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Long Term Evolution (LTE)

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An overview of LTE including OFDMA and SC-FDMA basic principles

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Long Term Evolution (LTE)

  1. 1. Long-Term Evolution (LTE) . Submitted by Hussein M. Al-Sanabani Supervisor Yrd.Doç.Dr. MURAT İSKEFİYELİ ByHusseinAL-Sanabani
  2. 2. Topics  IntroductionIntroduction  LTE Network ArchitectureLTE Network Architecture  LTETechnologiesLTETechnologies  Evolution of LTE-AdvancedEvolution of LTE-Advanced  ResearchesResearches  ReferencesReferences By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  3. 3. Introduction Welcome to the world of LTE! ByHusseinAL-Sanabani
  4. 4. What is LTE?  In Nov. 2004, 3GPP began a project to define the long-term evolution (LTE) of Universal MobileTelecommunications System (UMTS) cellular technology  Higher performance (Data rates && Reduced delay/latency )  Backwards compatible  Wide application  Works with IP network  LTE is the next generation of Mobile broadband technology By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  5. 5. Evolution of Radio AccessTechnologies  LTE (3.9G) : 3GPP release 8~9  LTE-Advanced : 3GPP release 10+ 802.16d/e 802.16m By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  6. 6. 3GPP UMTS Long-Term Evolution By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  7. 7. LTETARGETs  Packet-Domain-Services only (e.g.VoIP) TCP/IP- based layers  Higher peak data rate/ user throughput  150 Mbps DL/75 Mbps UL @20MHz bandwidth  Reduced delay/latency  user-plane latency<10ms  Improved spectrum efficiency  up to 200 active users in a cell @5MHz bandwidth  Mobility  optimized for low-mobility (up to 15Km/h), supported with high performance for medium mobility (up to 120 Km/h), supported for high mobility (up to 500 Km/h)  Multimedia broadcast & multicast services  Spectrum flexibility ( Support of scalable bandwidth: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz)  Support for interworking with legacy networks  Cost-efficiency: 1. Cost-effective when add new node (upgrade) in LTE network. 2. Cost-effective migration from legacy networks  Coverage  up to 30 Km By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  8. 8. Key Factors of LTE By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  9. 9. LTE Network Architecture What is the Architecture of LTE Network? ByHusseinAL-Sanabani
  10. 10. The Evolved Packet Core  Circuit and Packet domains By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  11. 11. LTE Network Architecture E-UTRAN = Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  12. 12. Network Architecture – E-UTRAN  User Equipment  Evolved Node B (eNB) Functionalities: 1) Provides radio resource management functions, and handover events 2) Provides admission control and scheduling By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  13. 13. Network Architecture Evolved Packet Core  Mobility Management Entity  key control-node for the LTE access-network. Functionalities: deals with the control plane. 1) Manages mobility and provides security Responsible for control procedures, such as authentication and security, and storing of users’ position information By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  14. 14. Network Architecture Evolved Packet Core (Cont)  Serving Gateway  Functionalities: deal with the user plane 1) Responsible for routing and forwarding user data packets 2) Provides Mobility Acts as mobility anchor for inter-eNB handovers and for mobility between LTE and other 3GPP (mobility interface to other networks such as 2G/3G). By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  15. 15. Network Architecture Evolved Packet Core (Cont)  Packet Data Network Gateway  Functionalities: deal with the user plane 1) Provides connectivity to the UE to external packet data networks (IP networks (Internet)). 2) Performs policy enforcement, packet filtering for each user, support charging, etc. 3) Act as the anchor for mobility between 3GPP and non-3GPP technologies (WiMAX) By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  16. 16. LTETechnologies What is an LTE Network made up of? ByHusseinAL-Sanabani
