Multiple choice in movement.
Choose your answer to the following two multiple choice
questions by running to one of the four corners of the room
choosing on of the four letters A, B, C and D on the wall.
• A. CLIL is teaching your subject in English
• B. CLIL is teaching content in L2
• C. CLIL is teaching a foreign language
• D. CLIL is teaching your subject together with the L2
• A. CLIL is teaching vocabulary in L2
• B. CLIL is a teacher-centred approach
• C. CLIL is emphasis on language accuracy
• D. CLIL is a student-centred approach
The picture, representing two acrobats of the Cirque du Soleil is
shown to introduce the idea of “fusion”, the strict connection
between Language and Content assuming that CLIL is not only
language teaching, not only content teaching rather it is “a dual
Birth of CLIL education
CLIL education first appeared in Canada. In 1965, on the initiative
of parents, dissatisfied with the low effectiveness of French
language teaching in Quebec, the original concept of foreign
language teaching was drafted. It was named ‘immersion’ (Iluk:
2000: 15). It was based on the teaching of non-linguistic subjects
in a foreign language. In this case, it was the French language
taught to children whose native language was English.
The continued research to this day related to this experiment
produced results which are so positive that they encouraged other
countries to introduce this form of education.
It turned out that bilingual children
do not only have a higher level of L2
knowledge, but also of L1,
and that they achieve higher scores
in non-linguistic subjects!!!
Birth of CLIL education
• USA: Bilingual Education and Content Based
In the US, with a multilingual population, the main concern
has been to guarantee that all school children can fully
function in English, specially, in academic contexts. Because
of the increase of students from abroad in North-American
universities, content-based programmes have been more
and more widely used to help these students cope with the
demands of academic objectives.
• Europe & Asia: CLIL/AICLE/EMILE
In Europe and Asia, most of the programmes are designed
to improve the learning of foreign languages.
CBT/BE/IP/CLIL PROGRAMMES share:
• The foreign language is used as a vehicle for accessing
• The foreign language is used for instruction and
• Learning the language and learning content are part of
the same process.
• Development of cognitive flexibility and reflection upon
the linguistic and communicative functioning of both
languages is key.
• According to David Marsh, a leading expert in CLIL who
first introduced it by name in 1994 'CLIL (Content and
Language Integrated Learning) refers to situations where
subjects, or parts of subjects, are taught through a foreign
language with dual-focused aims, namely the learning of
content, and the simultaneous learning of a foreign
language'. (Marsh, 1994)
Forms of CLIL
Thousands different varieties of CLIL teaching exist. The
reasoning behind selection is governed by a necessity of an
adaptation to local conditions like the educational system,
organizational and personnel resources, the specific aims of CLIL
education and their implementation, the learner profile, the
learners’ needs, in addition to social and political
considerations. Below are examples of existing forms of CLIL
• Language showers – implementation of CLIL in frequent but
brief periods (from 10- 30 mins – three times a week – or
more). CLIL topics are according to school’s weekly
theme/topic. SOFT CLIL
• Chosen subjects taught in a foreign language. HARD CLIL
• Extracurricular activities: e.g. involvement In European
What CLIL is not?
• CLIL education is not based on providing a list of terminology to
be committed to memory.
• On the other hand, CLIL does not necessarily mean that the
lessons should be conducted totally and exclusively in a foreign
language. However, switching to the mother tongue (or another
language different than L2) should be conscious and justified.
• CLIL education is not a simple sum of language and subject
skills (we do not have double the amount of time at our
disposal). The main aim of such teaching is simultaneous
language and subject education, in an integrated way.
The choice of CLIL subjects
Curricular subjects that can be taught through the target language can be both from the humanities and scientific subjects.
Arguments for the humanities:
• Greater possibilities to make people sensitive to cultural aspects, to develop the attitude of tolerance and understanding,
the possibility to make comparisons between countries or introducing a European dimension for teaching.
Arguments for science subjects, including biology and geography:
• The contents can be demonstrated with the use of experiment or illustration, understood on the basis of background
knowledge or a coherent presentation.
