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Paper sharing_Envisioning entrepreneurship and digital innovation through a design science research lens

  1. Information & Management Authors:Alan Hevner, Shirley Gregor (2022) Presenter :CHEN,YOU-SHENG (Shane) 2023 / 03 / 08 Envisioning entrepreneurship and digital innovation through a design science research lens : A matrix approach
  2. JCR 2 /29 Information & Management
  3. Table of Contents 3 /29 01 Introduction 02 Research essay roadmap 03 Effectuation theory and digital innovation 04 Design science research process models 05 The knowledge innovation matrix (KIM) 06 Entrepreneurial strategies and innovation practices 07 Preparatory workshop applying KIM 08 A DSR-DI process model for digital innovation 09 Discussion and conclusions
  4. Abstract 4 /29 Purpose a novel process model of DI (digital innovation) that supports a richer understanding of different types of entrepreneurship for the investment of DI in organizations Findings the need for a higher order, sense-making process model that defines, structures, and manages multiple innovation strategies in an ambidextrous entrepreneurship portfolio Methodology we draw on our prior stream of research on DI over a period of some years; combining work in design science research (DSR) and the application of DSR concepts to digital innovation (KIM & innovative design activities) Originality provide a common language and process model that can be understood and used by people with many different backgrounds in entrepreneurial activities
  5. 1. Introduction Innovation slowdown recent studies have expressed concerns of an innovation slowdown with deleterious consequences Lack of commitment the lack of strong, coordinated commitments by industrial, academic, and governmental entities to enable and support an entrepreneurial culture of innovation and risk-taking 5 /29 Challenges Measuring outcomes Unpredictable Over regulation Diversity of stakeholders Readiness for disruptive innovations Difficulties of scaling
  6. 1. Introduction 6 /29 Digital innovation emphasizes combinations of digital and physical components to produce novel products that organizations across a wide range of disciplines view DI to be of vital importance Ambidextrous organizations should be capable of both exploring new opportunities and working diligently at exploiting existing capabilities More than traditional innovation, requires many different perspectives on the methods and tools to be used in the development of effective and evolvable complex systems incorporating DI
  7. 2. Research essay roadmap Innovation (J. Tidd, 2009) innovation is a process of turning opportunity into new ideas and of putting these into wide used practice. Innovation (OECD, 2005) an innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product or process. 7 /29 Digital innovation (Y.Yoo, 2010) a subset of innovation in which information technology (IT) and digitization of information are embodied in the innovation or enable the innovation DSR (A. Hevner, 2004) creates and evaluates IT artifacts to solve organizational problems that can apply to both general innovation and digital innovation
  8. 2. Research essay roadmap 8 /29 The synthesis of DI and DSR provides significant value in that the knowledge contribution, an explicit requirement of DSR, is made visible in order to provide greater validity, credibility, acceptance, and reusability of the innovation results Via disciplined use of the DSR-DI matrix process, an organization can strategically construct an ambidextrous portfolio of DI projects
  9. 3. Effectuation theory and digital innovation 9 /29 How can a rigorous collaborative discipline in a formal process model be defined for designing, building, evaluating, evolving, and operating such massive, complex, and unpredictable DI-embedded systems? we ground our thinking in effectuation theory from the research field of entrepreneurship 2001 Sarasvathy conceptualizes effectuation as the opposite of causation Effectuation is about designing and evaluating alternatives with differing effects instead of choosing among given alternatives find possibilities → perceived opportunities → ongoing → markets 2006 Wiltbank describe 4 strategies that entrepreneurs can apply to DI planning → adapting(environment) → following(clear vision) → being transformative in the sense of applying effectual logic
  10. 4. Design science research process models ADR DSRM Extend GDC model to apply DSR Performing DSR 10 /29 1990 Nunamaker et al. for scheduling and coordinating design activities 5 stages: conceptual design, constructing the architecture of the system, analyzing the design, prototyping 2008 Vaishnavi and Kuechler extend the General Design Cycle model of Takeda et al. (1990) 5 steps: awareness of the problem → preliminary design suggestion → development stage → iterations → explicit in the suggestion 2007 Peffers et al. for the production and presentation of DSR 6 steps: problem identification, definition solution, design and development, demonstration, evaluation, and communication 2011 Sein et al. followed by multiple iterations of the build intervention 2022 Hevner and Gregor support differing entrepreneurial activities for the 4 types of strategies DSR-DI
  11. 5. The knowledge innovation matrix (KIM) 11 /29 An empirical study that processes for radical innovations differ from those for incremental innovations 2014 Koen et al. Incremental innovations include cost reductions, improvements to existing product line, and repositioning efforts 2014 Koen et al. Radical innovations are additions to existing product lines, new product lines, and new-to-the-world products Some basic dichotomous classifications include the distinction between exploration and exploitation 1991 March Exploration was “search, variation, risk taking, experimentation, play, flexibility, discovery, innovation” 1991 March Exploitation was “refinement, choice, production, efficiency, selection, implementation, execution”
  12. 5. The knowledge innovation matrix (KIM) 12 /29 We apply the Knowledge Innovation Matrix (KIM) as initially developed in Gregor and Hevner(2015) KIM offers a finer-grained view than simple dichotomous classifications and is firmly based in the fundamental differences in triggers of an innovation 推進 開發 發明 擴展適應
