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PART 1. THEORY OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
SECTION 1. ESSENCE, TASKS AND ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
1.1. Analysis and interests of economic agents
1.2. Subject, content and connection with other disciplines
1.3. Functions and principles of economic analysis
1.4. Types and organization of analysis
1.5. Information base of economic analysis
1.6. The system of indicators used in the analysis of business activity
1.1
• The concept of "analysis" means the reception of scientific thinking
and is a method of any science.
• That is, using the word analysis in the name of a scientific discipline or
subject, we must remember that to consider this concept in itself,
without the subject of study, does not make sense.
• In the new history there are four main schools of accounting: Italian,
French, German, Anglo-American, which have retained their influence
on modern economics.
• The main characteristics of these schools can be determined by the
features listed in table. 1.
• Table 1 - Features of setting and solving problems of accounting and
economic analysis by different national schools
Statement
of the
problem of
accounting
and
analysis
National schools
Italy France Germany
England -
USA
Goal
Control of
performers'
behaviour
Improving
resource
efficiency
Development
of rational
accounting
and
analytical
procedures
Control of
behavior of
managers
Subject
Rights and
obligations of
individuals
Reserves and
current
resources
Procedures
Behavior of
managers
Basic
science
Right
Political
economy
Mathematics Psychology
Method Induction Induction Deduction Induction
• Enterprises are created to meet the interests of different partner groups (interest
groups), among which core and non-core.
• Let's list the main partner groups and name the type of economic information that is of
greatest interest to them.
1. The first group includes the owners of the enterprise - share holds (shareholders or
representatives of the state, if it owns all or part of the shares).
2. The second group - it's creditors (lenders).
3. The third group - hired managers, high office level administration.
4. The fourth group - employees (employees) of the enterprise.
5. The fifth group - suppliers of funds and objects of labor.
6. The sixth group - buyers (customers) of the enterprise.
7. The seventh group - society, as well as the state in the face of tax authorities.
1.2
Contents of economic analysis:
• -research of economic processes, factors and the reasons causing them,
and a quantitative assessment of the patterns which are shown here;
• - scientific substantiation of planning and development of standards;
• - determining the use and efficiency of resources;
• - objective assessment of the results of production and economic activity,
its optimization according to the accepted criterion and identification on
this basis of possible internal economic reserves to improve the activities
of enterprises, firms, entrepreneurs;
• - providing marketing research .
• Analysis in a broad sense means the cognitive procedure of imaginary
dismemberment of an object or phenomenon into components in
order to study them, to clarify the relationships between them.
• The opposite of the analysis is the synthesis (connection of individual
parts and elements into a single whole), with which the analysis is
often combined in practical and cognitive activities.
• The transition from analysis to synthesis of facts by means of
induction (the way shift from knowledge of certain facts to general
knowledge, the study of causes to effects ) and deduction (the way
research from the general to the particular, from effects to causes).
• The analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction as general
methods of knowledge are the basis of economic analysis .
• The place of economic analysis in the system of economic sciences
is shown in Fig. 1.
Фундаментальні економічні науки:
- макроекономіка;
- мікроекономіка
Прикладні економічні науки:
- облік;
- статистика;
- аудит;
- економічний аналіз та ін.
Галузеві економічні науки:
- економіка країн;
- економіка галузей;
- економіка підприємств та ін.
Спеціальні економічні науки:
- фінанси;
- кредит;
- маркетинг;
- економіка
природокористуваннята ін.
Економічні
науки
1.3
• In the process of economic analysis, three of its functions are
realized: evaluative, diagnostic and exploratory (Fig. 2).
• During the evaluation analysis, the differences between the actually
achieved state and the planned (desired) state are established by
comparison with the established criteria.
Diagnosing:
establishing causal
changes in the economic
system in quantitative
and qualitative terms,
the impact of factors on
this change and
development
Search engine:
determination of unused
reserves and potential
opportunities for change
and development of the
economic system,
substantiation of
mechanisms for their
mobilization
Evaluation:
determining the
compliance of the state
of the economic system
with its target operating
parameters and potential
opportunities
The main functions of economic analysis
• With the help of diagnostic analysis give a qualitative description of
the object under analysis, establish causal relationships.
