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Clil training and teachers guidelines


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A presentation to train teachers to implement CLIL in their classes.

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Clil training and teachers guidelines

  1. 1. CLIL TRAINING AND TEACHERS’ GUIDELINES Anastasia Kapari October 2018
  3. 3. FEELINGS ABOUT CLIL •What do you Know about CLIL? •What do you Want to learn about CLIL?
  4. 4. Let’s watch some videos!!! • Intro videos
  5. 5. Warm up Multiple choice in movement. Choose your answer to the following two multiple choice questions by running to one of the four corners of the room choosing on of the four letters A, B, C and D on the wall.
  6. 6. QUESTION 1 • A. CLIL is teaching your subject in English • B. CLIL is teaching content in L2 • C. CLIL is teaching a foreign language • D. CLIL is teaching your subject together with the L2 teacher
  7. 7. QUESTION 2 • A. CLIL is teaching vocabulary in L2 • B. CLIL is a teacher-centred approach • C. CLIL is emphasis on language accuracy • D. CLIL is a student-centred approach
  8. 8. The picture, representing two acrobats of the Cirque du Soleil is shown to introduce the idea of “fusion”, the strict connection between Language and Content assuming that CLIL is not only language teaching, not only content teaching rather it is “a dual focused approach”.
  9. 9. Birth of CLIL education CLIL education first appeared in Canada. In 1965, on the initiative of parents, dissatisfied with the low effectiveness of French language teaching in Quebec, the original concept of foreign language teaching was drafted. It was named ‘immersion’ (Iluk: 2000: 15). It was based on the teaching of non-linguistic subjects in a foreign language. In this case, it was the French language taught to children whose native language was English. The continued research to this day related to this experiment produced results which are so positive that they encouraged other countries to introduce this form of education. It turned out that bilingual children do not only have a higher level of L2 knowledge, but also of L1, and that they achieve higher scores in non-linguistic subjects!!!
  10. 10. Birth of CLIL education • USA: Bilingual Education and Content Based In the US, with a multilingual population, the main concern has been to guarantee that all school children can fully function in English, specially, in academic contexts. Because of the increase of students from abroad in North-American universities, content-based programmes have been more and more widely used to help these students cope with the demands of academic objectives. • Europe & Asia: CLIL/AICLE/EMILE In Europe and Asia, most of the programmes are designed to improve the learning of foreign languages.
  11. 11. CBT/BE/IP/CLIL PROGRAMMES share: • The foreign language is used as a vehicle for accessing information. • The foreign language is used for instruction and communication. • Learning the language and learning content are part of the same process. • Development of cognitive flexibility and reflection upon the linguistic and communicative functioning of both languages is key.
  12. 12. Definition • According to David Marsh, a leading expert in CLIL who first introduced it by name in 1994 'CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) refers to situations where subjects, or parts of subjects, are taught through a foreign language with dual-focused aims, namely the learning of content, and the simultaneous learning of a foreign language'. (Marsh, 1994)
  13. 13. Forms of CLIL Thousands different varieties of CLIL teaching exist. The reasoning behind selection is governed by a necessity of an adaptation to local conditions like the educational system, organizational and personnel resources, the specific aims of CLIL education and their implementation, the learner profile, the learners’ needs, in addition to social and political considerations. Below are examples of existing forms of CLIL education: • Language showers – implementation of CLIL in frequent but brief periods (from 10- 30 mins – three times a week – or more). CLIL topics are according to school’s weekly theme/topic. SOFT CLIL • Chosen subjects taught in a foreign language. HARD CLIL • Extracurricular activities: e.g. involvement In European projects. •
  14. 14. What CLIL is not? • CLIL education is not based on providing a list of terminology to be committed to memory. • On the other hand, CLIL does not necessarily mean that the lessons should be conducted totally and exclusively in a foreign language. However, switching to the mother tongue (or another language different than L2) should be conscious and justified. • CLIL education is not a simple sum of language and subject skills (we do not have double the amount of time at our disposal). The main aim of such teaching is simultaneous language and subject education, in an integrated way.
