SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Unveiling the Depths: Exploring the Enigmatic World of Deep Sea Ecology

The deep sea is a vast and mysterious realm, encompassing the darkest and most remote parts of the ocean. It begins at around 200 meters (656 feet) below the surface and extends to the ocean floor, which can reach depths of over 11,000 meters (36,000 feet) in places like the Mariana Trench. This environment is characterized by extreme conditions: immense pressure, frigid temperatures, and near-total darkness. Despite these harsh conditions, life thrives in the deep sea, showcasing remarkable adaptations to survive.

1 of 25
Download to read offline
DEEP SEA ECOLOGY
Seminar presented by
Santanu Sahoo
department of Marine Biology
Vikrama Simhapuri University, Nellore
Introduction
Deep-Sea Ecology – is the study of the marine organisms living in the aphotic zone .
• Largest ecosystem on earth approximately 54% of the surface of the earth covered
by ocean more than 3000 meters deep.
• Not lifeless as thought 200 years ago
• Shells Frist dreged from deep sea in 1846
• 1967, first quantitative measure of deep sea diversity by Hessler & Sanders
• 2006 : venter sampling of microorganisms
• Freyastera tuberculata(NOAA, 2022) – a deep sea starfish a newly identified
species living in a hydrothermal seep in the deep Sea.
IMPORTANCE OF DEEP
SEA
• climate regulation
• waste absorption and detoxification
• Oil, gas, mineral and biomedical resources
• Help us fill gaps to better understand planetary-scale
processes including tectonics and marine hazards
• Biological resources
Ocean light zonation
• Photic Zone(0-200m) –Surface layer of the Ocean that receives Sunlight ,
also called euphotic Zone or lighted Zone.
• Disphotic Zone(200-1000m) – the upper layer of the deep sea which
receives some light
• Aphotic Zone(>1000m)– Only small amount of light Penetrates the water .
Plant do not grow due to insufficient of light. The darkness layer or Aphotic
Zone is entirely dark meaning there is no light. About 90% of the ocean is in
this layer.
Ocean Vertical Zonation
• Epipelagic – (0-200m) the part of the ocean where there is enough sunlight
for algae to utilize photosynthesis
• Mesopelagic – (200-1000m)is cold and its light is dim, but with flashes of
bioluminescence—light produced by living organisms.
• Bathypelagic – (1000-4000m)is characterized by darkness, cold, high
pressure and low biological activity. Seasonal variations are essentially nil.
• Abyssalpelagic – (4000-6000m) is characterized by darkness, high pressure
(200-1000 atmos.), cold (less than 4°Celsius) and low levels of dissolved
oxygen. Physical change or variation appears slight, if any
• Haldalpelagic – (6000-10,000m) The bottommost layer of the oceanic zone,
lying below the abyssopelagic zone at depths greater than about 6,000 m
(19,680 ft).
N.B- The deepest part of the ocean is called the Challenger Deep and is
located beneath the western Pacific Ocean in the southern end of the Mariana
Trench, which runs several hundred kilometres southwest of the U.S.
Territorial island of Guam. Challenger Deep is approximately 10,935 meters
(35,876 feet) deep.
Deep-sea Habitats
▸ Heterotrophic habitats, the faunal communities depend, ultimately, on
organic matter produced at the surface by photosynthesis and are therefore
dependent on solar energy.
▸ Chemosynthetic habitats, the biological communities are sustained by the
energy provided by inorganic reduced chemicals such as hydrogen sulphide
(H2S) or methane (CH4) from the Earth’s interior.

More Related Content

Similar to Unveiling the Depths: Exploring the Enigmatic World of Deep Sea Ecology

Similar to Unveiling the Depths: Exploring the Enigmatic World of Deep Sea Ecology (20)

Oceanic pelagic zone biology biome project
Oceanic pelagic zone biology biome projectOceanic pelagic zone biology biome project
Oceanic pelagic zone biology biome project
 
Oceanic pelagic zone biology biome project FINAL
Oceanic pelagic zone biology biome project FINALOceanic pelagic zone biology biome project FINAL
Oceanic pelagic zone biology biome project FINAL
 
Marine Biology 2nd sem (full sylabus)
Marine Biology 2nd sem (full sylabus)Marine Biology 2nd sem (full sylabus)
Marine Biology 2nd sem (full sylabus)
 