• Exploratory analysis is to substantiate the recommendations for the
transfer of the object to the desired state, the identification of deep
reserves to improve production efficiency.
1.4
• Depending on the scale of the analysis of production and
management, there are: macroeconomic analysis, the object of study
of which is the national economy as a whole and the economy of
individual regions; and microeconomic analysis, which studies the
activities and interaction of enterprises in the markets of a particular
product and the organization of their individual components (shops,
departments, sites, teams).
1.5
• At the planning stage, a clear idea of the available financial and
production alternatives is needed.
• At the stage of control the process of tracking the actual
implementation of plans is carried out, ie it is necessary to determine
whether the results of financial and economic activities correspond to
the planned indicators.
• At the evaluation stage, the entire decision-making system is
investigated in order to improve it.
• The main source of information is the reporting of the enterprise:
statistical and accounting, both internal (for the week, month,
quarter, half-year) and annual
1.6
Indicators used in the analysis of economic activity are classified into
the following groups:
• - quantitative and qualitative
• - absolute and relative. A variety of absolute and relative are specific
indicators, determined by dividing one indicator by another.
• - indicators developed by the enterprises themselves and approved
by the higher organization
• - planned; normative; accounting; reporting and analytical.
• Production efficiency can be determined by the formula
• Евир =
Овип.пр.
Впр+Зоб+Впозаоб
• О вип.пр.- the volume of output (in trade - the volume of turnover);
• Впр - labor costs (salary fund);
• Зоб - average annual balances of current assets;
• Впозаоб - the average annual value of non-current assets.
• A similar indicator can be calculated for a comprehensive assessment of
the effectiveness of financial and economic activities of enterprises. To do
this, in the numerator of the above formula instead of the volume of
output (or turnover) is affixed the amount of profit.
• To assess the effectiveness of labor activity, it is necessary to determine the
level of labor productivity (output per employee) for each hryvnia average
wage according to the following formula:
• where Вир пр - output of workers;
• Ср зп - the average wage per employee.
зп
пр
Ср
Е пр
Вир

• To summarize the efficiency of economic activity of the enterprise it is
necessary to calculate the integrated indicator:
3
пр
фін
вир
госп Е
Е
Е
S 



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ESSENCE, TASKS AND ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

  • 1. PART 1. THEORY OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS SECTION 1. ESSENCE, TASKS AND ORGANIZATION OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 1.1. Analysis and interests of economic agents 1.2. Subject, content and connection with other disciplines 1.3. Functions and principles of economic analysis 1.4. Types and organization of analysis 1.5. Information base of economic analysis 1.6. The system of indicators used in the analysis of business activity
  • 2. 1.1 • The concept of "analysis" means the reception of scientific thinking and is a method of any science. • That is, using the word analysis in the name of a scientific discipline or subject, we must remember that to consider this concept in itself, without the subject of study, does not make sense.
  • 3. • In the new history there are four main schools of accounting: Italian, French, German, Anglo-American, which have retained their influence on modern economics. • The main characteristics of these schools can be determined by the features listed in table. 1.
  • 4. • Table 1 - Features of setting and solving problems of accounting and economic analysis by different national schools Statement of the problem of accounting and analysis National schools Italy France Germany England - USA Goal Control of performers' behaviour Improving resource efficiency Development of rational accounting and analytical procedures Control of behavior of managers Subject Rights and obligations of individuals Reserves and current resources Procedures Behavior of managers Basic science Right Political economy Mathematics Psychology Method Induction Induction Deduction Induction
  • 5. • Enterprises are created to meet the interests of different partner groups (interest groups), among which core and non-core. • Let's list the main partner groups and name the type of economic information that is of greatest interest to them. 1. The first group includes the owners of the enterprise - share holds (shareholders or representatives of the state, if it owns all or part of the shares). 2. The second group - it's creditors (lenders). 3. The third group - hired managers, high office level administration. 4. The fourth group - employees (employees) of the enterprise. 5. The fifth group - suppliers of funds and objects of labor. 6. The sixth group - buyers (customers) of the enterprise. 7. The seventh group - society, as well as the state in the face of tax authorities.