  13. 5. The knowledge innovation matrix (KIM) 13 /29 application domain (problem) maturity -Y • key roles in innovation of opportunities [34], tasks and problems [62], markets [63], needs [64] and fields knowledge (solution) maturity -X • key roles in innovation of new ideas [57,58], new insights [59],new knowledge and skills [60], technological know-how [53], new knowledge [61], and learning
  14. 5. The knowledge innovation matrix (KIM) advancement where a better solution is developed for a known problem invention radical innovations both the idea of the problem or opportunity, have not been recognized exploitation incremental innovations seen as ‘new-to-us’ rather than ‘new-to-the-world.’ exaptation how to satisfy one particular need or application function is applied to another need or market in a completely different field 14 /29 推進 開發 發明 擴展適應 Fig. 2. Knowledge Innovation Matrix application domain High knowledge Low knowledge Low High exploitation Variants of exploration
  15. 6. Entrepreneurial strategies and innovation practices 15 /29 6.1. Invention strategy and practices • high levels of creativity will be required to generate novel ideas • the support of conditions fostering creativity are important • non-conventional approaches for the development of ideas will be employed Strategy 1. genius grants 2. bootlegging  give freedom and free time  allowing innovators to incubate ideas  encourage original thinking Individual characteristics  highly creative  strong intrinsic motivation (fringe experts)  preparation  incubation  evaluation  elaboration
  16. 6. Entrepreneurial strategies and innovation practices 16 /29 6.2. Exaptation strategy and practices • high level of creativity and associative thinking are required to generate the novel relationships between the existing knowledge and a new application Strategy 1. crowd-sourcing 2. open-sourcing 3. out-of-the-box design thinking 4. collaborative design  encourage contributions of diverse ideas  collaborative teams with diversities in domain expertise and technical skill sets Individual characteristics  highly creative  strong intrinsic motivation encouraged to generate idea  brainstorming  ideation exercises
  17. 6. Entrepreneurial strategies and innovation practices 17 /29 6.3. Advancement strategy and practices • the one in which there is less than optimal solution knowledge for addressing a relatively well-understood problem • the experts may lie outside the organization Strategy 1. achieve a significant advance on existing knowledge for solving a particular problem 2. heuristic search 3. buy in R&D projects  access to important knowledge sources in the knowledge base  find a true difference  allow experimentation and risk taking Individual characteristics  highly creative  strong intrinsic motivation  require true expertise and in-depth domain knowledge
  18. 6. Entrepreneurial strategies and innovation practices 18 /29 6.4. Exploitation strategy and practices • the one in which there is mature solution knowledge for achieving a well-understood problem • identify the best practices that have produced superior results in other firms and replicate these practices to improve its own competitive advantage Strategy 1. to optimize the functioning of a state-of-the-art technology in a new application environment  environmental factors provide an opportunity that could lead to value-added advantages  can apply cutting-edge technologies to interesting problems Individual characteristics  typify creative people  redefining of the innovation to fit a new context  agenda-setting  matching  redefining/ restructuring  clarifying  routinizing
  19. participants there were 11 participants in the workshop, gender (7 male, 4 female); sector (7 private sector, 3 public sector, 1 academic); and work roles (2 management, 1 analyst, 1 administration, 2 R&D, 1 management consulting, 1 strategy, 1 product development, 1 sales, 1 solutions) procedure 1. to classify 6 cases as entrepreneurial strategies 2. the KIM matrix could be used further in nudge design innovation Comments (questionnaire) • 70 % of cases were classified in the quadrant regarded as the best fit by the experimenters • as a way of understanding where innovation fits • a more structured way, significant and desirable tool in application of strategy 7. Preparatory workshop applying KIM 19 /29
  20. 8. A DSR-DI process model for digital innovation 20 /29 its environmental context from the current problem space and appropriates existing knowledge from the extant knowledge bases
  21. 8. A DSR-DI process model for digital innovation 21 /29 The goal is to form a collaborative, high functioning entrepreneurial team with a full understanding of the means, aspirations, and capabilities that each role brings to the project The resources will allow detailed project planning activities to be performed for budgeting, staffing, and scheduling purposes
  22. 8. A DSR-DI process model for digital innovation 22 /29 The team must represent the complex problem or opportunity in a format that can be understood and manipulated  choose to approach the problem iteratively  to reframe the problem entirely  to imitate another design  to decompose the system into subsystems to identify which of the four matrix strategies will be most effectively applied in this innovation cycle
  23. 8. A DSR-DI process model for digital innovation 23 /29 The execution of the selected entrepreneurial strategy is the stage of creating novel ideas They allow human creativity and reason will be important for success Domain- relevant skills Creativity- relevant processes Intrinsic task motivation The social environment
  24. 8. A DSR-DI process model for digital innovation 24 /29 • Can the proposed design be implemented? • Does the design have value? • How can the design be most effectively represented and communicated? • How best to construct the actual use artifacts? • How can we demonstrate the utility of the design artifact before its implementation into the problem space?