Marine biomeorig
Marine biomeorigMarine biomeorig
Marine biomeorig
 
Marine biomeorig
Marine biomeorigMarine biomeorig
Marine biomeorig
 
So You Think You Are Alone Corals
So You Think You Are Alone   CoralsSo You Think You Are Alone   Corals
So You Think You Are Alone Corals
 
a1 深海.pdf
a1 深海.pdfa1 深海.pdf
a1 深海.pdf
 
a1 深.pdf
a1 深.pdfa1 深.pdf
a1 深.pdf
 
Ocean
OceanOcean
Ocean
 
Sea Life Compass PPT
Sea Life Compass PPTSea Life Compass PPT
Sea Life Compass PPT
 
DEEP SEA FISHES(Girja Pd.Patel).pptx
DEEP SEA FISHES(Girja Pd.Patel).pptxDEEP SEA FISHES(Girja Pd.Patel).pptx
DEEP SEA FISHES(Girja Pd.Patel).pptx
 
Hydrosphere
HydrosphereHydrosphere
Hydrosphere
 
Origin and Distributions of Aquatic Biomes and Communities
Origin and Distributions of Aquatic Biomes and Communities Origin and Distributions of Aquatic Biomes and Communities
Origin and Distributions of Aquatic Biomes and Communities
 
Ocean
Ocean Ocean
Ocean
 
Marine biology.ppt
Marine biology.pptMarine biology.ppt
Marine biology.ppt
 
Origin and reefs of the world
Origin and reefs of the worldOrigin and reefs of the world
Origin and reefs of the world
 
Origin and reefs of the world
Origin and reefs of the worldOrigin and reefs of the world
Origin and reefs of the world
 
Classification of marine environment ppt
Classification of marine environment pptClassification of marine environment ppt
Classification of marine environment ppt
 
Adaptations in deep sea fishes
Adaptations in deep sea fishesAdaptations in deep sea fishes
Adaptations in deep sea fishes
 
Marine biotechnology - coral reefs
Marine biotechnology - coral reefsMarine biotechnology - coral reefs
Marine biotechnology - coral reefs
 

Recently uploaded

Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...
Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...
Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdf
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdfInvasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdf
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdfadmin944664
 
Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)
Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)
Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Trees, forests and landscapes for people and the planet
Trees, forests and landscapes for people and the planetTrees, forests and landscapes for people and the planet
Trees, forests and landscapes for people and the planetCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Types of Natural Vegetation in India PPT
Types of Natural Vegetation in India PPTTypes of Natural Vegetation in India PPT
Types of Natural Vegetation in India PPTrakesh64416
 
Mangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for Indonesia
Mangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for IndonesiaMangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for Indonesia
Mangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for IndonesiaCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Compact Hydrogen Refueling Station(CHRS)
Compact Hydrogen Refueling Station(CHRS)Compact Hydrogen Refueling Station(CHRS)
Compact Hydrogen Refueling Station(CHRS)HNO International
 
Partnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and Communities
Partnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and CommunitiesPartnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and Communities
Partnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and CommunitiesGreenBiz Group
 
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptx
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptxInvasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptx
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptxadmin944664
 
Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon as Natural...
Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon  as Natural...Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon  as Natural...
Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon as Natural...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
WEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptx
WEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptxWEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptx
WEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptxRIZZAMAEVPELOMINO
 
Kebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi global
Kebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi globalKebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi global
Kebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi globalCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Coffs Harbour Australie Handelsmissie presentatie
Coffs Harbour Australie Handelsmissie presentatieCoffs Harbour Australie Handelsmissie presentatie
Coffs Harbour Australie Handelsmissie presentatieMetaSus
 
Blue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementation
Blue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementationBlue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementation
Blue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementationCIFOR-ICRAF
 
That tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdf
That tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdfThat tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdf
That tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdfdrsk203
 
澳大利亚国立大学毕业证制作流程ANU毕业证文凭学历学位认证
澳大利亚国立大学毕业证制作流程ANU毕业证文凭学历学位认证澳大利亚国立大学毕业证制作流程ANU毕业证文凭学历学位认证
澳大利亚国立大学毕业证制作流程ANU毕业证文凭学历学位认证8cuw8kc0
 
National Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptx
National Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptxNational Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptx
National Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptxNeeraj Kumar Rai
 
The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...
The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...
The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Growth, rhizome yield and biochemical components of turmeric (Curcuma longa L...
Growth, rhizome yield and biochemical components of turmeric (Curcuma longa L...Growth, rhizome yield and biochemical components of turmeric (Curcuma longa L...
Growth, rhizome yield and biochemical components of turmeric (Curcuma longa L...Open Access Research Paper
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...
Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...
Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...
 
