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Cognitive fit theory

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Cognitive fit theory

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Cognitive fit theory

  1. 1. The institution of management Science Cognitive Fit: An Empirical Study of Information Acquisition By Iris Vessey & Dennis Galletta MIS `15 Mingun Jung
  2. 2. Basic Information of the Article Cited by 540 Published in 1991 Iris Vessey Dennis Galletta The field’s PIONEER
  3. 3. Problem Representation Problem Solving Skills Problem Solving Task Basic Theory (Cognitive fit theory) Problem Solution R -$X Mental Representation ! • Human use the three elements to make one’s mental representation and find the solution ? or↕
  4. 4. Problem Solving Task Problem Solving Skills Basic Theory (Cognitive fit theory) Problem Solution R -$X Mental Representation Problem Representation Cognitive Fit Major Effect Minor Effect • When Problem Representation is same with Problem Solving Task Type, Cognitive Fit occurs ↕ ↕
  5. 5. SkillMeasurementPilotTest SampleSelection Methodology (Process) ClassSessionMBA x128 G1 (n=16) G2 (n=16) G3 (n=16) G4 (n=16) G5 (n=16) G6 (n=16) G7 (n=16) G8 (n=16) Experimenters n=? Administration Jeffery T. Liptmuss = Jeffrey T. Liptuuss ? Witkin'sGroupEmbeddedFiguresTest & Minnesota Clerical Test MainTest Repetition Choose Problem Representation & Task Random Questions x5 Done Individually rt Spatial Task Symbolic Task tr Spatial Representation Symbolic Representation A B C D B C D A C D A B D A B C 90% Groups, 10% Individual • Geographical Limit exists • Only line graphs were used
  6. 6. Methodology (Problem Representation & Tasks) Symbolic Problem Representation Spatial Problem Representation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Deposits Withdrawals Month Deposits Withdrawals Jan 37 20 Feb 66 45 Mar 26 69 Apr 47 41 May 45 28 Jun 40 45 … … … Symbolic Tasks Please provide the following amounts: withdrawals in April deposits in February deposits in January deposits in November Spatial Tasks In which month is the difference between deposits and withdrawals greatest?
  7. 7. Propositions The relationship between Cognitive Fit and Performance Does Problem Solver matching work? The relationship between Task Skills and Performance Does Problem representation affects Mind Representation ? Which type of representation people prefer? Performance Effect 1 Performance Effect 2 Mental Representation Effect 1 Mental Representation Effect 2 Mental Representation Effect 3
  8. 8. Problem Solving Task Problem Solving Skills Propositions Problem Solution R -$X Mental Representation Problem Representation Cognitive Fit ↕ ↕ P1 P2 P3, P4, P5
  9. 9. Performance indicators : Accuracy & Time Methodology (Design) • rt : Problem Representation - Task Sequence • tr : Task Sequence – Problem Representation Graph (task) Data Representation Spatial Symbolic Order rt G1 T1 G2 T1 T2 T2 T3 T3 T4 T4 T5 T5 tr G3 T1 G4 T1 T2 T2 T3 T3 T4 T4 T5 T5 Table (task) Data Representation Spatial Symbolic Order rt G5 T1 G7 T1 T2 T2 T3 T3 T4 T4 T5 T5 tr G6 T1 G8 T1 T2 T2 T3 T3 T4 T4 T5 T5
  10. 10. Spatial Task - Graph Spatial Task - Table Symbolic Task - Graph Symbolic Task - Table Time(rt) 77.46 109.72 127.41 71.92 Time(tr) 80.93 105.4 138.13 71.67 Score(rt) 3.93 4.56 3.89 4.95 Score(tr) 3.31 4.48 4.01 4.97 0 5 10 15 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Results (Mean & Standard Deviation) • ± x : difference between rt & tr values in a same condition • (): Standard Deviations +3.47 -4.32 -0.62 -0.08 (21.25) (29.08) (36.45) (26.78) (44.26) (31.96) (35.99) (22.97) (0.76) (0.63) (0.50) (0.14) (1.15) (0.84) (0.35) (0.08) +10.72 -2.5 +0.12 +0.02
  11. 11. Spatial Task - Graph Spatial Task - Table Symbolic Task - Graph Symbolic Task - Table Time(rt) 77.46 109.72 127.41 71.92 Time(tr) 80.93 105.4 138.13 71.67 Score(rt) 3.93 4.56 3.89 4.95 Score(tr) 3.31 4.48 4.01 4.97 0 5 10 15 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Results (PR1. Effect of matching problem and task type) +3.47 -4.32 -0.62 -0.08 +10.72 -2.5 +0.12 +0.02 Effect of TR = PR Speed ▲ Accuracy ▲ Effect of TR = PR Speed ▲ Accuracy - • rt : Problem Representation - Task Sequence • tr : Task Sequence – Problem Representation • TR : Task Representation, PR : Problem Representation