  25. 8. A DSR-DI process model for digital innovation 25 /29 an important impact will be made from the intervention of the DI design into the problem space with clear evidence generated to determine the success or failure of the entrepreneurial project • Fitness for Use: assesses the ability of the design artifact to perform in the current application context with the current set of goals in the problem space • Fitness for Evolution: assesses the ability of the DI design artifact to adapt to changes in the problem space over time
  26. 8. A DSR-DI process model for digital innovation 26 /29 The team’s activities • to reflect on the completed innovation cycle, to capture lessons learned • to plan for future digital innovation cycles • to follow up the success (or failure) of the current cycle with new entrepreneurial goals
  27. 9. Discussion and conclusions invention creative processes within an individual or group that are facilitated by conditions 01 exaptation allow the identification of new user needs that can be met by an existing technology 02 advancement knowledge of novel technology advances, and experience with traditional R&D-type activities 03 exploitation could be adopted or appropriated with some re-design by an organization or individual 04 27 /29
  28. 9. Discussion and conclusions future research we suggest deeper investigations into the different entrepreneurial roles for key DI stakeholders 1 Limitations We recognize that the landscape of digital innovation is huge and there are other entrepreneurial roles and strategies that we have not been able to cover adequately in this essay 2 • To investigate how organizations can use the DSR-DI model so as to behave ambidextrously, being involved in all four entrepreneurial strategies • To balance these activities well are 9 times more likely to achieve breakthrough products (S.Muller, 2004) 3 28 /29
  29. THANK YOU 29 /29
