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Reproductive health

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Male reproductive system
Dr. Mohammed Mahmoud Mosaed
Male reproductive system
Parts of male reproductive system
1. Testes, or male gonads, lie within the scrotum
2. Genital ducts;
• Epididymis
• Vas deferens (Ductus deferens)
• Ejaculatory duct.
• Urethra
3. The accessory sex glands
• Seminal vesicles
• Prostrate gland
• Bulbourethral glands
4. penis
1-190128092525.pdf
Scrotum
The scrotum is an outpouching of the lower part of the anterior abdominal
wall.
Contents
• It contains the testes, the epididymides, and the lower ends of the
spermatic cords.
Lymph Drainage of the Scrotum
• Lymph from the skin and fascia, including the tunica vaginalis, drains into
the superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Blood Supply of the scrotum
• Arteries:
• The external pudendal branches of the femoral and scrotal arteries
• Branches of the internal pudendal arteries.
• Veins:The veins accompany the corresponding arteries.
Nerve Supply of the scrotum
• The anterior surface of the scrotum is supplied by the ilioinguinal nerves
and the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerves, and
• The posterior surface is supplied by branches of the perineal nerves and
the posterior cutaneous nerves of the thigh.
1-190128092525.pdf
Layers of scrotum:
1. Skin
2. Superfacial fascia: is continuous with the fatty and
membranous layers of the anterior abdominal wall
A. Fatty layer replaced by Dartos muscle
B. The membranous layer (Colles' fascia)
3. Spermatic fasciae:
A. External spermatic fascia derived from the external
oblique
B. Cremasteric fascia derived from the internal oblique
C. Internal spermatic fascia derived from the fascia
transversalis
4. Tunica vaginalis, which is a closed sac that covers the
anterior, medial, and lateral surfaces of each testis