  12. 12. Minnesota Clerical Test (MCT) Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) Results (PR2. EffectofMatchingSkilltoProblemRepresentationandorTask) • S : Skill, T : Task Representation • SPT : Spatial Task, SYT : Symbolic task • G : Graph, T : Table Jeffery T. Liptmuss Jeffrey T. Liptuuss Are they Same? Type Expected (to be significant) Result (to be Supported) PR & T G on SPT GEFT Accuracy T on SYT MCT Both Matching S to PR G on SPT GEFT X T on SPT MCT X Matching S to T SPT GEFT Accuracy SYT MCT Time T on SPT GEFT X G on SYT MCT Time ?
  13. 13. Results rt (1st) tr (1st) rt (all) tr (all) Spatial 25 21 125 94 Symbolic 30 27 140 130 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 • The values indicate the number of how many times cognitive fit occurred • (): Standard Deviations (0.78) (0.66) (0.78) (0.59) (0.94) (0.84) (0.88) (0.81)
  14. 14. Results (Effects of Factors Influencing Mental Representation) rt (1st) tr (1st) rt (all) tr (all) Spatial 25 21 125 94 Symbolic 30 27 140 130 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 • The writer thought that the differences were not significant 78% (25/32) 93% (30/32) 66% (21/32) 84% (27/32) 78% (125/160) 87% (140/160) 58% (94/160) 81% (130/160)
  15. 15. rt (1st) tr (1st) rt (all) tr (all) Spatial 25 21 125 94 Symbolic 30 27 140 130 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Results (PR3. Problem Solver Matching Capabilities) • MR : Mind Representation • All the values hold a majority, meaning problem solver matching capability works fine 160/2 = 80 # of trial in each MR type (0.78) (0.66) (0.78) (-31) (0.94) (0.84) (0.88) (-10)
  16. 16. rt (1st) tr (1st) rt (all) tr (all) Spatial 25 21 125 94 Symbolic 30 27 140 130 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Results (PR4. Relative Effects of Problem Representation & Task) • This proposition is to check whether a Problem Representation or a Task determines the Mental Representation • PR’ s effects more than T’s only in Graph-Spatial task situation Too Small Gap
  17. 17. rt (1st) tr (1st) rt (all) tr (all) Spatial 25 21 125 94 Symbolic 30 27 140 130 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 • People prefer tables than graphs regardless of performance • Actually the result is against the trend Results (PR5. Relative Effects of Problem Representation & Task)
  18. 18. Conclusion Partly Cognitive Fit affects performance Problem solver matching capability works fine Task Skill affects less than Cognitive Partly Problem representation affects Mind Representation People prefer tables than graphs regardless of performance Performance Effect 1 Performance Effect 2 Mental Representation Effect 1 Mental Representation Effect 2 Mental Representation Effect 3
  19. 19. rt (1st) tr (1st) rt (all) tr (all) Spatial 25 21 125 94 Symbolic 30 27 140 130 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 • The writer thought that the differences were not significant 78% (25/32) 93% (30/32) 66% (21/32) 84% (27/32) 78% (125/160) 87% (140/160) 58% (94/160) 81% (130/160) Logics In The Article (Weak Points) Do they really match? Thereisnologicalreasonthatcanprovethe proportionaldifferencesarenotsignificant
  20. 20. rt (1st) tr (1st) rt (all) tr (all) Spatial 25 21 125 94 Symbolic 30 27 140 130 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Logics In The Article (Weak Points) • MR : Mind Representation • All the values hold a majority, meaning problem solver matching capability works fine (0.78) (0.66) (0.78) (-31) (0.94) (0.84) (0.88) (-10) Can it really be the criteria? Thereisnologicalreasonthatcanprovethe proportionaldifferencesarenotsignificant
  21. 21. Too small size sampleAbsolute & subjective criteria mixed Logics In The Article (Weak Points) HowcanIgetanexactnumberfromthis? 0 35 70 Deposits Withdrawals Unfair Measurement 1 Unfair Measurement 2 Inappropriate condition ? or↕ Easy to read all Spatial Task - Graph Symbolic Task - Graph Spatial Task - Table Symbolic Task - Table Score(rt) 3.93 3.89 4.56 4.95 Score(tr) 3.31 4.01 4.48 4.97 0 2 4 6
  22. 22. Application OECD 12.0 Domestic 28.7 Related to the Article: Using Geographical Information Systems for Decision Making: Extending Cognitive Fit Theory to Map-Based Presentations (by Alan R. Dennis & Traci A. Carte) Average # of suicide / 0.1M (`14)
  23. 23. Application The Effects of Information Format and Shopping Task on Consumers' Online Shopping Behavior : A Cognitive Fit Perspective (by Weiyin Hong. James Y.L. Thong. And Kar Yan Tam) VS
  24. 24. Application It makes me sick Gimme a graph
  25. 25. Application An example of Infography

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