Profile ofSelf-employed Cityof Toronto Residents
147,000 City of Toronto residents (12% of allemployed residents) were self-employed in 2001according to the census. (The c...
Chart 1. The absolute number of self-employed City residents has increased steadily over the lasttwenty years. The proport...
Chart 2 shows that the proportion of workers that is self-employed increased dramatically with age.While 12% of all reside...
Chart 3 shows that self-employment rates increase with education, though not as rapidly as withage. Self-employed City res...
Table 1. While 12% of all City residents are self-employed, 60% of those working at home are self-employed. Almost 30% of ...
Table 2: City of Toronto Employed Residents by Industry                                                                   ...
Table 3 shows the average income of self-employed residents as a percentage of the averageincomes of all residents, by gen...
Table 3B:      Average Employment Income of Self-Employed City of Toronto                        Residents Compared to All...
Table 3C:      Average Employment Income of Self-Employed City of Toronto                        Residents Compared to All...
Table 4. The simple average (ie. not weighed by number of respondents) of the cells in Table 4,shows that the median incom...
Table 4B: Median Employment Income of Self-Employed City of Toronto                   Residents Compared to All Employed R...
Table 4C: Median Employment Income of Self-Employed City of Toronto                   Residents Compared to All Employed R...
Immigrants who arrived before 1961 are twice as likely to be self-employed as Canadian born resi-dents. A larger proportio...
Definitions                  The census divides employed persons into two groups: the                  self-employed and e...
commissions, tips, piece-rates or payments "in kind" (payments              in goods or services rather than money). Some ...
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архитектура Toronto self-employed

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архитектура Toronto self-employed

  1. 1. Profile ofSelf-employed Cityof Toronto Residents
  2. 2. 147,000 City of Toronto residents (12% of allemployed residents) were self-employed in 2001according to the census. (The census definition of“self-employed is attached at the bottom of thisdocument). Self-employed City residents arepredominately male. They are better educated andmuch older than other workers.
  3. 3. Chart 1. The absolute number of self-employed City residents has increased steadily over the lasttwenty years. The proportion of City residents that is self-employed has also been increasing exceptin 2001, when it slipped back a little from the 12.6% recorded in 1996 to its current level of 12.0%. Chart 1: Self-Employed City of Toronto Residents 160,000 14 PERCENT OF TOTAL EMPLOYED RESIDENTS 140,000 12 NUMBER OF PERSONS 120,000 10 100,000 8 80,000 6 60,000 4 40,000 20,000 2 0 0 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 YEAR2 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  4. 4. Chart 2 shows that the proportion of workers that is self-employed increased dramatically with age.While 12% of all residents are self-employed, 36% of all City residents over the age of 65 that areemployed are self-employed. Chart 2: Self-Employed City of Toronto Residents by Age & Gender 65 + 55-64 45-54 AGE 35-44 25-34 MALES FEMALES 15-24 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 PERCENT3 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  5. 