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محاضرة 8

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برنامج مهارات البحث العلمي 8 (محاضرة 8)

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محاضرة 8

  1. 1. Monday 12-2 pm. March 7, 2016 Program of scientific Research Skills Research Center-Center for Female Scientific & Medical Colleges- Deanship of Scientific Research Kind Saud University ‫محاضرة‬(‫العلمي‬ ‫البحث‬ ‫في‬ ‫األبداع‬) Creativity in Scientific Research . Dr. Amal Saadallah. Scientist/ Section Head NSBGL. Research Center KFSH&RC-R. Clinical Pathology Consultant . PhD Health Adminstration Deanship of Scientific Research Research Center-Center for Female Scientific & Medical Colleges «‫العلمي‬ ‫البحث‬ ‫مهارات‬ ‫برنامج‬8»
  2. 2. Target Audience • Science & Health Colleges • Higher Education Students Master Degree, PhD Degree, and some final years students • Number: ~ 40 ‫محاضرة‬(‫العلمي‬ ‫البحث‬ ‫في‬ ‫األبداع‬)
  3. 3. Introduction (1) • As more knowledge brings more complex problems to solve, more & more creativity in needed in the scientific filed every day. (StraightAscholar) • IBM poll of 1,500 CEOs identified creativity as the No. 1 “leadership competency” of the future.
  4. 4. Introduction (2) • Fact-finding & deep research are vital stages in the creative process. • Teaching students how to think logically & how to think creatively & to use these skills to build their own knowledge. • This goes against the stereotype of teaching sciences.
  5. 5. Creativity … Albert Einstein said: "Imagination is More Important than Knowledge. Knowledge is Limited. Imagination Encircles the World."
  6. 6. Definitions (1) Creativity (Noun) Creative (Adjective) Quality of Being Creative. Ability to Create. Having or Showing Ability to Make New Things or Think of New Ideas. Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  7. 7. Definitions (2) Create (Verb) Creation (Noun) To Produce Something New by using Talents & Imagination. Act of Making or Producing Something that Did Not Exist Before. Act of Creating Something. Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  8. 8. Synonyms of Creativity Cleverness Creativeness Imagination Imaginativene ss Ingeniousness, Ingenuity Innovativeness Invention Inventiveness Originality Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  9. 9. Rejection of Creative Notions (a) • Systems in most schools strongly tend to favor children with strengths in memory & analytical abilities. • Creative notions often rejected when the creative innovator stands up to vested interests & defies the crowd.
  10. 10. Rejection of Creative Notions (b) • People do not willfully reject creative notions. Rather, they do not realize or want to realize, that the proposed idea represents a valid & advanced way thinking. • Society often perceives opposition to the status quo as annoying, offensive, & reason enough ignore innovative ideas.
  11. 11. Resources of Creativity
  12. 12. Creativity Requires 6 Distinct but Interrelated Resources 1. Intellectual Abilities 2. Knowledge 3. Styles of Thinking 4. Personality 5. Motivation 6. Environment Robert J. Sternberg
  13. 13. 1. Intellectual Abilities • See problems in new ways & escape the bounds of conventional thinking Synthetic Skill • Recognize which ideas are worth pursuing & which are not Analytic Skill • Know how to persuade others on the value of one’s ideas Practical– Contextual Skill **Flowing Together of the 3 Skills
  14. 14. If not together .. • See problems in new ways & escape the bounds of conventional thinking Synthetic Skill • Result in new ideas that are not subjected to the scrutiny required to improve them & make them work. If Used Alone
  15. 15. If not together .. • Recognize which ideas are worth pursuing & which are not Analytic Skill • Result in powerful critical, but not creative thinking If Used Alone
  16. 16. If not together .. • Know how to persuade others on the value of one’s ideas Practical– contextual Skill • Result in societal acceptance of ideas not because the ideas are good, but rather, because the ideas have been well and powerfully presented If Used Alone
  17. 17. 2. Knowledge.. • one needs to know enough about a field to move it forward. One cannot move beyond where a field is if one does not know where it is. On the one hand, • knowledge about a field can result in a closed & fixed perspective, resulting in a person’s not moving beyond the way in which he or she has seen in the past. On the other hand, Knowledge thus can help, or it can hinder creativity.