  17. 17. LTETechnologies  Spectrum Flexibility  OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) for downlink  SC-FDMA (Single Carrier – Frequency Division Multiple Access) for uplink  MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  18. 18. LTE spectrum (bandwidth and duplex) flexibility By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  19. 19. FDM vs. OFDM By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  20. 20. Difference between OFDM and OFDMA  LTE uses OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) more advanced form of OFDM where subcarriers are allocated to different users over time By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  21. 21. LTE downlink OFDMA  LTE provides QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM as downlink modulation schemes  Cyclic prefix is used as guard interval  15 kHz subcarrier spacing  Scalable bandwidth By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  22. 22. LTE Uplink (SC-FDMA)  l Similar to OFDM signal, but…  in OFDM, each sub-carrier only carries information related to one specific symbol,  in SC-FDMA, each sub-carrier contains information of ALL transmitted symbols. By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  23. 23. SC-FDMA vs. OFDMA A salient advantage of SC-FDMA over OFDMA is low to Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) : Increasing battery life By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  24. 24. Multi-antenna techniques( MIMO) By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  25. 25. Advantages of LTE  Provides low latency  Increased data transfer speed  High spectral efficiency  Support of variable bandwidth  FDD andTDD within a single radio access technology  More cost effectiveness  Compatibility and interworking with earlier 3GPP Releases  Efficient Multicast/Broadcast  Improvements over 3G network By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  26. 26. Evolution of LTE-Advanced ByHusseinAL-Sanabani
  27. 27. Evolution of LTE-Advanced  Carrier aggregation  Enhanced uplink and Downlink multiple access  Enhanced Multi-antennaTransmissionTechniques  Downlink 8 antennas  Uplink 4 antennas  Support of Larger Bandwidth in LTE-Advanced  Support heterogeneous network  Self Optimizing networks (SON) By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  28. 28. LTE vs. LTE-Advanced By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  29. 29. Comparing LTE, LTE-Advanced and IMT- Advanced Requirements By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  30. 30. ResearchesResearches ByHusseinAL-Sanabani
  31. 31. Researches (1)Researches (1)  Title:  An efficient power-saving transmission mechanism in LTE macrocell-femtocell hybrid networks  Author:  Yao-Liang Chung  Institute:  Department of Communication Engineering, NationalTaipei University  Published on:  2014 Information Networking (ICOIN), International Conference By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  32. 32. Research: 1 contcont..  This paper discusses how to improve the energy - saving performance by using LTE macrocell-femtocell hybrid networks.  This mechanism is able to greatly improve the energy -saving performance, while maintaining the required data rate, by intelligently activating /deactivating each Femto Group (FG).  The results of this paper demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to achieve a much better energy -saving performance, when compared it with the existing approaches . By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  33. 33. Research: 1 cont. By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  34. 34. Researches (2)Researches (2)  Title:  LTE forVehicular Networking: A Survey  Author:  Araniti, G. ; Campolo, C. ; Condoluci, M. ; Iera, A. more authors  Institute:  University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria  Published on:  2013 Communications Magazine, IEEE (Volume:51 , Issue: 5 ) By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  35. 35. Research: 2 contcont..  In this paper discuss the usability of LTE to support vehicular applications, as they currently do by IEEE 802.11p (e.g., road safety and traffic efficiency services). And also support the applications mainly benefit from this promising cellular technology (e.g., VoIP, file sharing, video streaming, web browsing, social networking, blog uploading, gaming, cloud access).  They say how to Take advantage from strengths of LTE (high capacity, wide coverage, high performance) to face the well- known drawbacks of IEEE 802.11p (poor scalability, low capacity, intermittent connectivity).  LTE has overcome over IEEE 802.11p in terms of coverage (e.g.,In rural areas where the car density is low. By Hussein AL-Sanabani
  36. 36. ThankYou! I’d like to answer any questions that you have… ByHusseinAL-Sanabani
  37. 37. References  http://www.3gpp.org/technologies/tutorials-tools  http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/en/home_48230.html  http://www.ericsson.com/ericsson/corpinfo/publications/revi ew/2007_03/files/5_LTE_SAE.pdf By Hussein AL-Sanabani

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