5. Chart 3 shows that self-employment rates increase with education, though not as rapidly as withage. Self-employed City residents are also more likely to work at home than other residents. In fact,almost one third of all self-employed City residents (45,000) work at home. Chart 3: City of Toronto Residents Percent Self-Employed by Education University with Earned Doctorate University with Masters Degree University certificate above bachelor University with bachelor or first professional degree University certificate or diploma below bachelor level University without university degree Post Secondary with non- university certificate or diploma Other non-university only without other non-university certificate or diploma Secondary school graduation certificate or lower 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 PERCENT4 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  6. 6. Table 1. While 12% of all City residents are self-employed, 60% of those working at home are self-employed. Almost 30% of Employed City residents reporting no usual place of work are self-employed. Table 1: City of Toronto Residents by Place of Work Status TOTAL EMPLOYED SELF-EMPLOYED % SELF-EMPLOYED Total Place of work status 1,228,015 146,970 12.0 Usual place of work 1,039,635 70,960 6.8 In City of Toronto 847,535 59,690 7.0 In different municipality 192,095 11,270 5.9 At home 74,750 44,505 59.5 Outside Canada 7,290 1,180 16.2 No fixed workplace address 106,340 30,330 28.5Table 2. Self-employed residents are concentrated in several industries, which include most businessservices; physicians, dentists and other health practitioners; real estate agents; artists, writers andperformers; construction workers; truckers; taxi drivers; cleaning persons and personal care services.The average employment income of self-employed city residents is $53,056, which substantially higherthan the average employment income of all residents ($40,735). However, most of this difference isexplained by differences in education, age and gender.5 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  7. 7. Table 2: City of Toronto Employed Residents by Industry TOTAL EMPLOYED SELF-EMPLOYED % SELF-EMPLOYED All industries 1,228,015 146,970 12.0 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1,455 250 17.2 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 1,040 85 8.2 22 Utilities 6,505 60 0.9 23 Construction 54,070 13,785 25.5 31-33 Manufacturing 175,590 7,280 4.1 41 Wholesale trade 57,940 5,260 9.1 44-45 Retail trade 123,025 12,840 10.4 48-49 Transportation and warehousing 48,365 6,135 12.7 51 Information and cultural industries 59,345 6,280 10.6 52 Finance and insurance 93,990 3,960 4.2 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 29,465 4,475 15.2 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 134,625 36,250 26.9 55 Management of companies and enterprises 2,890 175 6.1 56 Admin & support, waste mgmt & remediation 63,030 8,475 13.4 61 Educational services 74,000 3,480 4.7 62 Health care and social assistance 101,295 13,850 13.7 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 26,320 8,940 34.0 72 Accommodation and food services 75,510 6,100 8.1 81 Other services (except public administration) 58,730 9,285 15.8 91 Public administration 40,815 0 0.06 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  8. 8. Table 3 shows the average income of self-employed residents as a percentage of the averageincomes of all residents, by gender, age and educational attainment. Adjusted for age and education,self-employed males earn slightly higher incomes than their employee peers. Self-employed females(particularly with lower levels of education) earn less on average than their employee peers.The median employment income of self-employed city residents ($29,201) is slightly lower than themedian income of employees ($30,023). Adjusted for differences in gender, age and education, the medi-an employment incomes of self-employed residents are significantly lower than their employee peers. Table 3A: Average Employment Income of Self-Employed City of Toronto Residents Compared to All Employed Residents 15 yrs + 15-24 yrs 25-34 yrs 35-44 yrs 45-54 yrs 55-64 yrs 65 yrs + Both Sexes (Male & Female) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Total - Highest Level of Schooling 130.2 115.1 103.3 112.9 122.2 119.5 120.4 Secondary school graduation