the behest of the SpanishNationalist forces, on 26 April 1937, duringthe Spanish Civil War. The Spanish Republicangovernment commissioned Picasso to createa large mural for the Spanish display at theParis International Exposition at the 1937Worlds Fair in Paris.
Georges Braque (1882-1963) Braque was a major 20th century French painter andsculptor who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed the art styleknown as Cubism. Braques paintings of 1908–1913 reflected his newinterest in geometry and simultaneous perspective. He conductedan intense study of the effects of light and perspective and thetechnical means that painters use to represent these effects, seeming to question themost standard of artistic conventions. In his village scenes, for example, Braque frequentlyreduced an architectural structure to a geometric form approximating a cube, yetrendered its shading so that it looked both flat and three-dimensional by fragmentingthe image. He showed this in the painting "House at Lestaque". Beginning during 1909, Braque began to work closely with Pablo Picasso, whohad been developing a similar style of painting. At the time Pablo Picasso was influencedby Gauguin, Cézanne, African tribal masks and Iberian sculpture, while Braque wasinterested mainly in developing Cézannes ideas of multiple perspectives.
Georges Braque. House at Lestaque. 1908 Braque, Georges (1882-1963) Oil on Canvas Violin and Candlestick. 1910 Kunst Museum, Berne