  30. RESOURCES ● Alan Hevner, Shirley Gregor, Envisioning entrepreneurship and digital innovation through a design science research lens: A matrix approach, Information & Management, Volume 59, Issue 3, 2022, 103350, ISSN 0378-7206, ● Free Google Slides theme and PowerPoint template - Digital Divide Infographics 1&rs=detail-related ● Microsoft Stock images (royalty-free images) ● “Effectual Thinking” Is What Makes Entrepreneurs Entrepreneurial? costanzo ● 星巴克設計團隊的創意地鐵, 《經理人月刊》編輯部

Editor's Notes

  1. Purpose 一種新穎的DI過程模型,支援對組織中DI投資的不同類型創業的更深入理解 Findings 需要一個更高階的、有意義的過程模型 在一個雙管齊下的創業投資組合中定義、構建和管理多種創新戰略 我們借鑒了過去幾年對數位創新的研究成果;將設計科學研究(DSR)工作與DSR概念在數位創新(KIM和創新設計活動)中的應用相結合 提供一種共同的語言和過程模型,在創業活動中具有許多不同背景的人可以理解和使用
  2. 創新在促進經濟增長和造福社會方面的積極作用早已確立 最近的研究表明,人們擔心創新放緩會帶來有害後果 工業、學術和政府實體缺乏強有力的、協調一致的承諾,以促進和支持創新和冒險的創業文化 主要挑戰是難以衡量創新成果的新穎性和影響 創新過程的不可預測性、政府的過度監管、創新利益相關者的多樣性、缺乏對破壞性創新的組織準備、難以擴大數位創新的規模,鼓勵和支援創新和冒險的創業文化
  3. 數位創新強調數位和物理元件的組合,以生產新穎的產品,而跨多個學科的組織都認為DI至關重要 靈巧的組織應該既能夠探索新的機會,又能夠勤奮利用現有的能力 與傳統創新相比,在開發包含DI的有效系統、有發展性的複雜系統方面需要對所使用的方法和工具有許多不同的觀點 。
  4. 創新是實施新的或顯著改進的產品或流程。 “創新是一個將機遇轉化為新想法並將其付諸實踐的過程。 創新的子集,其中資訊技術(IT)和資訊的數位化正具身實現創新的角色 DSR幫助我們創建和評估IT工具,以解決可應用于一般創新和數位創新的組織問題
  5. DI和DSR的綜合提供了重要價值,因為知識貢獻(DSR的明確要求)是可見的,以提供創新結果的更大有效性、可信度、可接受性和再使用性 通過嚴格使用DSR-DI矩陣過程,組織可以戰略性地構建一個靈巧的DI專案組合
  6. 一個關鍵的問題是——如何在正式的過程模型中定義一個嚴格的協作規程來設計、構建、評估、發展和操作如此龐大、複雜和不可預測的DI嵌入式系統? 我們論證的一個前提是,一種新的DI創業模式必須有效地處理真實組織環境的混亂複雜性 我們的思維基礎是創業研究領域的有效性理論 因果思維從一個預先確定的目標和一套方法和資源開始,以盡可能快、最便宜和最有效的方式實現該目標。 相比之下,有效思維會讓企業家從他們的手段開始創業:我是誰,我知道什麼,我知道誰。然後,他們想像來自他們的手段的可能性,他們並沒有設定在一個目標上,而是一系列可能的結果,每一個都是可取的。 他們知道自己的行動會帶來預期的結果,如果不是,他們足智多謀,靈活多變,能夠輕鬆適應。 有效性是指設計和評估具有不同影響的備選方案,而不是在給定備選方案中進行選擇 尋找可能性→ 感知的機會→ 不間斷的→ 市場 計畫→ 適應(環境)→ 跟隨(清晰的視野)→在應用有效邏輯的意義上具有變革性
  7. 用於安排和協調設計活動 5個階段:概念設計、構建系統架構、分析設計、原型設計 擴展Takeda等人(1990)的通用設計週期模型 意識到問題→ 初步設計建議→ 發展階段→ 迭代→ 在建議中明確 用於DSR的製作和演示 6個步驟:問題識別、定義解決、設計和開發、演示、評估和溝通 隨後是構建、干預和評估階段的多次反覆運算,以及每次反覆運算中的反思和學習 支援 4種策略的不同創業活動
  8. 一項實證研究表明,激進創新的過程不同于增量創新的過程 漸進式創新包括降低成本、改進現有產品線和重新定位工作 激進的創新是對新舊產品線和世界新產品的補充 一些基本的二分法分類包括勘探和開發之間的區別 探索是“搜索、變異、冒險、實驗、遊戲、靈活性、發現、創新” 開發是“精煉、選擇、生產、效率、選擇、實施、執行”
  9. 我們應用Gregor和Hevner(2015)最初開發的知識創新矩陣(KIM) KIM提供了比簡單的二分法分類更精細的觀點,並牢固地基於創新觸發因素的根本差異
  10. 應用市場域(問題)成熟度-Y 在機會創新[34]、任務和問題[62]、市場[63]、需求[64]和領域中的關鍵作用 知識(解決方案)成熟度-X 在創新新思想[57,58]、新見解[59]、新知識和技能[60]、技術訣竅[53]、新知識[61]和學習中的關鍵作用
