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Computer
programming
• What is computer?
• Block diagram of
computer.
• Generation of computers
1
What is computer ?
 Computer is an electronic machine that
takes input (data) analyze it process it
and give the desired ...
Block diagram of computer
3
CPU
 Central Processing Unit
 Responsible of all kind of processing.
 Process the data according to the set of
instruct...
Control Unit
 Read instruction from the memory ,
decode it and send signal to various parts
of computer to perform the wo...
Registers
 Store intermediate results during program
execution.
 Made up of flip- flop.
 Categorize in two types
- Gene...
ALU
 Arithmetic Operations ( +,-,/,%,*….etc)
 Logical Operation( Comparission ).
7
Memory Unit
 RAM
 Secondary Storage
8
Input and Output Devices
 Mouse, keyboard…etc
 Monitor, printer…etc
9
Generation of Computer
Basically 4 generation of computer
development.
 I Generation ( 1940 - 1956 ) :-
 vacuum tubes.
-...
2nd Generation of Computer
 II Generation (1957-1963)
 Transistors.
- Very small in size as compare to vacuum tube.
- Sm...
3rd Generation of Computer
 III Generation (1964-1971)
 Integrated Circuits ( ICs )
- Size of computer more compact, mor...
4th Generation of Computer
 IV Generation (after 1971)
 Microprocessor
- VLSI
- Compact and light in weight, consume
les...
5th Generation Computer
 Artificial Intelligence, Parallel
programming
 ULSI ( Ultra Large Scale Integration )
14
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Computer programming1

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what is computer ?
block diagram of computer
generation of computers

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Computer programming1

  1. 1. Computer programming • What is computer? • Block diagram of computer. • Generation of computers 1
  2. 2. What is computer ?  Computer is an electronic machine that takes input (data) analyze it process it and give the desired output (information ). Also provide the capability of storing data for future use. 2
  3. 3. Block diagram of computer 3
  4. 4. CPU  Central Processing Unit  Responsible of all kind of processing.  Process the data according to the set of instruction given by the user.  Three major parts of CPU - Control Unit - Registers - ALU ( Arithmetic and Logical Unit ). 4
  5. 5. Control Unit  Read instruction from the memory , decode it and send signal to various parts of computer to perform the work accordingly.  Control the sequence of instruction to be executed. 5
  6. 6. Registers  Store intermediate results during program execution.  Made up of flip- flop.  Categorize in two types - General Purpose Register - Dedicated Register 6
  7. 7. ALU  Arithmetic Operations ( +,-,/,%,*….etc)  Logical Operation( Comparission ). 7
  8. 8. Memory Unit  RAM  Secondary Storage 8
  9. 9. Input and Output Devices  Mouse, keyboard…etc  Monitor, printer…etc 9
  10. 10. Generation of Computer Basically 4 generation of computer development.  I Generation ( 1940 - 1956 ) :-  vacuum tubes. - Very big and bulky. - Heating effect. - Large electricity consumption. - Work on 0’s and 1’s. - Machine Dependent. - Magnetic drum for storage. - Input through punch card and output through printers. Example :- UNIVAC, ENIAC 10
  11. 11. 2nd Generation of Computer  II Generation (1957-1963)  Transistors. - Very small in size as compare to vacuum tube. - Smaller in size, cheap, much more energy efficient. - Magnetic core technology is used instead of magnetic drums. - Assembly Language instead of binary. - Translators required. - Input still taken by punch card and output by printouts. - Programming is machine dependent. Examples:- PDP-8, IBM 1401 and CDC 1604. 11
  12. 12. 3rd Generation of Computer  III Generation (1964-1971)  Integrated Circuits ( ICs ) - Size of computer more compact, more energy efficent. - Speed of computation become very high. - SSI and MSI is used. - Use of High Level Languages(COBOL, PASCAL FORTRAN, BASIC…etc) - Programming Languages are machine independent. - Keyboards and mouse - input and monitors - output. - Multiple task . Examples:- IBM 370, PDP 11,IBM-360 series,Honeywell-6000 series. 12
  13. 13. 4th Generation of Computer  IV Generation (after 1971)  Microprocessor - VLSI - Compact and light in weight, consume less energy. - Very fast processing speed. - Multitasking is possible. - High level language is used such as C/C++, java…etc. - Time-sharing , real time, and distributed operating system. Example :- IBM system 3090, HP 9000 13
  14. 14. 5th Generation Computer  Artificial Intelligence, Parallel programming  ULSI ( Ultra Large Scale Integration ) 14

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