The most often chosen subjects so far have:
• A considerable part of its content is pure data, feasible for visual observation.
• Cause-effect relations can be easily described.
• Wide usage of graphs, charts, maps exclude the need for long texts.
• Legends and descriptions of maps, drawings provide indispensable vocabulary.
• There is a greater freedom of topic choice.
• Enables the attainment of a wide range of skills in academic discourse- the interpretation of graphs, statistical data etc
• The availability of a qualified teaching staff is a common
criterion for a subject choice. Another one is the degree of
difficulty of the subject measured: the amount of essential
terminology, the degree of text difficulty, the type of
lecture (descriptive/argumentative), the experience of
target students with CLIL, and students’ cognitive and
Taking into account what has been said, the introduction of
a subject like entrepreneurship can be coherently done in a
foreign language to favour the strengthening of
competences which the labour market requires.
The choice of CLIL subjects
Principles of CLIL education
CLIL education should be based on the following principles (otherwise its effectiveness may be low):
• Constructing knowledge that excludes teacher-centered approaches and learning based on memorizing data.
• Language develops in social interactions and its use in practice.
• Teaching should be learner-centred.
• Active role of students in classroom activities.
• Cooperative learning should be introduced.
• Developing learner autonomy.
• Co-operation of foreign language teachers with subject teachers.
• Sufficient language input (maximum exposure to language).
• Teaching should be individualized, including learner training and development of learners’ strategies.
• Task-based approach, process-approach.
• Variety of teaching techniques with a variety of materials, including computer-assisted learning.
• Learning should always be context-based, placed in natural contexts.
• Developing different language skills (reading, listening, speaking, writing), not restricted to grammar and
• Contrastive approach (presentation of different perspectives, methods, approaches to the same concept etc,
including intercultural perspective whenever possible)
• Communicative approach; form-focused activities and language accuracy may be dealt with by language teachers
or at the end of the subject lessons
• Possibly well-balanced approach to teaching content and language
• Language redundancy (repetition of content with the use of various language means and materials).
The CLIL learner
CLIL experts do not get tired of pointing out that CLIL is not confined
to higher-achieving students. It is not an approach for the elite. It fits
in perfectly with a mixed-ability philosophy. At the same time there is
no „best“ time to start CLIL classes. At all stages from primary to
tertiary education CLIL classes enhance the students’ competences as
described in the document of European key competences for lifelong
CLIL lessons look different: there is less teacher talk and more
individual learning. Students rely on their prior knowledge and
experience creative authentic and meaningful learning
environments. Research into the effectiveness of CLIL classes started
late, but today there is sure evidence of the following:
• Students develop multilingual interest and attitudes
• Learners have more contact with the target language
• CLIL provides opportunities to study content through different
• CLIL complements other subjects rather than competes with them
• CLIL increases learners’ motivation and confidence in both the
language and the subject being taught.
The CLIL teacher
Since the early days of CLIL
the following questions have been under discussion:
• Who is qualified to implement CLIL?
• Is it the foreign language teacher or is it the subject teacher or
do we need a CLIL teacher?
Again, there is a variety of possible approaches, opinions, needs
and implementations. In some countries like in lower and upper
secondary schools in Finland there is a widespread tendency for
subject teachers to teach through the foreign language, even
though they lack specific and certified teacher training in the
foreign language itself. This contrasts to some other countries, for
example Austria and Germany, where many teachers have a dual
qualification, in English and history for example.
The CLIL teacher
• Of course, there is a clear consensus on the fact that in order to
teach through a foreign language, the teachers should have a
good command of the target language. However, the question
remains: “How good is good enough?”
• There is common agreement that a CLIL teacher`s language
competences are not necessarily identical with that of a
language teacher: the finer points of grammar may not be of
top priority, but extensive vocabulary knowledge and oral
skills are vital to organise successful CLIL classes. There is a
focus on lexis rather than on grammar. Keith Kelly (cf.
ingredients-successful-clil-0) advocates a level of foreign
language that is functionally adequate for working in the
subject in the classroom.