  11. advancement 為已知問題開發更好的解決方案 invention 激進創新:對新舊產品線和世界新產品的補充 無論是問題還是機會的想法,都沒有被意識發現 Exploitation 漸進式創新:降低成本、改進現有產品線和重新定位工作 被視為「對我們是新的」,而不是「新的東西」。 exaptation 如何滿足一個特定需求或應用功能應用於完全不同的領域的另一個需求或市場
  12. 產生新想法需要高水平的創造力(發明 左下 低應用市場 低解決方案) 培養創造力的條件的支援很重要 將採用非 常規方法來發展想法 天才獎學金 非法製造 製備 孵化 評估 闡述
  13. 需要高水平的創造力和聯想思維才能在現有知識和新應用之間建立新的關係(擴展適應 右下 低應用市場面 高解決方案) 策略: 眾包--是一種特定的取得資源的模式。 在該模式下,個人或組織可以利用大量的網路使用者來取得需要的服務和想法 開源 開箱即用的設計思維 協同設計 具有不同領域專業知識和技術技能的協作團隊 個人特徵 極具創造力 強烈的內在動機 !鼓勵產生想法 頭腦 風暴 構思練習
  14. 解決相對容易理解的問題的解決方案知識不夠理想的一種(推進 左上 高應用市場面 低解決方案) 專家可能位於組織外部 策略: 在解決特定問題的現有知識上取得重大進展 啟發式搜索 購買研發專案 訪問知識庫中的重要知識源 找到真正的不同 允許實驗和冒險 個人特徵 極具創造力 強烈的內在動機 需要真正的專業知識和深入的領域知識
  15. 具有成熟的解決方案知識以實現易於理解的問題或機會的那個(開發 右上 高應用市場面 高解決方案) 確定在其他公司中產生卓越成果的最佳實踐,並複製這些實踐以提高自身的競爭優勢 策略: 在新的應用環境中優化最先進技術的功能 環境因素提供了可能帶來增值優勢的機會 可以將尖端技術應用於有趣的問題 個人特徵: 典型的創意人士 重新定義創新以適應新環境 議程設定 匹配 重新/重組 澄清 常規化
  16. 將6個案例歸類為創業策略 KIM矩陣可以進一步用於推動設計創新 entrepreneurial strategies and an ideation exercise 創業策略與思維練習
  17. DSR-DI過程模型 從目前的問題空間中提取其環境背景,並從現有知識庫中提取現有知識 這些策略指導 提供數位創新週期中不同KIM設計實踐的選擇和應用 重點放在DI週期的前三個階段,這三個階段對應於創新的前端
  18. 目標是組建一個協作的、高效的創業團隊,充分瞭解每個角色為專案帶來的能力 貢獻。 這些資源將允許為預算、人員配置和日程安排 執行詳細的專案規劃活動
  19. 團隊必須以可理解可運用的的格式來表示複雜的問題或機會 比如說選擇迭代方式處理問題 敏捷方式 選擇重新定義問題 採用不同方式看待問題 要確定四個矩陣策略中的哪一個將在這個創新週期中得到最有效的應用
  20. 執行創造 新想法的階段 允許人類的創造力和意見對成功至關重要 •領域相關技能包括智力、專業知識、知識、, 創新者工作的特定領域的技術技能和人才; •創造力相關過程包括個性和認知 有助於對問題採取新觀點的特徵,如獨立性、冒險性、產生想法,並容忍歧義。 •內在任務動機被視為核心原則。 “當人們主要是因為工作本身的興趣、樂趣、滿足感和挑戰,而不是外在的激勵因素,他們覺得自己是最有創造力的。” •社會環境是唯一的外部組成部分,它解決了支持創造性活動的工作條件。政府補助力量很強大 消極的組織環境嚴厲地批評新思想,強調政治問題,強調現狀,施加過度的時間壓力,並支持高層管理層的低風險態度。 雖然積極的組織環境通過清晰和令人信服的管理願景激發創造力,但具有不同技能的工作團隊協同工作,自由調查想法,以及開發新想法和共用想法規範的機制。
  21. 建議的設計可以實施嗎? 設計有價值嗎? 如何最有效地表達和傳達設計? 如何最好地構建實際使用工件(設計出來的服務/產品)? 在將設計工件實施到問題空間之前,我們如何證明其實用性?
  22. DI設計對問題空間的干預將產生重要影響,併產生明確的證據來確定創業專案的成功或失敗 使用適用性:評估設計工件在目前應用市場執行的能力 進化適用性:評估 DI 設計工件適應問題空間隨時間變化的能力
  23. 團隊的活動 反思已完成的創新週期,吸取經驗教訓 規劃未來的數位創新週期 用新的創業目標跟進當前週期的成功(或失敗)
  24. 複習 發明: 個人或團體內由條件促進的創造性過程 擴展適應。識別現有技術可以滿足的新使用者/環境市場需求 推進。瞭解新技術進步,以及傳統研發活動的經驗(改善現有產品 開發。可以由組織或個人通過一些重新設計來採用或挪用(打造客製化 對公司來說是新的服務
  25. 我們建議對關鍵DI利益相關者的不同創業角色下去深入研究 我們認識到數字創新的前景是巨大的,還有其他企業家角色和戰略,我們無法在本文中充分涵蓋 研究組織如何使用DSR-DI模型,以便靈巧地行事,參與所有四種創業策略 為了很好地平衡這些活動,實現突破性產品的可能性要高出 9 倍