  15. 15. The choice of CLIL subjects Curricular subjects that can be taught through the target language can be both from the humanities and scientific subjects. Arguments for the humanities: • Greater possibilities to make people sensitive to cultural aspects, to develop the attitude of tolerance and understanding, the possibility to make comparisons between countries or introducing a European dimension for teaching. Arguments for science subjects, including biology and geography: • The contents can be demonstrated with the use of experiment or illustration, understood on the basis of background knowledge or a coherent presentation. The most often chosen subjects so far have: • A considerable part of its content is pure data, feasible for visual observation. • Cause-effect relations can be easily described. • Wide usage of graphs, charts, maps exclude the need for long texts. • Legends and descriptions of maps, drawings provide indispensable vocabulary. • There is a greater freedom of topic choice. • Enables the attainment of a wide range of skills in academic discourse- the interpretation of graphs, statistical data etc
  16. 16. • The availability of a qualified teaching staff is a common criterion for a subject choice. Another one is the degree of difficulty of the subject measured: the amount of essential terminology, the degree of text difficulty, the type of lecture (descriptive/argumentative), the experience of target students with CLIL, and students’ cognitive and linguistic possibilities. Taking into account what has been said, the introduction of a subject like entrepreneurship can be coherently done in a foreign language to favour the strengthening of competences which the labour market requires. The choice of CLIL subjects
  17. 17. Principles of CLIL education CLIL education should be based on the following principles (otherwise its effectiveness may be low): • Constructing knowledge that excludes teacher-centered approaches and learning based on memorizing data. • Language develops in social interactions and its use in practice. • Teaching should be learner-centred. • Active role of students in classroom activities. • Cooperative learning should be introduced. • Developing learner autonomy. • Co-operation of foreign language teachers with subject teachers. • Sufficient language input (maximum exposure to language). • Teaching should be individualized, including learner training and development of learners’ strategies. • Task-based approach, process-approach. • Variety of teaching techniques with a variety of materials, including computer-assisted learning. • Learning should always be context-based, placed in natural contexts. • Developing different language skills (reading, listening, speaking, writing), not restricted to grammar and vocabulary. • Contrastive approach (presentation of different perspectives, methods, approaches to the same concept etc, including intercultural perspective whenever possible) • Communicative approach; form-focused activities and language accuracy may be dealt with by language teachers or at the end of the subject lessons • Possibly well-balanced approach to teaching content and language • Language redundancy (repetition of content with the use of various language means and materials).
  18. 18. The CLIL learner CLIL experts do not get tired of pointing out that CLIL is not confined to higher-achieving students. It is not an approach for the elite. It fits in perfectly with a mixed-ability philosophy. At the same time there is no „best“ time to start CLIL classes. At all stages from primary to tertiary education CLIL classes enhance the students’ competences as described in the document of European key competences for lifelong learning. CLIL lessons look different: there is less teacher talk and more individual learning. Students rely on their prior knowledge and experience creative authentic and meaningful learning environments. Research into the effectiveness of CLIL classes started late, but today there is sure evidence of the following: • Students develop multilingual interest and attitudes • Learners have more contact with the target language • CLIL provides opportunities to study content through different perspectives • CLIL complements other subjects rather than competes with them • CLIL increases learners’ motivation and confidence in both the language and the subject being taught.
  19. 19. What about the CLIL teacher??
  20. 20. The CLIL teacher Since the early days of CLIL the following questions have been under discussion: • Who is qualified to implement CLIL? • Is it the foreign language teacher or is it the subject teacher or do we need a CLIL teacher? Again, there is a variety of possible approaches, opinions, needs and implementations. In some countries like in lower and upper secondary schools in Finland there is a widespread tendency for subject teachers to teach through the foreign language, even though they lack specific and certified teacher training in the foreign language itself. This contrasts to some other countries, for example Austria and Germany, where many teachers have a dual qualification, in English and history for example.
  21. 21. The CLIL teacher • Of course, there is a clear consensus on the fact that in order to teach through a foreign language, the teachers should have a good command of the target language. However, the question remains: “How good is good enough?” • There is common agreement that a CLIL teacher`s language competences are not necessarily identical with that of a language teacher: the finer points of grammar may not be of top priority, but extensive vocabulary knowledge and oral skills are vital to organise successful CLIL classes. There is a focus on lexis rather than on grammar. Keith Kelly (cf. ingredients-successful-clil-0) advocates a level of foreign language that is functionally adequate for working in the subject in the classroom. • As teachers are expected to teach their subject through English and use strategies for supporting learners in English, they do not necessarily have to be language teachers.