  18. 18. 3. Styles of Thinking Introduction (a) Type 1:Creativity-Generating Legislative (Creative) Judicial (Evaluative) Hierarchical (Prioritizing) Global (Holistic) Liberal (New approach)  Denote: higher levels of cognitive complexity Chang Zhu & Li-Fang Zhang Ability to switch between conventional & unconventional modes of thinking is important to creativity. (Sternberg)
  19. 19. 3. Styles of Thinking Introduction (b) Type 2: Norm-Favoring Tendency Executive (Given Orders) Local (Details) Monarchic (One at a time) Conservative (Traditional approaches)  Suggest a norm-favoring tendency Chang Zhu & Li-Fang Zhang Ability to switch between conventional & unconventional modes of thinking is important to creativity. (Sternberg)
  20. 20. 3. Styles of Thinking Introduction (c) Type 3: From both Type 1 & 2 Anarchic (Whatever come along) Oligarchic (Multiple tasks with no priority) Internal (working on one’s own) External (working with others)  Depending on stylistic demands of a specific task. Chang Zhu & Li-Fang Zhang Ability to switch between conventional & unconventional modes of thinking is important to creativity. (Sternberg)
  21. 21. 3. Styles of Thinking & Creativity (a) With regard to thinking styles, a legislative style is particularly important for creativity • Legislative Style: Creative • i.e. a preference for thinking & a decision to think in new ways. • Note: legislative people tend to be better students than less legislative people, if the schools in which they study value creativity.
  22. 22. 3. Styles of Thinking & Creativity (b) It helps to become a major creative thinker, if one is able to think globally as well as locally • Globally: Holistic. • i.e. recognizing which questions are important & which ones are not. • Locally: Details.
  23. 23. 4. Personality Attributes • Attributes important for creative functioning include: a) Willingness to overcome obstacles b) Willingness to take sensible risks c) Willingness to tolerate ambiguity d) Self-efficacy • One of the risks faced is that the evaluators will not appreciate the creativity if it goes against their own beliefs!
  24. 24. 5. Motivation Intrinsic, task-focused motivation is essential to creativity. • People do creative work if they really love what they are doing & focus on the work rather than the potential rewards. Motivation is not something inherent in a person • One decides to be motivated .
  25. 25. 6. Environment Supportive & rewarding of creative ideas: e.g. a forum for proposing those ideas Obstacles: Ninor, as when an individual receives negative feedback Major, as when one’s well-being or even life are threatened • Determinant of creativity growth: changing criteria for evaluations of creativity on the part of raters.
  26. 26. Confluence of the Six Creativity Resources (1) Creativity is more than a simple sum of the level on each component. 1. A thresholds for some components below which creativity is not possible regardless of levels on other components (e.g., knowledge) .
  27. 27. Confluence of the Six Creativity Resources (2) 2. Compensation may occur in which strength on one component make-up for weakness on another (e.g., motivation/ environment).
  28. 28. Confluence of the Six Creativity Resources (3) 3. Interaction may occur between components, in which high levels on both components could exponentially enhance creativity (as intellectual abilities & motivation).
  29. 29. Decisions to Creativity in Research
  30. 30. Decisions to Develop Creativity (1) (1) Redefine problems, (2) Question & analyze assumptions, (3) Do not assume that creative ideas sell themselves: sell them, (4) Encourage the generation of ideas, (5) Recognize that knowledge can both help & hinder creativity, (6) Identify & surmount obstacles, (7) Take sensible risks,
  31. 31. Decisions to Develop Creativity (2) (8) Tolerate ambiguity, (9) Believe in oneself (self-efficacy), (10) Find what one loves to do, (k) Delay gratification, (11) Role-model creativity, (12) Cross-fertilize ideas, (13) Reward creativity,
  32. 32. Decisions to Develop Creativity (3) (14) Allow mistakes, (15) Encourage collaboration, (16) See things from others’ points of view, (17) Take responsibility for successes & failures, (18) Maximize person– environment fit, (19) Continue to allow intellectual growth
  33. 33. Assessments
  34. 34. Assessments of Creative Talent • Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Torrance, 1974) • remain the most widely used assessments of creative talent.