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdf
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdfInvasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdf
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdf
 
Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)
Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)
Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)
 
Trees, forests and landscapes for people and the planet
Trees, forests and landscapes for people and the planetTrees, forests and landscapes for people and the planet
Trees, forests and landscapes for people and the planet
 
Types of Natural Vegetation in India PPT
Types of Natural Vegetation in India PPTTypes of Natural Vegetation in India PPT
Types of Natural Vegetation in India PPT
 
Mangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for Indonesia
Mangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for IndonesiaMangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for Indonesia
Mangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for Indonesia
 
Compact Hydrogen Refueling Station(CHRS)
Compact Hydrogen Refueling Station(CHRS)Compact Hydrogen Refueling Station(CHRS)
Compact Hydrogen Refueling Station(CHRS)
 
Partnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and Communities
Partnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and CommunitiesPartnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and Communities
Partnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and Communities
 
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptx
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptxInvasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptx
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptx
 
Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon as Natural...
Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon  as Natural...Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon  as Natural...
Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon as Natural...
 
WEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptx
WEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptxWEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptx
WEEK 5 community action and modalities.pptx
 
Conservation Delivery in Pacific Island Communities
Conservation Delivery in Pacific Island CommunitiesConservation Delivery in Pacific Island Communities
Conservation Delivery in Pacific Island Communities
 
Kebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi global
Kebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi globalKebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi global
Kebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi global
 
Coffs Harbour Australie Handelsmissie presentatie
Coffs Harbour Australie Handelsmissie presentatieCoffs Harbour Australie Handelsmissie presentatie
Coffs Harbour Australie Handelsmissie presentatie
 
Blue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementation
Blue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementationBlue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementation
Blue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementation
 
That tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdf
That tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdfThat tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdf
That tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdf
 
澳大利亚国立大学毕业证制作流程ANU毕业证文凭学历学位认证
澳大利亚国立大学毕业证制作流程ANU毕业证文凭学历学位认证澳大利亚国立大学毕业证制作流程ANU毕业证文凭学历学位认证
澳大利亚国立大学毕业证制作流程ANU毕业证文凭学历学位认证
 
National Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptx
National Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptxNational Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptx
National Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptx
 
The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...
The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...
The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...
 
Growth, rhizome yield and biochemical components of turmeric (Curcuma longa L...
Growth, rhizome yield and biochemical components of turmeric (Curcuma longa L...Growth, rhizome yield and biochemical components of turmeric (Curcuma longa L...
Growth, rhizome yield and biochemical components of turmeric (Curcuma longa L...
 