certificate or lower 129.3 133.0 107.6 104.8 116.3 115.6 144.8 Post Secondary (non-university) 104.6 102.6 94.7 94.4 98.4 102.2 90.9 Other non-university only without other non-university certificate or diploma 120.2 107.1 108.4 109.5 108.8 87.1 141.2 Post Secondary with non-university certificate or diploma 100.6 98.7 91.0 90.8 96.1 104.5 84.0 University without university degree 114.2 110.2 93.4 98.7 91.9 89.2 86.5 University certificate or diploma below bachelor level 105.4 41.2 74.0 96.8 102.5 106.8 92.9 University with degree 125.9 103.7 108.0 111.5 116.8 102.3 104.9 University with bachelor or first professional degree 132.3 99.0 112.6 116.6 117.3 109.5 108.7 University certificate above bachelor 138.0 90.1 102.7 115.9 133.4 127.5 104.6 University with Masters Degree 108.6 142.9 89.4 96.1 112.6 84.2 79.9 University with Earned Doctorate 104.3 119.5 122.7 102.4 82.6 104.67 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  9. 9. Table 3B: Average Employment Income of Self-Employed City of Toronto Residents Compared to All Employed Residents 15 yrs + 15-24 yrs 25-34 yrs 35-44 yrs 45-54 yrs 55-64 yrs 65 yrs + Female (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Total - Highest Level of Schooling 116.1 98.7 98.9 111.4 106.9 100.5 115.6 Secondary school graduation certificate or lower 114.8 108.1 97.1 93.7 107.5 96.8 126.1 Post Secondary (non-university) 95.8 93.4 83.9 90.5 93.1 90.2 73.5 Other non-university only without other non-university certificate or diploma 106.2 97.4 90.1 113.1 78.9 91.6 88.9 Post Secondary with non-university certificate or diploma 93.0 90.4 82.3 85.4 96.0 90.1 69.1 University without university degree 104.2 93.3 92.3 83.0 88.4 75.1 92.6 University certificate or diploma below bachelor level 88.1 -33.0 83.4 81.4 91.7 81.0 81.9 University with degree 113.3 106.3 100.6 112.3 100.1 95.6 121.2 University with bachelor or first professional degree 118.7 99.8 106.3 114.3 102.0 111.0 130.8 University certificate above bachelor 117.5 97.8 92.2 110.8 114.7 107.7 105.6 University with Masters Degree 91.5 163.7 77.8 104.5 80.5 63.5 126.1 University with Earned Doctorate 128.6 87.6 142.9 144.2 84.6 82.38 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  10. 10. Table 3C: Average Employment Income of Self-Employed City of Toronto Residents Compared to All Employed Residents 15 yrs + 15-24 yrs 25-34 yrs 35-44 yrs 45-54 yrs 55-64 yrs 65 yrs + Male (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Total - Highest Level of Schooling 126.0 117.0 100.9 107.2 118.6 111.8 110.9 Secondary school graduation certificate or lower 126.9 131.4 104.6 101.3 113.7 113.8 141.0 Post Secondary (non-university) 101.3 101.7 93.0 90.5 94.0 99.6 83.9 Other non-university only without other non-university certificate or diploma 119.1 104.2 106.0 101.4 113.4 79.7 144.7 Post Secondary with non-university certificate or diploma 96.7 97.3 89.2 87.9 90.1 102.3 77.7 University without university degree 111.1 114.2 90.8 101.6 87.8 88.2 77.2 University certificate or diploma below bachelor level 109.2 124.0 65.8 102.5 103.5 108.8 95.6 University with degree 120.5 96.8 107.9 106.3 114.1 94.2 98.1 University with bachelor or first professional degree 126.1 93.4 111.8 111.7 113.3 98.3 100.3 University certificate above bachelor 128.8 101.0 109.9 124.1 116.4 95.6 University with Masters Degree 108.1 130.8 93.9 90.5 115.6 80.7 71.4 University with Earned Doctorate 95.6 132.8 114.7 81.4 81.7 113.49 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  11. 