  35. 35. Assessments of Thinking Styles • Questionnaire to help understand thinking styles—how person tend to approach situations & make decisions. • There are no right or wrong answers. • Think about how you actually behave & choose the response that most accurately describes you. Pearson Education, Inc http://www.thinkwatson.com/mythinkingstyles-start
  36. 36. Creativity & Science
  37. 37. Creativity & Science Creativity is, by its nature, propulsion. It moves a field from some point to another. There are 3 major types of creativity contributions (creativity) Types = Paradigms = Models
  38. 38. A. Creativity that Accept Current Paradigms & Attempt to Extend Them Replication (Stationary Motion) an attempt to show that the field is in the right place. The propulsion keeps the field where it is. Re-defintion (Circular Motion) an attempt to redefine where the field is. The current status of the field thus is seen from different points of view. Forward incrementation (Expected Rate) an attempt to move the field forward in the direction it already is going. Advance forward incrementation (Beyond Expected) an attempt to move the field forward in the direction it is already going but by moving beyond where others are ready for it to go.
  39. 39. B. Creativity that Reject Current Paradigms & Attempt to Replace Them Redirection (Motion in a direction That diverges from the way the field is currently moving). Reconstruction/ Redirection (Backward to original location then forward). Reinitiation (Attempt to move the field to a different, as-yet-unreached, starting point & then to move from that point).
  40. 40. C. Creativity that Attempt to Integrate Multiple Current Paradigms Integration. An attempt to integrate two formerly diverse ways of thinking about phenomena into a single way of thinking about a phenomenon. The propulsion thus is a combination of two different approaches that are linked together.
  41. 41. A Journal of Creativity Sciences & Research
  42. 42. Creativity in Research Journal 1988-Date Capture the full range of approaches to the study of creativity behavioral, clinical, cognitive, cross-cultural, developmental, educational, genetic, organizational, psychoanalytic, psychometrics, & social.
  43. 43. Creative Research Awards
  44. 44. Creative Research Medal 2015 Research Awards Program ©2016 University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc. University of Georgia Research Foundation. Jan Westpheling Professor of Genetics Engineered (biofuels ) ethanol production using bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii using sustainable biomass feedstocks, reducing dependence on non-renewable fuel & limiting the production of greenhouse gasses.
  45. 45. Creative Research Medal 2015 Research Awards Program ©2016 University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc. University of Georgia Research Foundation. Scott Ardoin Professor of Educational Psychology Application of eye-tracking devices, to better understand how & why students’ reading improves in repeated readings (RR) intervention.
  46. 46. Lamar Dodd Award 2015 Geert-Jan Boons Professor in Biochemical Sciences Developed vaccine that trains immune system to recognize & attack tumors— shrunk tumor 80 %. Developed method to synthesize asymmetrical N-glycans (structures that are essential for normal cell function). Will allow understanding of how complex carbohydrates function how to fight against the diseases some of them cause.
  47. 47. Thank you
  48. 48. Monday 12-2 pm. March 7, 2016 Program of scientific Research Skills Research Center-Center for Female Scientific & Medical Colleges- Deanship of Scientific Research Kind Saud University ‫محاضرة‬(‫العلمي‬ ‫البحث‬ ‫في‬ ‫األبداع‬) Creativity in Scientific Research . Dr. Amal Saadallah. Scientist/ Section Head NSBGL. Research Center KFSH&RC-R. Clinical Pathology Consultant . PhD Health Adminstration Deanship of Scientific Research Research Center-Center for Female Scientific & Medical Colleges

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