Unveiling the Depths: Exploring the Enigmatic World of Deep Sea Ecology

  • 1. DEEP SEA ECOLOGY Seminar presented by Santanu Sahoo department of Marine Biology Vikrama Simhapuri University, Nellore
  • 2. Introduction Deep-Sea Ecology – is the study of the marine organisms living in the aphotic zone . • Largest ecosystem on earth approximately 54% of the surface of the earth covered by ocean more than 3000 meters deep. • Not lifeless as thought 200 years ago • Shells Frist dreged from deep sea in 1846 • 1967, first quantitative measure of deep sea diversity by Hessler & Sanders • 2006 : venter sampling of microorganisms • Freyastera tuberculata(NOAA, 2022) – a deep sea starfish a newly identified species living in a hydrothermal seep in the deep Sea.
  • 3. IMPORTANCE OF DEEP SEA • climate regulation • waste absorption and detoxification • Oil, gas, mineral and biomedical resources • Help us fill gaps to better understand planetary-scale processes including tectonics and marine hazards • Biological resources
  • 4. Ocean light zonation • Photic Zone(0-200m) –Surface layer of the Ocean that receives Sunlight , also called euphotic Zone or lighted Zone. • Disphotic Zone(200-1000m) – the upper layer of the deep sea which receives some light • Aphotic Zone(>1000m)– Only small amount of light Penetrates the water . Plant do not grow due to insufficient of light. The darkness layer or Aphotic Zone is entirely dark meaning there is no light. About 90% of the ocean is in this layer.
  • 5. Ocean Vertical Zonation • Epipelagic – (0-200m) the part of the ocean where there is enough sunlight for algae to utilize photosynthesis • Mesopelagic – (200-1000m)is cold and its light is dim, but with flashes of bioluminescence—light produced by living organisms. • Bathypelagic – (1000-4000m)is characterized by darkness, cold, high pressure and low biological activity. Seasonal variations are essentially nil. • Abyssalpelagic – (4000-6000m) is characterized by darkness, high pressure (200-1000 atmos.), cold (less than 4°Celsius) and low levels of dissolved oxygen. Physical change or variation appears slight, if any • Haldalpelagic – (6000-10,000m) The bottommost layer of the oceanic zone, lying below the abyssopelagic zone at depths greater than about 6,000 m (19,680 ft). N.B- The deepest part of the ocean is called the Challenger Deep and is located beneath the western Pacific Ocean in the southern end of the Mariana Trench, which runs several hundred kilometres southwest of the U.S. Territorial island of Guam. Challenger Deep is approximately 10,935 meters (35,876 feet) deep.
  • 6. Deep-sea Habitats ▸ Heterotrophic habitats, the faunal communities depend, ultimately, on organic matter produced at the surface by photosynthesis and are therefore dependent on solar energy. ▸ Chemosynthetic habitats, the biological communities are sustained by the energy provided by inorganic reduced chemicals such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) or methane (CH4) from the Earth’s interior.
  • 7. Environmental characteristics Characteristics of a Typical Abyssal plain Habitat at 3000m Water pressure – 300atm Water temperature – 1° to 2°c Salinity – 34.5-35% Dissolved oxygen – 5ppm Light – Bioluminescence Current slow - <1cm/s or 0.7km/day Sediment Type soft fine oozes or clay Deposition rate <0.01mm/yr. Organic Content – 0-0.5% Data collected from Gage and tylet,1991
  • 8. Pressure • Increase of pressure by 1 atm (14.7 lb/in² or 1 kg/cm²) per 10 m descend • Hydrostatic pressure plays a major role to adaptations in deep- sea • environment inefficient muscles enzymes • lower metabolic rates and sluggish • Homeoviscous adaptation- an adaptation of organisms in the deep-sea incorporating more fluid lipids into their membranes to withstand high pressure. • pressure increases and temperature decreases, the solubility of CaCo3 increases which means that shell-forming species decreases with deep.
  • 9. Salinity and Temperature Salinity • remarkably constant • not a limiting factor Temperature ▸ thermocline (100-1000 meters in thickness) ▸ cold and homogenous below the thermocline ▸ thermoclines are strongest in the tropics drops by 5 to 6 °C at 1000m ▸ isothermal from 3000m to 4000m ▸ no seasonal temperature changes in the deep ‣ hydrothermal vents – 400°C but kept from boiling by hydrostatic pressure
  • 10. GENERAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DEEP-SEA ORGANISMS Reproduction and development • Few eggs, large, yolk rich • Slow gametogenesis • Late reproductive maturity • Reduced gonadal volume Slow embryological development • Breed usually once (semelparous)
  • 11. GENERAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DEEP-SEA ORGANISMS Physiological • low metabolic rate • Low activity level • low enzyme concentration • high water content • low protein content • a small size
  • 12. GENERAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DEEP-SEA ORGANISMS Ecological • Slow, indeterminate growth • high longevity • slow colonization rate • low population densities • low mortality due to low predation pressure