11. Table 4. The simple average (ie. not weighed by number of respondents) of the cells in Table 4,shows that the median incomes of self-employed females is 73% of the median for their employeepeers and for males the corresponding figure is 90%.The large difference between average and median employment incomes for self-employed residentsindicates that the slightly higher average incomes of the self-employed (adjusted for gender, age andeducation) can be largely attributed to the incomes of a relatively small number of high-income self-employed residents. Table 4A: Median Employment Income of Self-Employed City of Toronto Residents Compared to All Employed Residents 15 yrs + 15-24 yrs 25-34 yrs 35-44 yrs 45-54 yrs 55-64 yrs 65 yrs + Both Sexes (Male & Female) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Total - Highest Level of Schooling 97.3 111.4 83.5 86.2 83.6 87.7 112.2 Secondary school graduation certificate or lower 95.1 144.5 90.5 85.5 82.8 81.6 96.3 Post Secondary (non-university) 83.3 90.4 75.6 78.1 74.7 71.9 90.1 Other non-university only without other non-university certificate or diploma 92.0 104.1 81.0 80.3 77.5 79.6 105.8 Post Secondary with non-university certificate or diploma 82.0 74.8 73.2 77.0 77.0 71.7 87.1 University without university degree 95.9 108.3 80.1 83.0 75.4 75.7 79.8 University certificate or diploma below bachelor level 83.2 64.8 77.2 79.3 72.9 69.6 94.2 University with degree 95.4 106.7 79.4 85.6 81.0 86.6 114.6 University with bachelor or first professional degree 99.9 86.8 80.1 89.3 82.1 104.2 122.6 University certificate above bachelor 93.1 14.3 91.7 82.9 77.0 87.3 99.9 University with Masters Degree 80.1 211.3 75.2 79.9 74.5 69.1 85.5 University with Earned Doctorate 78.1 100.4 84.1 68.6 52.8 107.110 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  12. 12. Table 4B: Median Employment Income of Self-Employed City of Toronto Residents Compared to All Employed Residents 15 yrs + 15-24 yrs 25-34 yrs 35-44 yrs 45-54 yrs 55-64 yrs 65 yrs + Female (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Total - Highest Level of Schooling 83.8 104.6 70.4 83.3 78.8 67.0 82.9 Secondary school graduation certificate or lower 83.5 79.7 84.9 74.1 77.0 64.1 76.8 Post Secondary (non-university) 74.3 83.6 69.3 68.4 66.8 63.4 66.9 Other non-university only without other non-university certificate or diploma 81.6 99.4 66.8 76.9 62.1 67.7 83.6 Post Secondary with non-university certificate or diploma 71.5 80.0 72.9 67.0 68.1 66.1 61.4 University without university degree 87.1 106.8 63.6 66.3 74.4 66.3 117.6 University certificate or diploma below bachelor level 71.2 18.3 79.9 68.9 70.6 43.0 69.3 University with degree 80.1 106.9 76.1 84.7 71.0 71.4 79.9 University with bachelor or first professional degree 85.1 80.1 82.1 87.1 79.8 77.1 77.7 University certificate above bachelor 69.1 15.4 68.9 71.2 53.9 51.9 42.9 University with Masters Degree 69.1 143.4 54.7 73.6 59.5 49.9 100.0 University with Earned Doctorate 90.6 54.3 107.4 95.3 68.6 75.511 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  13. 13. Table 4C: Median Employment Income of Self-Employed City of Toronto Residents Compared to All Employed Residents 15 yrs + 15-24 yrs 25-34 yrs 35-44 yrs 45-54 yrs 55-64 yrs 65 yrs + Male (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Total - Highest Level of Schooling 88.7 110.0 89.8 82.9 84.5 87.3 112.4 Secondary school graduation certificate or lower 95.9 152.4 92.8 83.4 76.4 85.1 92.6 Post Secondary (non-university) 83.3 85.2 81.0 80.1 72.6 74.2 98.6 Other non-university only without other non-university certificate or diploma 92.8 106.4 94.1 78.1 69.4 78.0 140.4 Post Secondary with non-university certificate or diploma 80.3 58.9 77.1 77.6 74.5 71.4 96.7 University without university degree 93.2 104.6 86.5 79.1 72.4 75.0 68.3 University certificate or diploma below bachelor level 83.9 99.9 78.2 90.3 77.0 71.8 97.4 University with degree 94.7 106.0 87.1 92.0 83.5 89.8 116.7 University with bachelor or first professional degree 100.5 83.7 86.7 95.6 89.5 111.1 112.1 University certificate above bachelor 91.8 89.7 80.0 85.0 94.7 99.8 University with Masters Degree 89.2 180.0 93.3 88.9 90.6 72.4 76.9 University with Earned Doctorate 72.1 108.7 78.8 61.3 48.6 125.2Table 5. Immigrants are, on average, equally likely to be self-employed as Canadian born residents.However, well-established immigrants are much more likely to be self-employed than Canadian bornresidents and recent immigrants are less likely to be self-employed. This pattern is repeated across allcountries of origin.12 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  14. 