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1-190128092525.pdf

  • 1. Male reproductive system Dr. Mohammed Mahmoud Mosaed
  • 2. Male reproductive system Parts of male reproductive system 1. Testes, or male gonads, lie within the scrotum 2. Genital ducts; • Epididymis • Vas deferens (Ductus deferens) • Ejaculatory duct. • Urethra 3. The accessory sex glands • Seminal vesicles • Prostrate gland • Bulbourethral glands 4. penis
  • 4. Scrotum The scrotum is an outpouching of the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall. Contents • It contains the testes, the epididymides, and the lower ends of the spermatic cords. Lymph Drainage of the Scrotum • Lymph from the skin and fascia, including the tunica vaginalis, drains into the superficial inguinal lymph nodes Blood Supply of the scrotum • Arteries: • The external pudendal branches of the femoral and scrotal arteries • Branches of the internal pudendal arteries. • Veins:The veins accompany the corresponding arteries. Nerve Supply of the scrotum • The anterior surface of the scrotum is supplied by the ilioinguinal nerves and the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerves, and • The posterior surface is supplied by branches of the perineal nerves and the posterior cutaneous nerves of the thigh.
  • 6. Layers of scrotum: 1. Skin 2. Superfacial fascia: is continuous with the fatty and membranous layers of the anterior abdominal wall A. Fatty layer replaced by Dartos muscle B. The membranous layer (Colles' fascia) 3. Spermatic fasciae: A. External spermatic fascia derived from the external oblique B. Cremasteric fascia derived from the internal oblique C. Internal spermatic fascia derived from the fascia transversalis 4. Tunica vaginalis, which is a closed sac that covers the anterior, medial, and lateral surfaces of each testis
  • 7. The skin of the scrotum • The skin of the scrotum is thin, wrinkled, and pigmented and forms a single pouch. • A slightly raised ridge in the midline indicates the line of fusion of the two lateral labioscrotal swellings.
  • 8. Muscles of the scrotum • Dartos muscle • Superficial fascia of the sctotum is continuous with the fatty and membranous layers of the anterior abdominal wall; the fatty layer is replaced by smooth muscle called the dartos muscle. • Nerve supply: This is innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers • Action: it is responsible for the wrinkling of the overlying skin of the scrotum • The cremaster muscle is a muscle that covers the testis and the spermatic cord. • cremaster muscle originates from the internal oblique muscle, the middle of the inguinal ligament and from the pubic tubercle, it insert into the tunica vaginalis underneath the testis. • Nerve supply: from the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve. • The function of the cremaster muscle is to raise the testis and the scrotum upward for warmth and for protection against injury. For testicular temperature and fertility • The cremaster muscle can be made to contract by stroking the skin on the medial aspect of the thigh. This is called the cremasteric reflex.
  • 10. Tunica vaginalis • Tunica vaginalis is derived from the peritoneum • It is the lower expanded part of the Processus Vaginalis • Lies within the spermatic fasciae • Covers the anterior, medial, and lateral surfaces of each testis. • Normally, just before birth, it becomes shut off from the upper part of the processus and the peritoneal cavity. • The tunica vaginalis is thus a closed sac, invaginated from behind by the testis.
  • 11. TESTIS • The testis is a firm, mobile organ lying within the scrotum. The left testis usually lies at a lower level than the right. Each testis is surrounded by a tough white fibrous capsule, the tunica albuginea. Internal structures of the testis • Extending from the inner surface of the capsule is a series of fibrous septa that divide the interior of the organ into lobules. Lying within each lobule are one to three coiled seminiferous tubules. • The tubules open into a network of channels called the rete testis. • Small efferent ductules connect the rete testis to the upper end of the epididymis
  • 13. Regulation of testicular temperature • Normal spermatogenesis can occur only if the testes are at a temperature lower than that of the abdominal cavity. When they are located in the scrotum, they are at a temperature about 3°C lower than the abdominal temperature. The control of testicular temperature in the scrotum is not fully understood, but the surface area of the scrotal skin can be changed reflexly by the contraction of the dartos and cremaster muscles. • A countercurrent heat exchange mechanism • The pampiniform plexus of veins absorbs heat from the arterial blood, cooling it before it enters the testes • Thus, it provides an additional way for maintaining the testes at their cool homeostatic temperature
  • 14. EPIDIDYMIS • The epididymis is a firm structure lying posterior to the testis, with the vas deferens lying on its medial side. • The epididymis is a much coiled tube nearly 20 ft (6 m) long, embedded in connective tissue. • Parts: It has an expanded upper end, the head, a body, and a pointed tail inferiorly. • The tube emerges from the tail of the epididymis is the vas deferens, which enters the spermatic cord. • Sinus of the epididymis Laterally, a distinct groove lies between the testis and the epididymis, which is lined with the inner visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis and is called the sinus of the epididymis. • Function: The long length of the duct of the epididymis provides storage space for the spermatozoa and allows them to mature. A main function of the epididymis is the absorption of fluid. Another function may be the addition of substances to the seminal fluid to nourish the maturing sperm.
  • 17. Blood Supply of the Testis and Epididymis • The testicular artery is a branch of the abdominal aorta. • The testicular veins emerge from the testis and the epididymis as a venous network, the pampiniform plexus. This becomes reduced to a single vein as it ascends through the inguinal canal. • The right testicular vein drains into the inferior vena cava, and the left vein joins the left renal vein. • Lymph Drainage of the Testis and Epididymis • The lymph vessels ascend in the spermatic cord and end in the lymph nodes on the side of the aorta (lumbar or para- aortic) nodes at the level of the first lumbar vertebra (i.e., on the transpyloric plane). • This is to be expected because during development the testis has migrated from high up on the posterior abdominal wall, down through the inguinal canal, and into the scrotum, dragging its blood supply and lymph vessels after it.
  • 19. VAS DEFERENS (Ductus Deferens) • The vas deferens is a thick-walled muscular tube about 18 in. (45 cm) long that conveys mature sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct and the urethra. It can be palpated between finger and thumb in the upper part of the scrotum • Course: It arises from the lower end or tail of the epididymis and passes through the inguinal canal. • It emerges from the deep inguinal ring and passes around the lateral margin of the inferior epigastric artery • It then passes downward and backward on the lateral wall of the pelvis and crosses the ureter in the region of the ischial spine. The vas deferens then runs medially and downward on the posterior surface of the bladder. • The terminal part of the vas deferens is dilated to form the ampulla of the vas deferens. The inferior end of the ampulla narrows down and joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct.
  • 21. SPERMATIC CORD • The spermatic cord is a collection of structures that pass through the inguinal canal to and from the testis . It begins at the deep inguinal ring lateral to the inferior epigastric artery and ends at the testis. • Structures of the Spermatic Cord The structures are as follows: • Vas deferens • Testicular artery • Testicular veins (pampiniform plexus) • Testicular lymph vessels • Autonomic nerves • Remains of the processus vaginalis • Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve, which supplies the cremaster muscle