  22. 22. Lack of CLIL teacher-training programmes • Although institutions providing education in many European countries understand the benefits of CLIL in their respective schools, they often complain about the lack of CLIL teacher-training programmes in their countries and in close connection to this the unwillingness of teachers to take on the responsibility of CLIL teaching. • The obstacles are gradually removed by a number of workshops, research-based empirical studies and also literature that will help teachers to acquire professional competences needed to implement CLIL.
  23. 23. Methodological approaches There is not one single right CLIL methodology. Nevertheless, there are a number of activities that have been used successfully in CLIL classes: • Scaffolding: Scaffolding supports learners in various ways and thus enables them to do what they cannot yet do without support. It provides individualized support and facilitates the student’s ability to build on prior knowledge and internalize new information. The activities provided in scaffolding instruction are just beyond the level of what the learner can do alone. Scaffolding does not necessarily come from the teacher, but may also come from peers or different resources (cf. LICI-Handbook, pp.96).
  24. 24. Methodological approaches • 2. Negotiation of meaning: In this process teachers and students try to convey information to one another and reach mutual comprehension through restating, clarifying and confirming information. The teacher may help students to get started or to work through a stumbling block using linguistic or other approaches. It is important to note that negotiation refers to an activity implemented as a collaborative activity in which students are active participants and problem solvers, rather than an activity initiated and carried out as teacher-lectured explanations (cf. LICI-Handbook, p.123).
  25. 25. Methodological approaches • 3. Mediation strategies: They reflect ways of coping with the demands of using finite resources to process information and establish equivalent meaning. The strategies may involve developing background knowledge, locating supports, preparing a glossary (planning), processing input, noting possibilities and equivalencies, bridging gaps (execution), checking congruence of two versions, checking consistency of usage (evaluation) and refining by consulting dictionaries, consulting experts and sources (repair) (cf. LICI-Handbook pp.122)
  26. 26. Methodological approaches • 4. Thinking skills and strategies: Thinking skills are defined as the mental processes we use to do things like: solve problems, make decisions, ask questions, make plans, pass judgements, organise information and create new ideas. Often we are not aware of our thinking - it happens automatically - but if we take time to ponder what is going on, then we can become more efficient and more creative with our minds (cf. ThinkingSkills.aspx).
  27. 27. Why CLIL in Entrepreneurship? In 2006, the European Commission released the film “CLIL FOR THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY”, Using languages to learn” to promote CLIL. It was based on a concept developed by members of the European CLIL consortium which besides David Marsh, among the other members, also included the experts Do Coyle (UK), Maria Jesus Frigols (ES), Anne Maljers(NL), Gisella Langé (IT). •
  28. 28. Advantages and disadvantages of using CLIL in entrepreneurial education Pre-viewing questions • What opportunities does CLIL offer young people? • What about the results of using CLIL? • Is CLIL approach widespread in Europe? • What does CLIL approach share across Europe in David Marsh’s opinion? • According to what shown in the video, in which field is CLIL method used? • What are the advantages of using CLIL? • In which way does CLIL method improve the integration of a second language? • Why CLIL in Europe?
  30. 30. CLIL cartoons • Manel Piñeiro, a Spanish CLIL teacher and teacher training has produced a series of comic strips to put all his good and bad moments in his long road through CLIL instruction. These cartoons, are aimed at eliciting your own observations about the features of CLIL approach. • Please stand up and walk around to choose their favourite cartoon. You need to explain your choice and the reason for your choice.
  32. 32. References This presentation was based on • EDISON CLIL TRAINER AND TEACHERS GUIDELINES by Maria Peluso Claudia Saccone • CLIL Context ,CLPI AICLE iniciació primària, CLSI AICLE iniciació secundària by Joan Alberich i Carramiñana, Carme Florit Ballester ,Departament d’Ensenyament • What’s the Deal with CLIL? by • Starting CLIL Handout by Formació inicial AICLE Professorat de primària Departament d’Ensenyament