14. Immigrants who arrived before 1961 are twice as likely to be self-employed as Canadian born resi-dents. A larger proportion of immigrants born in the United States, Europe, West-Central Asia and theMiddle East, Eastern Asia and Oceania are self-employed than those born in other parts of the world. Table 5: City of Toronto Residents: Self-Employed Immigrants by Period of Immigration PERCENT SELF-EMPLOYED IMMIGRANTS BEFORE 1961 1961-1970 1971-1980 1981-1990 1991-2001 1991-1995 1996-2001 Total - Place of birth of respondent 12.0 23.7 17.7 13.6 10.3 9.0 9.3 8.8 Canada United States 20.1 26.5 22.7 21.0 17.7 14.3 15.7 13.0 Central and South America 7.0 18.2 12.2 8.8 6.0 6.0 5.6 6.5 Caribbean and Bermuda 5.5 17.5 8.1 6.4 4.5 3.9 3.5 4.4 Europe 16.2 23.4 17.8 15.6 13.6 12.2 13.3 11.2 United Kingdom 17.5 22.3 19.0 15.6 11.7 12.5 13.9 10.7 Other Northern and Western Europe 21.5 23.8 23.9 21.1 19.1 11.8 13.3 10.7 Eastern Europe 17.4 35.2 25.8 25.8 16.2 13.1 14.6 11.9 Southern Europe 13.8 19.7 15.4 12.7 10.3 10.3 11.2 9.2 Africa 11.9 32.3 23.4 16.4 11.1 8.3 9.9 6.4 Asia 11.2 29.2 23.0 15.4 10.8 9.1 9.5 8.8 West Central Asia & Middle East 16.8 33.8 31.3 24.7 18.2 13.1 15.9 10.9 Eastern Asia 16.5 28.1 26.0 21.4 16.7 13.8 15.4 12.5 Southeast Asia 4.9 16.7 7.9 8.4 4.5 3.3 3.1 3.5 Southern Asia 8.4 26.7 21.7 13.4 8.2 7.0 7.4 6.6 Oceania and other 18.2 37.0 20.2 20.0 22.0 9.3 5.0 15.513 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  15. 15. Definitions The census divides employed persons into two groups: the self-employed and employees: Self-employed workers include persons 15 years of age and over who worked during the census year, and for whom the job reported consisted mainly of operating a business, farm or professional practice, alone or in partnership. Some examples include: operating a farm, whether the land is rented or owned; working on a freelance or contract basis to do a job (e.g. architects, private duty nurses); operating a direct distributorship selling and delivering products such as cosmetics, newspapers, brushes and soap products; and fishing with own equipment or with equipment in which the person has a share. Self-employed workers may be incorporated or unincorporated and may have paid help or no paid help. Employees include persons 15 years of age and over who worked since January 1, 2000, and who indicated that in the job reported, they were working mainly for wages, salaries,14 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004
  16. 16. commissions, tips, piece-rates or payments "in kind" (payments in goods or services rather than money). Some examples include: those who worked in someone elses private household at such jobs as babysitting and cleaning; salespersons on commission working for only one company and not maintaining an office or staff; and those who worked for payment "in kind" in non-family enterprises, such as members of a religious order who received free room and board or other supplies in lieu of cash. The job reported was the one held in the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to enumeration (May 15, 2001) if the person was employed, or the job of longest duration since January 1, 2000, if the person was not employed during the reference week. Persons with two or more jobs in the reference week were asked to provide information for the job at which they worked the most hours. Some persons who are considered as paid workers in the census are considered as self-employed persons without a business in the Labour Force Survey. These are persons who work at jobs such as babysitting and cleaning for private households, or as newspaper carriers.15 Profile of Self-employed City of Toronto Residents NOVEMBER 2004

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