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Variation within species & mutations and selective advantage

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Variation within species & mutations and selective advantage

  1. 1. Variation Within Species & Mutations and Selective Advantage<br />Patrick Zisser and Peter Dyloco<br />
  2. 2. A group of organisms that can interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring<br />Species<br />
  3. 3. A part of a chromosome that governs the expression of a trait and is passed on to the offspring; it has a specific DNA sequence<br />Gene<br />
  4. 4. What is genetic variation?<br />
  5. 5. Genetic Variation<br />The different allele combinations in a species that cause differently expressed phenotypes and genotypes<br />
  6. 6. Cause of Genetic Variation<br />Order of bases in nucleotides<br />
  7. 7. Variation Within Species<br />
  8. 8. Factors in Genetic Variation<br />Total variety of genetic information<br />Independent Assortment<br />Crossing over/random segregation<br />Mutations<br />Gene flow<br />
  9. 9. Genetic Diversity: Total Variety of Genetic Information<br />VS.<br />
  10. 10. A permanent change in the genetic material of an organism, the only source of new genetic variation<br />Mutation<br />
  11. 11. Causes of mutation <br />
  12. 12. Causes of Mutation<br />Natural:<br />Errors during DNA replication or meiosis<br />Environmental<br />Mutagens<br />Radiation<br />Viruses<br />Transposons<br />Chemicals<br />
  13. 13. Natural: occurs during DNA replication or meiosis; when DNA is copied and before cell divides (S phase) 175 mutations vs. parent<br />
  14. 14. Environmental: Mutagens - Radiation<br />
  15. 15. Environmental: Mutagens - Viruses<br />
  16. 16. Environmental: Mutagens - Transposons<br />A segment of DNA that can become integrated at many different sites along a chromosome (especially a segment of bacterial DNA that can be translocated as a whole)<br />
  17. 17. Environmental: Mutagens - Chemicals<br />
  18. 18. Gene Flow<br />The net movement of alleles from one population to another due to the migration of animals<br />
  19. 19. Results of mutation <br />
  20. 20. Cell death<br />Cell malfunction<br />Selective advantage<br />
  21. 21. Cell Death and Malfunction<br />
  22. 22. Mutations in somatic cell disappear after death of organism<br />Only mutation in gamete cell may pass trait as new allele<br />Note<br />
  23. 23. A genetic advantage that improves an organism's chance of survival usually in a changing environment<br />Selective Advantage<br />
  24. 24. Example I: Daphnia<br />
  25. 25. Example II: Bacteria<br />
  26. 26. End.<br />

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