  • 13. Epipelagic Mesopelagic (vertical migrators) Mesopelagic (Non migrators) Deep pelagic Deep sea pelagic Size Wide size range from tiny to huge Small Small Relatively small, larger than Mesopelagic Relatively large Shape Streamlined Relatively elongated or laterally compressed Relatively elongated or laterally compressed No streamlining often globular in shape Very elongated Musculature Strong muscles fast swimming Moderately strong muscles Week, flabby muscles Week, flabby muscles Strong muscles Eye characteristics Large eyes Very large, sensitive eye Very large sensitive eyes, sometimes tubular eyes Eye small, sometimes absent Small eyes Colouration Typically counter shaping : dark and white or silver belly Black or black with silver sides and belly: counter illumination Black or black with silver sides and belly: counter illumination Black, occasionally red, often lack Colouration at greatest depths Dark brown or black Bioluminescence Bioluminescence relatively Bioluminescence common, often Bioluminescence common, often Bioluminescence common,often Only a few groups
  • 14. PROBLEMS OF DEEP LIVING • PRESSURE – increases by 1 atmosphere per 10m in depth • LIGHT – little light penetrates deeper than 200m • TEMPERATURE – The coldest waters are found in the deepest depths – only a few °C • LACK OF NUTRIENTS – low densities of organisms and virtually no producers (<5% of photic zone) However the seabed is rich with decaying organisms
  • 15. DEEP SEA ADAPTATION HIDING IN THE DARK TRANSPARENCY – what light there is passes through these organisms – making them invisible REFLECTIVE – mirror like scales reflect what light there is, so the fish match the background – no silhouette PHOTOPHORES – Light emitting organs on the ventral surface faintly lights their underside –silhouette does not stand out RED PIGMENTS – Red light is the first to disappear. Red pigmented organisms appear black (camouflaged) in the deep ocean
  • 16. ADAPTATIONS TO DEEP LIVING •ENLARGED AND SPECIALISED EYES – many low light sensitive rod cells to detect what little light there is (but colour blind) Mesopelagic – minute amounts of light from the surface Bathypelagic – light from bioluminescence •TELESCOPE EYES – As in Gigantura – to give better binocular vision for hunting •UPWARD POINTING EYES – Looking towards the surface – to see the silhouette of fish swimming above against the faint light of the surface
  • 17. BIOLUMINESENCE •Light emitting organs have a variety of uses: •HEADLIGHTS – producing light to see prey •LURES-to attract prey •MATE ATTRACTION •COMMUNICATION – especially in squid •DECOYS and SMOKESCREENS – squid squirt luminous ink to startle predators & hide their escape Jellyfish, starfish, crustaceans, squid, sharks are some of the marine organisms that exhibit bioluminescence
  • 18. ECOLOGY OF THE BENTHOS Faunal Composition •Crustaceans (isopods, amphipods, tanaids and cumaceans)-30-50% •Polychaete worms-40-80% •Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidae)- 30-80%, deposit feeders, abyssal oozes are excellent food source •Starfish (Asteroidea), sea lilies (Crinoidea), sea urchins (Echinodea)- minimal •Glass sponges (Hexactinellida) •Sea anemones (Anthozoa) •Rat tails (Macrouidae), cusk eels, bythidids (brotulas), liparids (snaifishes) and certain eels
  • 19. ANIMALS IN THE DEEP-SEA • Annelida (segmented worm)- sandworms. Clamworms • Arthropoda (segmented body)- crustaceans • Mollusca- Snails, octopus • Echinodermata- sea stars, sea cucumber • Cnidaria- corals, jelly fish ▸ Pogonophora- beard worm • Sipuncula- peanut worm • Echiura- spoon worm Nemertea- ribbon worm • Hemichordata- acorn worm • Priapulida- penis worm • Brachiopoda- lamp shell • Ectoprocta- moss animals • Chordata- fishes
  • 20. DESTROY DEEP SEA ECOLOGY • Anthropogenic disturbance • with new and direct threats from mineral mining increasing with technological advances • Ghost fishing ( various types of waste gears dropped under the deep sea and this is destroy the deep sea organisms ) • Annual whale slaughter tradition in Denmark turns sea red over 100 whales killed . The natives of the faroe Islands in Denmark had been practicing this tradition for centuries dating back to 1584 ( data collected from wekipedia )
  • 22. DEEP SEA RESEARCH PROJECT NAME 1. India launch a project “Samudrayaan” under research centre National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) 2022 2. Deep Oceanic Observing Strategy (DOOS) under various deep sea project- • Deep pelagic Nekton Dynamics of the Gulf of Mexico • The ocean Twilight zone project • Deep Ocean-Stewardship Initiative (DOSI) 3. The Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) an Ocean drilling project from 1968-1983 The program was Co-ordinated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego.
  • 23. REFERENCE • Book- Deep Sea Biology, J.D Gage &P.A Tyler • Electronic media – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_sea_community#Zones https://www.slideshare.net/DrShaleeshaAStanley/deep-sea- adaptationsppt https://www.slideshare.net/GeronimoRosario/deep-sea-ecology- 207590903
  • 24. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my special thanks and gratitude to my teachers as well as our faculty mam who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic Deep Sea Ecology which also helped me in doing a lot of research and I came to know about so many new things. I am really thankful to them. It really helped me increase my knowledge and skills. THANKS TO EVERYONE WHO HELPED.