• As teachers are expected to teach their subject through English
and use strategies for supporting learners in English, they do
not necessarily have to be language teachers.
Lack of CLIL
• Although institutions providing education in many
European countries understand the benefits of CLIL in
their respective schools, they often complain about
the lack of CLIL teacher-training programmes in their
countries and in close connection to this the
unwillingness of teachers to take on the responsibility
of CLIL teaching.
• The obstacles are gradually removed by a number of
workshops, research-based empirical studies and
also literature that will help teachers to acquire
professional competences needed to implement CLIL.
There is not one single right CLIL methodology. Nevertheless,
there are a number of activities that have been used successfully
in CLIL classes:
• Scaffolding: Scaffolding supports learners in various ways and
thus enables them to do what they cannot yet do without
support. It provides individualized support and facilitates the
student’s ability to build on prior knowledge and internalize
new information. The activities provided in scaffolding
instruction are just beyond the level of what the learner can
do alone. Scaffolding does not necessarily come from the
teacher, but may also come from peers or different resources
(cf. LICI-Handbook, pp.96).
• 2. Negotiation of meaning: In this process teachers and
students try to convey information to one another and
reach mutual comprehension through restating, clarifying
and confirming information. The teacher may help
students to get started or to work through a stumbling
block using linguistic or other approaches. It is important
to note that negotiation refers to an activity implemented
as a collaborative activity in which students are active
participants and problem solvers, rather than an activity
initiated and carried out as teacher-lectured explanations
(cf. LICI-Handbook, p.123).
• 3. Mediation strategies: They reflect ways of coping with
the demands of using finite resources to process
information and establish equivalent meaning. The
strategies may involve developing background knowledge,
locating supports, preparing a glossary (planning),
processing input, noting possibilities and equivalencies,
bridging gaps (execution), checking congruence of two
versions, checking consistency of usage (evaluation) and
refining by consulting dictionaries, consulting experts and
sources (repair) (cf. LICI-Handbook pp.122)
• 4. Thinking skills and strategies: Thinking skills are
defined as the mental processes we use to do things like:
solve problems, make decisions, ask questions, make
plans, pass judgements, organise information and create
new ideas. Often we are not aware of our thinking - it
happens automatically - but if we take time to ponder
what is going on, then we can become more efficient and
more creative with our minds
Why CLIL in
In 2006, the European Commission released
the film “CLIL FOR THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY”,
Using languages to learn” to promote CLIL. It
was based on a concept developed by
members of the European CLIL consortium
which besides David Marsh, among the other
members, also included the experts Do Coyle
(UK), Maria Jesus Frigols (ES), Anne
Maljers(NL), Gisella Langé (IT).
Advantages and disadvantages of
using CLIL in entrepreneurial
• What opportunities does CLIL offer young people?
• What about the results of using CLIL?
• Is CLIL approach widespread in Europe?
• What does CLIL approach share across Europe in David Marsh’s
• According to what shown in the video, in which field is CLIL method
• What are the advantages of using CLIL?
• In which way does CLIL method improve the integration of a second
• Why CLIL in Europe?
• Manel Piñeiro, a Spanish CLIL teacher and teacher training
has produced a series of comic strips to put all his good
and bad moments in his long road through CLIL
instruction. These cartoons, are aimed at eliciting your
own observations about the features of CLIL approach.
• Please stand up and walk around to choose their favourite
cartoon. You need to explain your choice and the reason
for your choice.
This presentation was based on
• EDISON CLIL TRAINER AND TEACHERS GUIDELINES by Maria Peluso Claudia Saccone
• CLIL Context ,CLPI AICLE iniciació primària, CLSI AICLE iniciació secundària by Joan Alberich i
Carramiñana, Carme Florit Ballester ,Departament d’Ensenyament
• What’s the Deal with CLIL? by ShellyTerrell.com/CLIL
• Starting CLIL Handout by Formació inicial AICLE Professorat de primària Departament