  • 6. 1.2 Contents of economic analysis: • -research of economic processes, factors and the reasons causing them, and a quantitative assessment of the patterns which are shown here; • - scientific substantiation of planning and development of standards; • - determining the use and efficiency of resources; • - objective assessment of the results of production and economic activity, its optimization according to the accepted criterion and identification on this basis of possible internal economic reserves to improve the activities of enterprises, firms, entrepreneurs; • - providing marketing research .
  • 7. • Analysis in a broad sense means the cognitive procedure of imaginary dismemberment of an object or phenomenon into components in order to study them, to clarify the relationships between them. • The opposite of the analysis is the synthesis (connection of individual parts and elements into a single whole), with which the analysis is often combined in practical and cognitive activities.
  • 8. • The transition from analysis to synthesis of facts by means of induction (the way shift from knowledge of certain facts to general knowledge, the study of causes to effects ) and deduction (the way research from the general to the particular, from effects to causes). • The analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction as general methods of knowledge are the basis of economic analysis . • The place of economic analysis in the system of economic sciences is shown in Fig. 1.
  • 9. Фундаментальні економічні науки: - макроекономіка; - мікроекономіка Прикладні економічні науки: - облік; - статистика; - аудит; - економічний аналіз та ін. Галузеві економічні науки: - економіка країн; - економіка галузей; - економіка підприємств та ін. Спеціальні економічні науки: - фінанси; - кредит; - маркетинг; - економіка природокористуваннята ін. Економічні науки
  • 10. 1.3 • In the process of economic analysis, three of its functions are realized: evaluative, diagnostic and exploratory (Fig. 2). • During the evaluation analysis, the differences between the actually achieved state and the planned (desired) state are established by comparison with the established criteria.
  • 11. Diagnosing: establishing causal changes in the economic system in quantitative and qualitative terms, the impact of factors on this change and development Search engine: determination of unused reserves and potential opportunities for change and development of the economic system, substantiation of mechanisms for their mobilization Evaluation: determining the compliance of the state of the economic system with its target operating parameters and potential opportunities The main functions of economic analysis
  • 12. • With the help of diagnostic analysis give a qualitative description of the object under analysis, establish causal relationships. • Exploratory analysis is to substantiate the recommendations for the transfer of the object to the desired state, the identification of deep reserves to improve production efficiency.
  • 13. 1.4 • Depending on the scale of the analysis of production and management, there are: macroeconomic analysis, the object of study of which is the national economy as a whole and the economy of individual regions; and microeconomic analysis, which studies the activities and interaction of enterprises in the markets of a particular product and the organization of their individual components (shops, departments, sites, teams).
  • 14. 1.5 • At the planning stage, a clear idea of the available financial and production alternatives is needed. • At the stage of control the process of tracking the actual implementation of plans is carried out, ie it is necessary to determine whether the results of financial and economic activities correspond to the planned indicators. • At the evaluation stage, the entire decision-making system is investigated in order to improve it.
  • 15. • The main source of information is the reporting of the enterprise: statistical and accounting, both internal (for the week, month, quarter, half-year) and annual
  • 16. 1.6 Indicators used in the analysis of economic activity are classified into the following groups: • - quantitative and qualitative • - absolute and relative. A variety of absolute and relative are specific indicators, determined by dividing one indicator by another. • - indicators developed by the enterprises themselves and approved by the higher organization • - planned; normative; accounting; reporting and analytical.
  • 17. • Production efficiency can be determined by the formula • Евир = Овип.пр. Впр+Зоб+Впозаоб • О вип.пр.- the volume of output (in trade - the volume of turnover); • Впр - labor costs (salary fund); • Зоб - average annual balances of current assets; • Впозаоб - the average annual value of non-current assets.
  • 18. • A similar indicator can be calculated for a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of financial and economic activities of enterprises. To do this, in the numerator of the above formula instead of the volume of output (or turnover) is affixed the amount of profit. • To assess the effectiveness of labor activity, it is necessary to determine the level of labor productivity (output per employee) for each hryvnia average wage according to the following formula: • where Вир пр - output of workers; • Ср зп - the average wage per employee. зп пр Ср Е пр Вир 
  • 19. • To summarize the efficiency of economic activity of the enterprise it is necessary to calculate the integrated indicator: 3 пр фін вир госп Е Е Е S   